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  • Glossary of People: So
    three His uncle Friedrich Adolph Sorge had been a secretary for Karl Marx In October 1914 Sorge volunteered to service in the World War One He joined a student battalion of the 3rd Guards Field Artillery He was severely wounded in March 1916 on the Western Front leaving him with a lifelong limp He was discharged with Iron Cross During his convalescence he read Marx and became a Communist He spent the rest of the war studying economics in universities of Berlin Kiel and Hamburg In 1920 he graduated with a Ph D in political science He also joined the German Communist Party KPD His political views however got him fired from both a teaching job and coal mining work He fled to Moscow where he became a junior agent for Comintern In 1921 he returned to Germany married Christiane Gerlach former wife of Kurt Gerlach Director of the Frankfurt Institut and moved to Solingen in Westphalia In 1922 the Comintern relocated him to Frankfurt where he gathered intelligence about business community while assisting at the Frankfurt Institut building the library After the failed coup in October 1923 he continued his work as a journalist In 1924 he was recalled to Moscow and divorced Christiane and officially joined the International Liaison Department of Comintern OMS an arm of the GPU In 1928 he was transferred to GPU duties and assigned to Shanghai in 1930 Officially he was editor of German news service and for the Frankfurter Zeitung There he met Ozaki Hozumi a Japanese journalist working for Asahi Shimbun In January 1932 Sorge reported on fighting between Chinese and Japanese troops in the streets of Shanghai In December he was recalled to Moscow Sorge was decorated and remarried In 1933 he was sent to Berlin with the code name Ramsey to re establish contacts in Germany so that he could pass for a German journalist in Japan He arrived to Yokohama on September 6 1933 1933 1934 Sorge built a network to collect intelligence for NKVD in Japan His agents had contacts with senior politicians and through that to information of Japan s foreign policy He also recontacted Ozaki Hozumi who developed a close contact with the prime minister Fumimaro Konoye Ozaki copied secret documents for Sorge Officially Sorge joined the Nazi party and worked with the local embassy and ambassador Eugen Ott as an agent for Abwehr He used the embassy for double checking his information Sorge supplied the Soviet Union with information about Anti Comintern Pact the German Japanese Pact and warned of Pearl Harbor attack In 1941 Sorge informed the Soviet Union of Hitler s intentions to invade the Soviet Union No action was taken on Sorge s advice Before the battle for Moscow Sorge transmitted information that Japan was not going to attack Soviet Union in the East This information allowed Zhukov to redeploy Siberian troops for the defense of Moscow Japanese secret service had already intercepted many of his messages and begun to close in

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  • Joseph Dietzgen Archive
    The Nature of Human Brain Work 1869 Letters on Logic Especially Democratic Proletarian Logic 1870s The Religion of Social Democracy Six Sermons 1870 to 1875 Scientific Socialism 1873 Ethics of Social Democracy 1875 Social Democratic Philosophy 1876 The Limits of Cognition 1877 The Inconceivable A Special Chapter in Social Democratic Philosophy 1877 Our Professors on the Limits of Cognition 1878 Excursions of a Socialist into the Domain of Epistemology 1887

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  • Glossary of People: Di
    and pivoted on the notion of a living spirit which develops in historical forms Dilthey was little known during his own lifetime being rediscovered in post World War One Germany and is now widely recognised in cultural studies Dilthey was the son of a Reformed Church theologian but after studying theology at Heidelberg and Berlin he transferred to philosophy and after completing his Doctorate at Berlin and a short time as a school teacher dedicated himself full time to writing and after appointments as Basel and Breslau took up the position as Chair of Philosophy at the University of Berlin where he spent the remainder of his life Dilthey s aim was to find the philosophical foundations for what he called the sciences of man of society and the state which he named Geisteswissenschaften usually translated as human sciences a term that eventually gained general recognition to collectively denote the fields of history philosophy religion psychology art literature law politics and economics In 1883 the first volume of his Introduction to Human Sciences appeared but the second volume never appeared only a series of essays including in 1894 Ideas Concerning a Descriptive and Analytical Psychology Against the dominant conception of his time Dilthey opposed the idea that the human sciences should emulate the methodology of the natural sciences and tried to establish the humanities as sciences in their own right In his study of interpersonal experience its realisation in creative expression the reflective understanding of this experience and the logical development that may be attributed to the development of knowledge and culture in social and historical processes Dilthey developed important insights He developed his descriptive psychology mainly through the study of