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  • Jenny Marx Longuet
    in 1872 Died shortly before her father Married to Charles Longuet Mother of six children In 1870 she took action in the Irish struggles by publishing under the name J Williams revelations of the treatment of the Irish political prisoners by the English bourgeoisie An investigation by the Gladstone government followed Send corrections comments to Sally Ryan Photos Jenny in 1870 age 26 Jenny and Chales Longuet in 1870s Documents

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  • Jules Guesde Internet Archive
    October 1887 May Day and the Public Authorities April 1891 The General Strike October 1892 Speech to the Socialist Congress 1899 The Social Problem and Its Solution 1905 Motion on militarism and war 1907 Programme of Le socialisme 1907 Legality

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/guesde/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Glossary of People: Gu
    Revolution and urged his comrades in South America to create many vietnams In 1965 Che left Cuba to set up guerrilla forces first in the Congo and then later in Bolivia where he was ultimately captured and killed in October 1967 Accounts of his execution have varied over the years but many contemprary accounts indicate some degree of collaboration between Bolivia s government troops and the United States CIA Guevara developed a theory of primacy of military struggle in particular concept of guerilla foquismo Many of Che s theories regarding guerilla tactics are articulated in his 1961 work Guerilla Warfare Further Reading Che Guevara Archive Guillaume William 1844 1916 James Guillaume was born in London in February 1844 He became interested in anarchism when he was a student in Zurich and later as a printer in Neuchatel He became one of the leading members of the Jura Federation of the First International Having accepted anarchist beliefs he associated himself with Bakunin with whom he was expelled from the International at the Hague Congress in 1872 Later he was active in founding the Anarchist St Imier International He played a decisive role in Kropotkin s conversion to anarchism and worked with him at anarchist agitation in Switzerland during the later 1870s Early in the 1880s Guillaume withdrew from anarchist activity to become active again twenty years later in the anarcho syndicalist movement The four volume work he wrote during this later period L International Documents et Souvenirs is the most important source of information from the anarchist point of view relating to the First International Guillaume also edited Bakunin s Collected Works published in French in 1907 See James Guillaume Archive Guizot Francois 1787 1874 French monarchist statesman and historian was premier 1847 48 when he was turned out of office by the February revolution of 1848 Gunasekera Vernon H 1908 1996 Born into a prominent family with links to the first Ceylonese Governor General Sir Oliver Goonetilleka Joined Lanka Mahajana Sabha 1926 Secretary South Colombo Youth League 1931 35 Active in Suriya Mal campaigns Secretary Wellawatte Mills Union 1932 General Secretary Lanka Sama Samaja Party 1935 40 Sent to London to work with the LSSP cell 1938 Editor Young Socialist monthly publication of Lanka Students Socialist League 1936 Editor Samasamaja 1937 40 Contributed reports and articles to the Congress Socialist journal starting 1936 Affiliated with LSSP Philip Gunawardena group 1945 48 LSSP candidate for Ceylon Parliament 1947 Joined VLSSP Philip Gunawardena group Chairman Board of Review in MEP government 1956 59 Wrote a regular column for the Sunday Observer Later abandoned Marxist politics Practiced law in Kandy Author Life and Times of Sir Oliver Goonetilleke 1981 Compiled by Charles Wesley Ervin Gunawardena Kusumasiri 1912 1985 Born Medaketiya Tangalle Ceylon daughter of Don Davith Amarasinghe Educated Musaeus College Colombo Participated in Suriya Mal movement Joined Lanka Sama Samaja Party Married Philip Gunawardena 1939 Attended Indian National Congress session Ramgarh 1940 Escaped to India 1942 Arrested in Bombay 1943 Deported to Ceylon

