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  • Lenin: Frederick Engels
    to realise which social force owing to its position in modern society is interested in bringing socialism about and to impart to this force the consciousness of its interests and of its historical task This force is the proletariat Engels got to know the proletariat in England in the centre of English industry Manchester where he settled in 1842 entering the service of a commercial firm of which his father was a shareholder Here Engels not only sat in the factory office but wandered about the slums in which the workers were cooped up and saw their poverty and misery with his own eyes But he did not confine himself to personal observations He read all that had been revealed before him about the condition of the British working class and carefully studied all the official documents he could lay his hands on The fruit of these studies and observations was the book which appeared in 1845 The Condition of the Working Class in England We have already mentioned what was the chief service rendered by Engels in writing The Condition of the Working Class in England Even before Engels many people had described the sufferings of the proletariat and had pointed to the necessity of helping it Engels was the first to say that the proletariat is not only a suffering class that it is in fact the disgraceful economic condition of the proletariat that drives it irresistibly forward and compels it to fight for its ultimate emancipation And the fighting proletariat will help itself The political movement of the working class will inevitably lead the workers to realise that their only salvation lies in socialism On the other hand socialism will become a force only when it becomes the aim of the political struggle of the working class Such are the main ideas of Engels book on the condition of the working class in England ideas which have now been adopted by all thinking and fighting proletarians but which at that time were entirely new These ideas were set out in a book written in absorbing style and filled with most authentic and shocking pictures of the misery of the English proletariat The book was a terrible indictment of capitalism and the bourgeoisie and created a profound impression Engels book began to be quoted everywhere as presenting the best picture of the condition of the modern proletariat And in fact neither before 1845 nor after has there appeared so striking and truthful a picture of the misery of the working class It was not until he came to England that Engels became a socialist In Manchester he established contacts with people active in the English labour movement at the time and began to write for English socialist publications In 1844 while on his way back to Germany he became acquainted in Paris with Marx with whom he had already started to correspond In Paris under the influence of the French socialists and French life Marx had also become a socialist Here the friends jointly wrote a book entitled The Holy Family or Critique of Critical Critique This book which appeared a year before The Condition of the Working Class in England and the greater part of which was written by Marx contains the foundations of revolutionary materialist socialism the main ideas of which we have expounded above The holy family is a facetious nickname for the Bauer brothers the philosophers and their followers These gentlemen preached a criticism which stood above all reality above parties and politics which rejected all practical activity and which only critically contemplated the surrounding world and the events going on within it These gentlemen the Bauers looked down on the proletariat as an uncritical mass Marx and Engels vigorously opposed this absurd and harmful tendency In the name of a real human person the worker trampled down by the ruling classes and the state they demanded not contemplation but a struggle for a better order of society They of course regarded the proletariat as the force that is capable of waging this struggle and that is interested in it Even before the appearance of The Holy Family Engels had published in Marx s and Ruge s Deutsch Franz osische Jahrb ucher 5 his Critical Essays on Political Economy 6 in which he examined the principal phenomena of the contemporary economic order from a socialist standpoint regarding them as necessary consequences of the rule of private property Contact with Engels was undoubtedly a factor in Marx s decision to study political economy the science in which his works have produced a veritable revolution From 1845 to 1847 Engels lived in Brussels and Paris combining scientific work with practical activities among the German workers in Brussels and Paris Here Marx and Engels established contact with the secret German Communist League 7 which commissioned them to expound the main principles of the socialism they had worked out Thus arose the famous Manifesto of the Communist Party of Marx and Engels published in 1848 This little booklet is worth whole volumes to this day its spirit inspires and guides the entire organised and fighting proletariat of the civilised world The revolution of 1848 which broke out first in France and then spread to other West European countries brought Marx and Engels back to their native country Here in Rhenish Prussia they took charge of the democratic Neue Rheinische Zeitung 8 published in Cologne The two friends were the heart and soul of all revolutionary democratic aspirations in Rhenish Prussia They fought to the last ditch in defence of freedom and of the interests of the people against the forces of reaction The latter as we know gained the upper hand The Neue Rheinische Zeitung was suppressed Marx who during his exile had lost his Prussian citizenship was deported Engels took part in the armed popular uprising fought for liberty in three battles and after the defeat of the rebels fled via Switzerland to London Marx also settled

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1895/misc/engels-bio.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Writers Archive: Eugene Pottier
    1816 1887 Biography Lenin on 25th Anniversary of Pottier s Death Works Wilhelm and Paris 1870 The International 1871 Request for Admission to the Freemasons 1875 Blanqui 1881 It Isn