literature and said of the psychology of his times Contemporary psychology is an expanded doctrine of sensation and association The fundamental power of mental life falls outside the scope of psychology Psychology has become only a doctrine of the forms of psychic processes thus it grasps only a part of that which we actually experience as mental life Psychology needed to be based on an analysis of mental processes in real life situations rather than in a laboratory Dilthey emphasised that the essence of human beings cannot be grasped by introspection but only from a knowledge of history knowledge could never be final because history is never final Dilthey thus suggested for the first time a Cultural Psychology Dilthey held that the historical relativity of all ideas and institutions is the most characteristic and challenging fact in the intellectual life of the modern world He was hostile to the construction of closed rational systems and preferred to leave questions unsettled This preference for leaving questions open was perhaps the main contributing factor to his failure to be recognised in his own time Only after the War did the significance of the methodology of his historical philosophy of life come to be appreciated Dilthey supervised Mead s PhD studies Dimitrov Georgi Mikhailovich 1882 1949 Born June 18 1882 in Kovachevtsi

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  • Marxist Writers: Lucien Sanial
    View of the Congress 1896 Introduction to Marx s Value Price and Profit 1901 Territorial Expansion 1901 Prefatory Note to Frederick Engels Historical Materialism 1902 Preface and Notes to the American Edition of Karl Marx s The Paris Commune 1902

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  • Glossary of People: Sa
    left wing politics and in 1907 he joined the SDF Two years later he left to join the Independent Labour Party ILP and remained an active member and valued speaker across the country fro the next decade Saklatvala was adopted as the parliamentary candidate for Battersea North by the Battersea Labour Party and Trades Council in June 1921 He had just resigned from the Independent Labour Party and had joined the Communist Party At that time it was possible to be both a member of the Communist Party and the Labour Party at the same time There were no bans on joint membership until 1925 Shapurji Saklatvala was elected the Labour MP for Battersea North at the General Election in 1922 He lost his seat a year later but was re elected this time as a Communist at the December 1923 election He represented the South London constituency for five years until defeated by a Labour candidate in 1929 Throughout all three of Saklatvala s election campaigns when he was the candidate of the Battersea Trades Council the press was vitriolic in its attack on his revolutionary politics During the 1923 campaign Hogbin Saklatvala s opponent fed information to the press which enthusiastically followed his line that there were foreign gangs operating in the constituency with the supposed aim of breaking up Hogbin s meetings Hogbin referred to a gang of Irish rebels including twenty gunmen and another of continental and Russian communists But it is profoundly significant that for five years from Saklatvala s initial adoption until 1926 there was no challenge to his candidacy from within the local Labour movement When a challenge did come it was in response to national influences and not local politics and had nothing whatsoever to do with Saklatvala s racial origin Although initially the local coloured activist John Archer and Saklatvala worked together in the Battersea Labour Party and Trades Council when the split came over the admissibility of communists they were on different sides Archer supported the Communists expulsion and when an official Trades and Labour Council was established in July 1926 became the first secretary of the North Battersea Divisional Labour Party He campaigned against the old Trades Council and championed Saklatvala s Labour rival at the 1929 General Election Although Saklatvala and Archer were non whites operating in an overwhelmingly white Labour movement their careers in the 1920s illustrate that politics and not race was the determining factor when it came to allegiances Saklatvala faced many other pressures His secretary Reg Bishop in an obituary in the Daily Worker wrote For the first year or two after his election as the MP for Battersea North there were many who tried to get him to break from the Communist Party The Under Secretaryship of State for India was the smallest of inducements held out if he would only be more orthodox in his politics During 1926 Saklatvala was a strong supporter of the miners After one speech made in Hyde Park he urged the army not to fire on the strikers Saklatvala was arrested and found guilty of sedition was sentenced to two months in Wormwood Scrubs Prison For its continued support for Saklatvala the Battersea Labour Party and Trades Council was disaffiliated in 1926 and a few months later a new Labour Party and Trades Council was established There was rivalry between the two organisations for a period but by the time of the 1929 General Election the old Trades Council existed in name only In 1927 Stephen Sanders a long time activist in the Battersea Labour movement was adopted as the official Labour candidate and this effectively signalled the end of Saklatvala s success