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  • History of the Second International
    most influential leader of Social Democracy and authority on Marxism until the Russian Revolution In 1891 Kautsky s Erfurt Program was adopted by the SDP See the text of the Program The Spartacists Franz Mehring 1846 1919 Literary critic writer and historian a leader of the Left wing of the German Social Democrats and later member of the Spartacist League Mehring and Clara Zetkin were the only members of the older generation of Marxists who supported Lenin s revolutionary defeatism line against the War and survived to see the founding of the Communist Party of Germany in 1919 Clara Zetkin 1857 1933 Clara Zetkin was member of the Bookbinders Union in Stuttgart and active in the Tailors and Seamstresses Union becoming its provisional International Secretary in 1896 despite the fact that it was illegal for women to be members of trade unions in Germany at that time From 1895 she was a leader of the left wing of the SPD As Secretary of the International Bureau of Socialist Women Zetkin organised the Socialist Women s Conference in March 1915 She joined the Spartacists and was a founding member of the German Communist Party in 1918 a Reichstag delegate from 1920 and a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International from 1921 but lived in Russia from 1924 until her death in 1933 See Clara Zetkin s report to the 1896 Congress of the SDP and Eleanor Marx s report of the Congress Rosa Luxemburg 1871 1919 A Polish Jew at 18 years of age Rosa Luxemburg was forced to escape to Zurich to avoid imprisonment for her revolutionary agitation Here she met Russian Social Democrats such as Georgy Plekhanov and Pavel Axelrod Luxemburg split with both the Russian and Polish Socialist Party over the issue of Polish self determination and helped create the Polish Social Democratic Party Leo Jogiches leader of the Polish Socialist Party became her life long companion Rosa Luxemburg was a leader of both the German and Polish Social Democrats an electrifying speaker who always stood on the left wing of social democracy She was critical of Lenin s centralised methods of organisation See Russian Social democracy and was a foremost advocate of the mass strike as opposed to parliamentary activity See The Mass Strike She spent the War inside prison and was released only in time to take her place at the head of the German Revolution and to be arrested by her erstwhile Social Democratic comrades and murdered in January 1919 Karl Liebknecht 1871 1919 Son of Wilhelm Liebknecht and founding leader of the Socialist Youth International in 1907 With Rosa Luxemburg Liebknecht was leader of the International Group and later founded the Spartacist League and was the only Reichstag Deputy to oppose war credits in the Reichstag in 1914 Drafted during the war he was imprisoned in May 1916 for anti war activity Released in November 1918 Liebknecht was a leader of the failed Berlin uprising in January 1919 and murdered on January 15th 1919 along with his life long comrade Rosa Luxemburg The German SDP and the War 1914 Other Social democratic Parties in Europe Herman Gorter 1864 1927 Dutch poet who opposed the pro War stance of the Dutch Social Democrats and later became a left wing communist conducting a polemic against Lenin s book of that name See his Open Letter to Lenin Anton Pannekoek 1873 1960 The Dutch astronomer Anton Pannekoek was active in the German Social Democratic Party while living in Germany before the War and contributed to Die Neue Zeit The leader of the Social Democrats in the Netherlands after the Russian Revolution Pannekoek stayed aloof from both the Comintern and the Socialist Parties taking a syndicalist direction See Party and Class The French Parti Ouvrier Paul Lafargue 1841 1911 Paul Lafargue was born in Cuba but studied medicine in France and became a follower of Proudhon He met Marx and Engels while acting as a delegate to the First International and married Laura Marx in 1868 thereafter working closely with Marx and Engels and leading the Marxist wing within the Parti Ouvrier After the fall of the Paris Commune Paul and Laura fled to Spain but later settled in London Lafargue was an influential speaker and writer including works on ethical aspects of socialism The couple commited suicide together in 1911 See Paul Lafargue Archive Jules Guesde 1845 1922 Publisher of L Égalité leader of the Marxist wing of the French workers movement In 1879 together with Lafargue he founded the French Workers Party Parti ouvrier In the 1880 s and 90 s Guesde led the fight against the Possibilists and opposed participation in Parliament By 1900 he had moved to a reformist position however and during the war a social chauvinist and in 1914 15 a member of the government See Jules Guesde Archive In December 1920 the French Socialist Party joined the Comintern Garbriel Deville one of the theoreticians of the French Workers Party POF of Guesde and as such introduced Marxism into France Swedish Social Democracy See Swedish Social Democracy Archive August Palm introduced Social Democracy into Sweden from Germany with his famous 1881 speech in Malmö and was the leader of its left wing Hjalmar Branting displaced Palm from leadership and went on to become Prime Minister and a Nobel Prize winner Poland Leo Jogiches 1867 1919 Jailed for his agitation in Lithuania in 1890 he escaped to Switzerland where he began a long political and personal relationship with Rosa Luxemburg In 1983 together they founded the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland SDKP which later merged with the Polish Workers Party Jogiches was murdered while trying to investigate the assassination of Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht during the Spartacist uprising Italian Socialist Party Antonio Labriola 1843 1904 Father of Italian Marxism Filippo Turati 1857 1932 leader of the right wing of Italian Social Democracy Enrico Ferri 1856 1929 criminologist later joined the Fascists Russian Social Democracy The Russian Social Democratic