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/pottier/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Glossary of People: Po
    Pollock s father was a factory owner in Freibug Beginning a commercial apprenticeship in 1911 he also began his life long friendship with Max Horkheimer After studying economy sociology and philosophy he obtained his Ph D in Frankfurt on Marx s theory of money in 1923 and participated in the founding of the Institut für Sozialforschung in Frankfurt and along with Felix Weill became the manager of the Marx Engels Archivgesellschaft to promote the Marx Engels Gesamtausabe MEGA After travelling to the Soviet Union in 1927 28 he wrote Attempts at Planned Economy in the Soviet Unions 1917 1927 with which he qualified as a university lecturer and took up a position as lecturer at Frankfurt University When Carl Grünberg fell ill Pollock stepped in as Director of the Institut 1928 1930 In 1933 Pollock emigrated along with Horkhemer to London and on to Genf Paris and finally New York where he was Seminar leader and managing director in the Institute for Social Research until in 1950 returning to Frankfurt to re establish the Institute for Social Research 1951 1958 he was professor for national economy and sociology at the University of Frankfurt before becoming a full professor In 1959 he moved to Montagnola Tessin with Horkheimer where he died in 1970 Polovstev P Colonel later General Military Governor of Petrograd under the Provisional Government Crushed the July uprising Popper Karl 1902 1994 Austrian born British philosopher opponent of application of grand social theories to political practice which he held would inevitably lead to totalitarianism Popper is noted for his proposition that any theory must be capable of falsification if it is to be accepted as a valid theory an opponent of the Logical Positivism for which his hometown of Vienna is famous Popper developed the concept of Objective Knowledge socially transmitted through institutions practices and social experience as the foundation of knowledge as opposed to the individualistic approach of many others concerned with the problems of epistemology and the methodology of science Educated at the University of Vienna Popper emigrated to New Zealand in 1937 teaching at the University of New Zealand in Christchurch and then to England in 1945 where he was granted British citizenship and lived for the remainder of his life He lectured in Philosophy at University College Cambridge 1937 45 and in 1969 was appointed an Emeritus Professor at the London School of Economics He has held a variety of positions and lectured at Universities throughout Europe and America Popper s 1945 The Open Society and its Enemies launched scathing attacks on totalitarian ideology of both Left in the first volume and Right in the second volume published later and succeeded in making enemies for him in just about every direction Nevertheless over time his insistence that social problems are best solved by piecemeal social engineering rather than grand world transforming crusades came to descriptive of what most people were doing and he gained a wider audience from the early 1960s Popper wrote extensively on

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/p/o.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Johann Georg Eccarius Archive
    Some Points of Political Economy Endorsed and Advocated by John Stuart Mill was written in collaboration with Marx Eccarius was a member of the General Council of the International Working Men s Association 1864 1872 Vice President 1864 1867 General Secretary 1867 1871 Corresponding Secretary for the USA 1870 1872 and Delegate to all the conferences and congresses of the First International until 1872 In 1872 Eccarius belonged to the

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/eccarius/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Glossary of People Ec
    USA 1870 1872 and Delegate to all the conferences and congresses of the First International until 1872 In 1872 Eccarius belonged to the reformist wing of the British Federal Council In later years Eccarius worked with the British trade unions and subscribed to the liberal ideas that at the time were dominant there Eckert Paul 1883 Metalworker member of SPD Sozialistische Partei Deutschlands Social Democratic Party before 1914 Leader and

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/e/c.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Wilhelm Liebknecht Archive
    Class in England 1896 Karl Marx Biographical Memoirs July 1896 A Message From Liebknecht August 1896 Our Recent Congress November 1896 Statement on Armenia March 1897 Crete and Social Democracy April 1897 The First of May in Germany 1897 April 1898 May Day in Germany 1898 June 1898 Social Democracy in Germany On the elections July 1898 International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress March 1899 To my friends in

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/liebknecht-w/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Glossary of People: Li
    was sentenced to 18 months in prison for writing his pamphlet Militarism and Anti Militarism Liebknecht s name is a symbol of revolutionary internationalism and irreconcilable opposition to imperialist war He was the first and only Deputy to oppose war credits in the Reichstag in 1914 Drafted during the war he was imprisoned May 1916 to November 1918 for anti war activity and on August 3 1914 he opposed voting for war credits at a session of the Social Democratic parliamentary fraction but under the pressure of party discipline he voted together with the entire party fraction at the Reichstag session on August 4 1914 When the next vote was taken on December 2 1914 he was the only deputy who cast his vote against But even before that in October of the same year he published jointly with Rosa Luxemburg Franz Mehring and Clara Zetkin a statement against the official party position in the Swiss Social Democratic press In March 1915 when the Reichstag took a vote on war credits 30 Social Democrats left the chambers and the only ones who voted against were Liebknecht and Otto Rühle Leader of the International Group that opposed the war In 1915 he began to organize the Spartacus League and started the publication of the famous Spartacus Letters When the Zimmerwald Conference convened Liebknecht was drafted into the army and could not attend but he forwarded a letter to this conference which closed with the following words Not civil peace but civil war that is our slogan On January 12 1916 the Social Democratic fraction expelled him from its ranks On May Day 1916 he distributed anti war leaflets in Potsdam Square in Berlin was arrested and sentenced to hard labor The victory of the Russian October found him in prison where he greeted the conquest of the Russian workers and peasants and summoned the German workers to follow this great example The November 1918 revolution in Germany freed him from prison untying his hands for a direct struggle against the social chauvinists and their centrist allies Together with Rosa Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches Tyshko he organized the Communist Party of Germany which in December 1919 broke all connections with the Independent Social Democratic Party headed by Kautsky and Haase As member of the revolutionary committee he headed the uprising of the Berlin workers in January 1919 After this uprising was suppressed he was arrested by the Scheidemann government and on January 15 1919 was assassinated together with and started the publication of the famous Spartacus Letters When the Zimmerwald Conference convened Liebknecht was drafted into the army and could not attend but he forwarded a letter to this conference which closed with the following words Not civil peace but civil war that is our slogan On January 12 1916 the Social Democratic fraction expelled him from its ranks On May Day 1916 he distributed anti war leaflets in Potsdam Square in Berlin was arrested and sentenced to hard labor The victory

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/l/i.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • The Friedrich Adolph Sorge Internet Archive
    enemy of common interest an enemy of society and mankind Whoever wishes to annihilate Communism will have to destroy the common roads the schools he will have to destroy the public gardens and parks he will have to abolish the public baths the theatres the waterworks all the public buildings for instance town halls courts all the hospitals the alms houses he will have to destroy the railroads the telegraphs

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/sorge/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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