He lost the seat in 1929 and his vote declined even further at the election of 1931 By the time of the next General Election in 1935 in line with the Communist Party s new strategy he urged his supporters in the constituency to vote Labour Saklatvala s socialism came about as a direct result of his opposition to colonialism He settled in Britain from India in 1905 at the age of 30 having left India in part because of his brushes with the British authorities In 1909 at Manchester where he was working as a departmental manager for Tata s he joined the Independent Labour Party From then onwards Saklatvala was to spend much of his time in pursuit of his two main concerns socialism and anti colonialism Although his socialist ideas under the impact of the Russian Revolution underwent a radical transformation his approach to colonial freedom remained consistent That is he constantly sought to build a united front between the workers of Britain and the forces for liberation in the colonies This approach can be seen in one of the first Labour movement organisations to concern itself with anti imperialism the Workers Welfare League of India The league was established by Saklatvala in 1917 Saklatvala was the first secretary of the League s Indian Committee A number of national Trade Unions were affiliated to it as were numerous trade union branches At a time when support for colonialism was strong even amongst organised sections of the working class the Workers Welfare League of India strongly influenced by Saklatvala s united front approach made some headway in breaking down barriers between the British and Indian Labour movements The League Against Imperialism which was not solely concerned with British colonialism was another body that Saklatvala was to play a prominent role in Formed in 1927 the League drew together many of the national liberation movements At its founding Congress in Brussels in February 1927 there were 175 delegates from 37 countries Saklatvala s commitment to the League led to his arrest and brief In a message to the founding congress of the Communist Party of India in 1925 Saklatvala had made clear his own and the British Party s commitment to the building of a broad anti colonial alliance as the way to win self determination In pursuit of this he then made a widely publicised visit to India in 1927 which lasted three months and was so successful that on his return the British Government denied him any future access to the country of his birth During the visit he was given the freedom of a number of Indian cities and granted an official welcome by the Madras and Calcutta City authorities He met and entered into a dialogue with Gandhi later published as a pamphlet by the British Party entitled Is India Different Saklatvala also made contact with Communist groups that had recently been established He also met Phil Spratt and George Allison both members of the British Communist Party sent work under cover to help organise the Indian trade union movement Soon after Saklatvala s visit Allison was deported back to England In 1928 he was replaced by Ben Bradley two years after the visit Bradley Spratt and thirty one other active trade unionists were arrested They were tried at Meerut in front of an English civil servant and after four years deliberation the prisoners were given sentences of between three years and transportation for life The Meerut Conspiracy Trial received wide publicity and because of the indignation it aroused the sentences were later reduced and some of the prisoners released When Ben Bradley whose ten year sentence was commuted returned to England in 1933 he was met at Victoria Station by Saklatvala on behalf of the Communist Party Continuing to play a high profile role for the Party Shapurji Saklatvala died in 1936 From Graham Stevenson Samarakkody Edmund Peter 1912 1992 Born Panagoda Siyane Korale Ceylon son of Peter Charles Samarakkody younger brother of Siripala Samarakkody the future president of Ceylon National Congress and nephew of D S Senanayake Educated St Thomas College Mt Lavinia and Law College Joined Colombo South Youth League 1932 Became part of the circle aroung the T Group led by Philip Gunawardena Helped the T Group form the South Colombo Motorworkers Union 1933 Founding member Lanka Sama Samaja Party 1936 elected to its first Central Committee Strike leader Vavasseur Coconut Mill in Toluwagoda and organiser of the Colombo Commercial Company Fertiliser Works 1937 LSSP delegate to Indian National Congress Haripura 1938 Jailed June 1940 Escaped from jail April 1942 Arrested again 1943 and jailed 1943 44 Member Bolshevik Leninist Party of India Ceylon Unit 1945 50 Ran for parliament Mirigama constituency 1947 unsuccessful Member Dehiwala Mount Lavinia Urban Council Treasurer All Ceylon Congress of Samasamaja Youth Leagues Member of Parliament 1952 64 Founding member Lanka Sama Samaja Party Revolutionary 1964 Founder Revolutionary Sama Samaja Party Revolutionary Workers Party 1968 Author Whither the Sov iet Union published illegally by LSSP ca 1940 42 The Crisis of Local Government 1954 Workers Councils Janata Committees and Socialist Transformation 1970 Vamanshika Peramuna 1978 Whither United Socialist Alliance 1988 and Eksat Samajavadi Peramuna koybata da 1988 Compiled by Charles Wesley Ervin Sand George 1804 1876 Born Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin later Baroness Dudevant French