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  • The William Morris Internet Archive : Biography
    the struggle to stop Disraeli s Tory government going to war with Russia between 1876 and 1878 In 1883 Morris joined the Democratic Federation soon to be renamed the Social Democratic Federation S D F In December 1884 with the support of Engels Morris and 8 out of the 10 members of the Executive of the S D F resigned and set up the Socialist League The Socialist League was split with Parliamentarians on one side and anarchists on the other Morris though no anarchist sided with them against the Parliamentarians Morris left the Socialist League at the end of 1890 and continued to work in the Hammersmith Socialist Society which was formed around the Hammersmith branch of the Socialist League When William Morris died on 9th January 1896 the following obituary was published in the Clarion I cannot help thinking that it does not matter what goes into the Clarion this week because William Morris is dead And what socialist will care for any other news this week beyond that one said fact He was our best man and he is dead It is true that much of his work still lives and will live But we have lost

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  • H.M. Hyndman Archive
    Mr Mallock rejoinder November 1887 Marx s Theory of Value April 1889 The International Review July 1889 The International Congress of Workers August 1889 Eight Hours Movement a debate with Charles Bradlaugh July 1890 Commercial Crises of the Nineteenth Century 1892 America for the United States 1896 Economics of Socialism 1896 Social Democrat or Socialist October 1897 The International Situation and the International Socialist Bureau September 1902 Colonies and dependencies Report to International Socialist Congress August 1904 Liberalism Labour 1903 Laborism Impossibilism and Socialism May 1903 State Socialists and Social Democrats July 1905 The Scientific Investigation of History February 1906 Ruin of India by British Rule 1907 Socialism and Labourism in England 1909 Garibaldi and the Making of Italy Review 1910 Revolutionary Social Democracy The Curse of Compromise in Great Britain 1910 The SDP and Marx and Engels 2 July 1910 The Tyranny and Corruption of Liberal Bureaucracy 27 August 1910 Trade Union Unrest and the Class War October 1910 Pacifism and German Aggression 1911 The Record of an Adventurous Life 1911 Further Reminiscences 1911 Social Democracy Wins 1913 The Murdering of British Seamen April 1913 Socialism Materialism and the War with E B Bax December 1914 The War of

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  • Writers: Edward Carpenter
    England s Ideal 1884 Social Progress and Individual Effort 1885 Does it Pay 1886 Trade 1887 Defence of Criminals Criticism of Immorality I 1889 Defence of Criminals Criticism of Immorality II 1889 The Value of Value Theory June 1889 The