novelist and early feminist who wrote under the pen name of George Sand Born in Paris to a father of aristocratic lineage and a common mother Sand was raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother at the family estate Nohant in the French region of Berry a setting later used in many of her novels In 1822 she married Baron Casimir Dudevant and they had two children In 1835 taking the children with her she left her husband Her first novel Rose et Blanche 1831 was written in collaboration with Jules Sandeau from whom she allegedly took her pen name Sand After parting from her husband Sand made less and less a secret of preferring men s clothes to women s although she continued to dress as a woman for social occasions This male disguise enabled Sand to circulate more freely about Paris and gave her increased access to venues that might have been denied to a woman of her social standing This was an exceptional practice for the 19th century where social codes especially in the upper class were of the highest importance As a consequence Sand lost a good deal of the privileges attached to being a Baroness Ironically it was also a part of the mores of this period that women of higher classes could live physically separated from their husbands without losing face if they didn t show any blatant irregularity to the outer world In addition to her novels and plays Sand authored literary criticism and political texts She was linked romantically with Alfred de Musset Franz Liszt and Frédéric Chopin She died at Nohant France at the age of 72 Sanger Margaret 1879 1966 Born Margaret Higgins in New York to a large Irish Catholic family She became a nurse in 1902 and that same year married architect William Sanger The Sangers eventually settled in new York City where they met with a circle of leftist New York Intellectuals such as Max Eastman John Reed and Emma Goldman Margaret joined both the Liberal Club the Women s Committee of the NY Socialist Party and was supporter of the anarchist run Ferrer Center and Modern School She was also active in some labor struggles involving the IWW Margaret Sanger s work as a nurse gave her experience and an opportunity to focus on her interest in sex education and women s health In 1912 she began writing a column on sex education for the New York Call entitled What Every Girl Should Know This was her first of several encounters with censorship and being accused of presenting obscene material Sanger read Marx but never accepted the tenets of Marx s thinking She harshly criticizes Marxists for not recognizing the true cause of the misery of the proletariat irresponsible parenting and reckless breeding Repulsed by the inability of most women to obtain effective birth control which she believed was fundamental to securing freedom and independence for working women Sanger began challenging the 1873 federal and state Comstocks She published The Woman Rebel a radical feminist monthly that advocated militant feminism including the right to practice birth control Again censored and under threat of imprisonment Sanger left for England Sanger was joined by a group of English intellectuals such as Havelock Ellis whose support allowed her to continue her work on birth control internationally as a writer fundraiser and lecturer The birth control movement grew to the point where a legal doctor run birth control clinic began in New York 1923 She helped found the International Planned Parenthood Federation IPPF in 1952 and served as its first president until 1959 For her criticism of Marxism see the Margaret Sanger section Sanial Lucien 1836 1927 Sanial was a pioneer of Marxist ideas in America He was born in France as Lucien Delabarre Sent by a French newspaper to report on the American Civil War he settled in the US where he became active in the labor movement as an advocate of the formation of an independent working class party In 1877 he joined the Socialistic Labor Party the forerunner of the DeLeonist Socialist Labor Party Even before De Leon joined in 1890 he was one of the prominent members of the Marxist wing that won control of the party in 1889 He was the first editor from 1891 2 of the SLP paper The People the SLP candidate for the mayor of New York in 1896 and a delegate to the Congresses of the Second International He resigned from the SLP in 1902 and in 1903 joined the Socialist Party of America In 1917 supported the entry of the USA into World War One Described by Everard in Jack London s Iron Heel as one of the statistical authorities of that time See Lucien Sanial Archive Sapronov T V Leader of an oppositional group inside the Russian CP in the early 1920s when Lenin was still active the Group of Democratic Centralism or Decemists which held semisyndicalist and ultraleft views They adhered to the United Opposition bloc in 1926 although their views remained ultraleft the Left Opposition found it necessary to differentiate itself from the Decemist position in favor of organizing a new communist party rather than fighting as a faction of the CP The Decemist leaders were expelled and exiled at the same time as the Left Opposition s Sartre Jean Paul 1905 1980 French novelist playwright and exponent of Existentialism and became involved with Socialism in the 1950s He declined the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964 Sartre lost his father at an early age and grew up in the home of his maternal grandfather Carl Schweitzer uncle of the medical missionary Albert Schweitzer and professor of German at the Sorbonne The boy who wandered in the Luxembourg Gardens of Paris in search of playmates was small in stature and cross eyed Sartre went to the Lycée Henri IV in Paris and after the remarriage of his mother to the lycée in La Rochelle From there he went to the prestigious École Normale Supérieure from which he was graduated in 1929 Sartre resisted what he called bourgeois marriage but while still a student he formed with Simone de Beauvoir a union that remained a settled partnership in life It was also at the École Normale Supérieure and at the Sorbonne that he met several persons who were destined to be writers of great fame among these were Raymond Aron Maurice Merleau Ponty Simone Weil Emmanuel Mounier Jean Hippolyte and Claude Lévi Strauss From 1931 until 1945 Sartre taught in the lycées of Le Havre Laon and Paris Twice this career was interrupted once by a year of study in Berlin and the second time when Sartre was drafted in 1939 to serve in World War II He was made captured in 1940 put in a prison but released a year later During his years of teaching in Le Havre Sartre published Nausea 1938 his first claim to fame This novel written in the form of a diary narrates the feeling of revulsion that a certain Roquentin undergoes when confronted with the world of matter not merely the world of other people but the very awareness of his own body According to some critics Nausea must be viewed as a pathological case a form of neurotic escape Most probably it must be appreciated also as a most original fiercely individualistic antisocial piece of work containing in its pages many of the philosophical themes that Sartre later developed Sartre took over the phenomenological method which proposes careful unprejudiced description rather than deduction from the German philosopher Edmund Husserl and used it with great skill in three successive publications Imagination A Psychological Critique 1936 Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions 1939 and L Imaginaire The Psychology of Imagination 1940 But it was above all in Being and Nothingness 1943 that Sartre revealed himself as a master of outstanding talent Sartre places human consciousness or nothingness in opposition to being or thingness Consciousness is not matter and by the same token escapes all determinism The message with all the implications it contains is a hopeful one yet the incessant underlining meaning that human endeavour is and remains useless makes the book tragic as well Having written his defence of individual freedom and human dignity Sartre turned his attention to the concept of social responsibility For many years he had shown great concern for the poor and the disinherited of all kinds While a teacher he had refused to wear a tie as if he could shed his social class with his tie and thus come closer to the worker Freedom itself which at times in his previous writings appeared to be a gratuitous activity that needed no particular aim or purpose to be of value became a tool for human struggle in his brochure Existentialism and Humanism 1946 Freedom now implied social responsibility In his novels and plays Sartre began to bring

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  • Ferdinand Lassalle
    M I A Library Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle Archive 1825 1864 Biography Works The French National Workshops of 1848 April 1906 What is Capital M I A Library

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  • August Bebel Writers Archive
    The Social Democrat The Situation in Germany 1902 Features of the Electoral Battle 1903 Clericalism and the Socialist Attitude Thereto 1903 Bebel s Answer to Jaurès on Political Tactics 1904 For Union and Unity 1905 Socialism and Internationalism 1905 Socialism and the General Strike in Germany 1905 full text edited version Socialism and the Student 1905 England and Germany 1907 A Justification of Our Position Letter to Justice September 1908

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  • Glossary of People: Be
    with its attitude to trade unions and industrial workers From the ILP he joined the Marxist Social Democratic Federation But his continuing views on unions and workers led him and those who thought like him to be denounced by SDF leadership as Impossibilists and the entire group was expelled at the 1903 SDF conference Bell along with others such as Willie Gallagher and Arthur MacManus joined the Socialist Labour Party SLP which was established in 1903 after their expulsion from the SDF This organisation was also Marxist but was small it was an overwhelmingly Scottish grouping although there were also were small groups in Sheffield and Derby This British SLP also had close links with the Socialist Labor Party of America led by Daniel de Leon Bell soon became one of the SLP s most prominent members in the process steering it away from the grip of de Leonism The SLP s journal was called the The Socialist and in 1919 Tom Bell became its editor Under his editorship its circulation rose to 8 000 in 1920 Bell was also one of the leaders of the Clyde Workers Committee and shop steward s movement during the First World War He was also President of the Scottish Ironmoulders and leader of the 1920 moulders strike which was successful in obtaining a wage rise for the whole of the engineering