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  • Glossary of People: Ca
    of real numbers i e including numbers with infinitely many decimal digits was uncountable Even more paradoxically he proved that the set of all algebraic numbers such as the square root of 2 and so on are as numerous as the natural numbers but transcendental numbers such as pi which are a subset of the real numbers are uncountable and therefore more numerous than the natural numbers The results were so startling that at first Kronecker refused to publish it Cantor s theory quickly became controversial leading to the study of a whole sequence of transfinite numbers each larger than the one before Cantor held that these transfinite numbers had an actual existence drawing on his early religious training to justify the assertion Kronecker on the other hand famously remarked that only the integers exist God made the integers and all the rest is the work of man and blocked Cantor s appointment to the University of Berlin Cantor continued work despite bouts of mental illness Partly because of his experience with Kronecker he often supported young aspiring mathematicians At the turn of the century his work was fully recognised as fundamental to the development of function theory analysis and topology Moreover his work stimulated further development of both the intuitionist Brouwer and the formalist Hilbert schools of thought in the logical foundations of mathematics Cardenas Lazaro 1895 1970 Mexican army officer and politician president 1934 1940 His was the only government in the world that would give Trotsky asylum in the last years of his life In 1938 he nationalised the operations of the foreign oil companies in Mexico Carey Henry Charles 1793 1879 American economist who theorized against Malthus and Ricardo His work was praised by Marx Carlson Grace 1906 92 Joined the Workers Party of the United States the predecessor of the Socialist Workers Party in 1936 She was elected to the SWP national committee in 1941 was indicted in the Minneapolis sedition trial and jailed and stood for vice president in the SWP s first presidential campaign in1948 Broken by the witch hunt in 1952 she left the party to return to the Catholic church Carlyle Thomas 1795 1881 The leading British disciple of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and German Romanticism He was also in his youth a supporter of Saint Simonism and the Chartist movement However in later life the positions he took on political and economic affairs seemed more in line with the Tories Carlyle is renowned for his passionate preacher like opposition to industrial society that was emerging in Britain captured in his Chartism 1840 and especially Past and Present 1843 a book much admired by Engels Carlyle was not an economist or even a scholar but more like an Old Testament prophet His utter disdain for economists and economics is well known it was he who characterized it as the dismal science In his view it was the economists and their theories which served as the apologistic ideological and religious buttress of the industrial revolution that in his view was destroying Britain At one point he recommended that economists ought to be popularly elected as a way to make them accountable to the population that their theories were helping ruin Nonetheless he was at least for a time a friend of John Stuart Mill He was also a close friend of John Ruskin Thomas Carlyle was a feudalist if such a term can be allowed But he does not pine for old fashioned reactionary aristocracy or pastoral romance Rather Carlyle absorbed Goethe s ideas on the natural in particular the relationship between external order and personal freedom He conceived that the end of human activity is activity itself the Protestant ethic secularly enhanced For Carlyle the feudal system s sole value is that it is much better at assigning a man an activity and thereafter granting him the freedom to pursue it in any manner he pleases In contrast a market system assigns him no activity but simultaneously becomes the hardest taskmaster of all by forcing him to serve it by chasing wage labor profit etc He sees a market society as unnatural as it forces people to pursue consumption and accumulation whereas in Carlyle s view people s nature is to pursue activity Thus for Carlyle the feudal system may be harsh in limiting social mobility but it offers freedom of activity at the individual level and the joy of craftsmanship In contrast the market system is socially much more progressive but at the individual level it forces everybody into the unnatural activities of gain and acquisition Carlyle s darkest moment was the publication of his infamous defense of slavery in his 1849 Fraser s Magazine and his shamelessly racist and venomous Latter Day Pamphlets 1850 Carlyle saw little difference between a black slave in a slave society and a joyous yeoman in a feudal society except that one is loyally bound to his task by chains and whips and the other by tradition and custom In either case the joy of work is eventually achieved It was his attacks on the Evangelical Christian abolitionism and charity which were the main sore point with Victorian society But neither a feudal society nor a slave society are being recommended by Carlyle His early interest in Saint Simonism which embraced industrial society but tried to rationalize it proves that he was not a traditional feudalist The main issue was the man must work principle of Saint Simon and Goethe How this can be achieved in an industrial society he did not know nor did he have practical policy suggestions for He was a man of letters He wrote to shock Carnap Rudolph 1891 1970 German born Logical Positivist philosopher He contributed to logic the analysis of language the theory of probability and the philosophy of science typical of the third stage of positivism Neo Positivism Carnap s method is a kind of systematic reductionism in which language and concepts are seen as a

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