industry He was also active on trade union affairs in Merseyside and Manchester Bell was a close associate of James Connolly and was Chairman of Manchester Labour College and Plebs League He played an important role in the establishment of the Communist Party in 1920 as one of three SLP delegates Arthur MacManus and William Paul to the Communist Unity Committee and Convention He and his fellow SLP delegates support for the establishment of the CPGB led to them being expelled from the SLP Bell was a Communist Party Executive member from 1920 1929 and initially National Organiser During the political show trial of the British Communist Party leadership in 1925 Bell was sentenced under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797 to six months in Wandsworth jail along with Arthur MacManus J T Murphy J R Campbell Robin Page Arnot Tom Wintringham Eric Cant Five others got sentences of 12 months Albert Inkpin Willie Gallagher Harry Pollitt William Rust and Wal Hannington Bell was in the cell next door to Gallagher in Wandsworth jail Despite finding himself a little sidelined by the bolshevisation measures of the late 1920s and early 1930s he remained a member of the Party with some influence until his death in 1944 From Graham Stevenson Further Reading Thomas Bell Archive Bellamy Edward 1850 1898 American author famous for his utopian novel set in the year 2000 Looking Backward published in 1888 Born in Chicopee Falls Massachusetts he attended Union College but did not graduate studied law but left and worked briefly in as a journalist in New York and Massachusetts before devoting himself to literature His books include Dr Heidenhoff s Process 1880 Miss Ludington s Sister 1884 and The Duke of Stockbridge His feeling of injustice in the economic system lead him to write Looking Backward 2000 1887 which influenced many intellectuals and Marxist of the day Bellamy Clubs sprang up all over the US to discuss the book s ideas A short story The Parable of the Water Tank from the book Equality 1897 was popular with a number of early American socialists Bellamy died at his childhood home in Chicopee Falls at the age of 48 from tuberculosis See Edward Bellamy Archive Utopianism Subject Archive including Looking Backward from 2000 1887 Belli Mihri 1915 The founder of the thesis of National Democratic Revolution He studied economics in the USA He became there a marxist and joined the African American and Workers movements He turned back to Turkey in 1940 and joined the Communist Party of Turkey TKP He organised the Union of the Progressive Youth In 1944 he was arrested and sentenced to prison for two years In 1946 he went to Greece to join the Greece Civil War as a guerilla He was wounded and stayed at the hospitals in Bulgaria and Soviet Union He entered to Turkey in 1950 and arrested stayed in prison for seven years After the military putsch in 1960 he wrote some articles at the periodicals Türk Solu and Aydinlik Sosyalist Dergi He escaped from Turkey after the fascist putsch in 1971 and joined the Palestine Liberation Organisation After the Amnesty Law in 1974 he returned back to Turkey and founded Labourer Party of Turkey TEP After the fascist military putsch in 1980 went to Middle East again then to Sweden Turned back to Turkey in 1992 and joined the Freedom and Solidarity Party ÖDP Belinsky Vissarion 1811 1848 Russian literary critic who supported socially critical writers Ben Bella Ahmed 1916 Born in Maghnia Algeria in 1916 He served in the French Army during the Second World War After the war he became involved in the independence movement and in 1949 became leader of Organisation Speciale the paramilitary wing of the Party of the Algerian People Ben Bella was captured in 1952 but he escaped to Egypt where he founded the National Liberation Front FLN Under the leadership of Ben Bella the FLN fought a long war of independence from France In 1962 Algeria gained its independence and Ben Bella became the country s first prime minister and in 1963 was elected president Ben Bella attempted to establish a system similar to the one led by Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt However Ben Bella was deposed in 1965 in a military coup led by General Houari Boumedienne and was kept under house arrest until 1979 He spent the next ten years in exile but in 1990 he returned to live in Algeria Benjamin Walter 1892 1940 German Marxist literary critic Born into a prosperous Jewish family Benjamin studied philosophy in Berlin Freiburg Munich and Bern He settled in Berlin in 1920 and worked thereafter as a literary critic and translator His half hearted pursuit of an academic career was cut short when the University of Frankfurt rejected his brilliant but unconventional doctoral thesis The Origin of German Tragic Drama 1928 Benjamin eventually settled in Paris after leaving Germany in 1933 after Hitler came to power He continued to write essays and reviews for literary journals but when Paris fell to the Nazis in 1940 he fled south with the hope of escaping to the US via Spain Informed by the chief of police at the Franco Spanish border that he would be turned over to the Gestapo Benjamin committed suicide The posthumous publication of Benjamin s prolific output won him a growing reputation in the later 20th century The essays containing his philosophical reflections on literature are written in a dense and concentrated style that contains a strong poetic strain He mixes social criticism and linguistic analysis with historical nostalgia while communicating an underlying sense of pathos and pessimism The metaphysical quality of his early critical thought gave way to a Marxist inclination in the 1930s Benjamin s pronounced intellectual independence and originality are evident in the extended essay Goethe s Elective Affinities and the essays collected in Illuminations The approach to art of the USSR under Stalin was typified first by the persecution of all those who expressed any independent thought and second by the adoption of Socialist Realism the view that art is dedicated to the realistic representation of simplistic optimistic proletarian values and proletarian life Subsequent Marxist thinking about art has been largely influenced by Walter Benjamin and Georg Lukács however Both were exponents of Marxist humanism who saw the important contribution of Marxist theory to aesthetics in the analysis of the condition of labour and in the critique of the alienated and reified consciousness of man under capitalism Benjamin s collection of essays The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction 1936 attempts to describe the changed experience of art in the modern world and sees the rise of Fascism and mass society as the culmination of a process of debasement whereby art ceases to be a means of instruction and becomes instead a mere gratification a matter of taste alone Communism responds by politicising art that is by making art into the instrument by which the false consciousness of the mass man is to be overthrown See the Walter Benjamin Archive Benjedid Chadli 1929 President of Algeria 1979 92 born in Sebaa He joined the National Liberation Front shortly after the Algerian revolution began in 1954 and rose through the ranks of the guerrilla forces by the early 1960s he was on the staff of Colonel later president Houari Boumedienne and he played a decisive role in the latter s overthrow of President Ahmed Ben Bella in 1965 Subsequently serving in the Revolutionary Council and as acting minister of defense 1978 he was elected president in February 1979 and reelected in 1984 and 1988 When his democratization program threatened to bring Muslim fundamentalists to power he was forced to resign in January 1992 by a military dominated junta Bentham Jeremy 1748 1832 Idealist Writer on law and ethics a barrister from 1772 Made a study of the theory of law and developed the idea that laws should be socially beneficial and not merely a reflection of the status quo Popularised the Utilitarian theory that all actions are right when they promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number In 1808 he met James Mill and with him formed a group that propagated Utilitarian ideas among the radical bourgeoisie and intellectuals Berger Victor Louis Luitpold 1860 1929 Founding member of the Socialist Party of America and an important and influential Socialist journalist who helped establish the so called Sewer Socialist movement The first Socialist elected to the U S House of Representatives in 1919 he was convicted of violating the Espionage Act for his anti militarist views and as a result was twice denied the seat to which he had been elected in the House of Representatives Early years Born to a Jewish family in Nieder Rehbach Austria Hungary now in Romania on February 28 1860 Victor L Berger attended the Gymnasium at Leutschau today in Slovakia and the universities at Budapest and Vienna He emigrated to the United States in 1878 with his parents settling near Bridgeport Connecticut From there he moved to Woodstock Illinois in 1880 and then to Milwaukee Wisconsin in 1881 where he was a schoolteacher and newspaper editor Berger was credited by trade union leader Eugene V Debs for having won him over to the cause of socialism Jailed for six months for violating a federal anti strike injunction in the 1894 strike of the American Railway Union Debs turned to reading Books and pamphlets and letters from socialists came by every mail and I began to read and think and dissect the anatomy of the system in which workingmen however organized could be shattered and battered and splintered on a single stroke It was at this time when the first glimmerings of socialism were beginning to penetrate that Victor L Berger and I have loved him ever since came to Woodstock jail as if a providential instrument and delivered the first impassioned message of socialism I had ever heard the very first to set the wires humming in my system As a souvenir of that visit there is in my library a volume of Capital by Karl Marx inscribed with the compliments of Victor L Berger which I cherish as a token of priceless value In 1896 Berger was a delegate to the People s Party Convention in St Louis In 1897 he married a former student Meta Schlichting The couple raised two daughters Doris and Elsa who at first spoke only German in the home indicative of their parents cultural orientation Berger was short and stocky with a studious demeanor and had both a self deprecating sense of humor and a volatile temper Although loyal to friends he was strongly opinionated and intolerant of dissenting views His ideological sparring partner and comrade Morris Hillquit later recalled of Berger that He was sublimely egotistical but somehow his egotism did not smack of conceit and was not offensive It was the expression of deep and naive faith in himself and this unshakable faith was one of the mainsprings of his power over men Berger was a founding member of the Social Democracy of America in 1897 and led the split of the political action faction of that organization to form the Social Democratic Party of America SDP in 1898 He was a member of the governing National Executive Committee of the SDP for its entire duration Berger was a founder of the Socialist Party of America in 1901 and played a critical role in the negotiations with an east coast dissident faction of the Socialist Labor Party in the establishment of this new political party Berger was regarded as one of the party s leading revisionist Marxists an advocate of the trade union oriented and incremental politics of Edward Bernstein He advocated the use of electoral politics to implement reforms and thus gradually build a collectivist society Berger was a man of the written word and back room negotiation not a notable public speaker He retained a heavy German accent and had a voice which did not project well As a rule he did not accept outdoor speaking engagements and was a poor campaigner preferring one on one relationships to mass oratory Berger was however a newspaper editorialist par excellence Throughout his life he published and edited a number of different papers including the German language Vorwärts Forward 1892 1911 the Social Democratic Herald 1901 1913 and the Milwaukee Leader 1911 1929 His papers were tied to the socialist movement and organized labor through the Milwaukee Federated Trades Council First term in Congress Berger ran for Congress and lost in 1904 before winning Wisconsin s 5th congressional district seat in 1910 as the first Socialist to serve in the United States Congress In Congress he focused on issues related to the District of Columbia and also more radical proposals including eliminating the President s veto abolishing the Senate and the social takeover of major industries Berger gained national publicity for his old age pension bill the first of its kind introduced into Congress Although he did not win re election in 1912 1914 or 1916 he remained active in Wisconsin and Socialist Party politics Berger was very active in the biggest party controversy of the pre war years the fight between the SP s center right regular bloc against the syndicalist left wing over the issue of sabotage The bitter battle erupted in full force at the 1912 National Convention of the Socialist Party to which Berger was again a delegate At issue was language to be inserted into the party constitution which called for the expulsion of any member of the party who opposes political action or advocates crime sabotage or other methods of violence as a weapon of the working class to aid in its emancipation The debate was vitriolic with Berger somewhat unsurprisingly stating the matter in its most bellicose form Comrades the trouble with our party is that we have men in our councils who claim to be in favor of political action when they are not We have a number of men who use our political organization our Socialist Party as a cloak for what they call direct action for IWW ism sabotage and syndicalism It is anarchism by a new name Comrades I have gone through a number of splits in this party It was not always a fight against anarchism in the past In the past we often had to fight utopianism and fanaticism Now it is anarchism again that is eating away at the vitals of our party If there is to be a parting of the ways if there is to be a split and it seems that you will have it and must have it then I am ready to split right here I am ready to go back to Milwaukee and appeal to the Socialists all over the country to cut this cancer out of our organization The regulars won the day handily at the Indianapolis convention of 1912 with a successful recall of IWW leader Big Bill Haywood from the SP s National Executive Committee and an exodus of disaffected left wingers following shortly thereafter The remaining radicals in the party remembered bitterly Berger s role in this affair and the ill feelings continued to fester until erupting anew at the end of the decade Berger and World War I Berger s views on World War I were complicated by the Socialist view and the difficulties surrounding his German heritage However he did support his party s stance against the war When the United States entered the war and passed the Espionage Act in 1917 Berger s continued opposition made him a target He and four other Socialists were indicted under the Espionage Act in February 1918 the trial followed on December 9 of that year and on February 20 1919 Berger was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in federal prison The trial was presided over by Judge Kenesaw Landis who later became the first commissioner of Major League Baseball His conviction was appealed and ultimately overturned by the Supreme Court on January 31 1921 which found that Judge Landis had improperly presided over the case after the filing of an affidavit of prejudice In spite of his being under indictment at the time the voters of Milwaukee elected Berger to the House of Representatives in 1918 When he arrived in Washington to claim his seat Congress formed a special committee to determine whether a convicted felon and war opponent should be seated as a member of Congress On November 10 1919 they concluded that

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