archive-org.com » ORG » M » MARXISTS.ORG

Total: 399

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Soviet Psychology: The Ilyenkov Internet Archive
    Universal 1974 Humanism and Science Concept of the Ideal 1977 Leninist Dialectics Metaphysics of Positivism 1979 See also Texts at Reading Ilyenkov Search Ilyenkov Archive With the Exact Phrase With at least one of words Buy The Ideal in Human Activity Reviewed by Alex Levant Free eBooks for Ilyenkov Further reading Vygotsky Archive The Riddle of the Self by Feliks Mikhailov 1976 Awakening to Life Alexander Meshcheryakov The Thing in

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/ilyenkov/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The Alexandra Kollontai Archive
    War 1915 Why was the German proletariat silent in the July Days 1915 Preface to the Book Society and Motherhood 1915 The Third International PDF 1916 The Statue of Liberty 1916 Do Internationalists Want a Split 1917 Our Memorial to the Fighters for Freedom 1917 Our Tasks 1917 Lenin at Smolny 1917 Why the Bolsheviks Must Win 1918 The First Steps Towards the Protection of Motherhood 1918 V I Lenin and the First Congress of Women Workers 1918 Decree on Child Welfare 1918 New Woman from The New Morality and the Working Class 1919 Women Workers Struggle For Their Rights 1919 What Are We Fighting For 1919 History of the movement of Women workers in Russia 1920 International Women s Day 1920 Communism and the Family more complete version 1920 Communism and the Family 1920 An Interesting Letter from Russia 1921 The Labour of Women in the Evolution of the Economy 1921 Prostitution and ways of fighting it 1921 Letter to Dora Montefiore 1921 Workers Opposition 1921 The Woman Worker and Peasant in Soviet Russia 1921 Theses on Communist Morality in the Sphere of Marital Relations 1921 Sexual Relations and the Class Struggle 1922 Soon In 48 years time 1926

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/kollonta/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Soviet Psychology: A.N. Leont'ev
    the human spirit with no history or intractability to causal analysis We begin to understand it as the highest form of reflection of reality that sociohistorical development creates a system of objectively existing agents gives birth to it and causal historical analysis makes it accessible to us Marxism and Psychological Science Biography Works Activity Consciousness and Personality 1978 Activity and Consciousness 1977 From Problems of the Development of the Mind The evolution of the Psyche in Animals The problem of the origin of sensation A contribution to the Theory of the Development of the Child s Psyche PDF Apropos the Historical Development of Consciousness On Vygotsky s Creative Development 1979 Further reading The Comparative Psychology of A N Leontyev by Charles Tolman Yrjö Engström s Activity Model Vygotsky Archive Ilyenkov Archive Daniil El konin Other works of A N Leontyev which have been published in English not reproduced here include Journal of Russian East European Psychology Vol 43 2005 Issue No 3 a translation written as a small book for the 100th centennial celebration of Leontiev s life and the conference in Moscow Issue No 4 an introduction by E E Sokolova and The Study of the Environment in the

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/leontev/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The Herbert Marcuse Internet Archive
    constituted the sole link between the old and the new form of critical theory between philosophy and social theory Reason Revolution Biography The Foundation of Historical Materialism 1932 Reason Revolution 1941 Eros Civilisation 1955 One Dimensional Man 1964 An Essay on Liberation 1969 Lectures and Essays Socialist Humanism 1965 Aggressiveness in Advanced Industrial Society 1967 The End of Utopia 1967 The Problem of Violence and the Radical Opposition Questions and

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/marcuse/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society by Herbert Marcuse, 1964
    unfolding of theoretical and practical Reason in one The closed operational universe of advanced industrial civilization with its terrifying harmony of freedom and oppression productivity and destruction growth and regression is pre designed in this idea of Reason as a specific historical project The technological and the pre technological stages share certain basic concepts of man and nature which express the continuity of the Western tradition Within this continuum different modes of thought clash with each other they belong to different ways of apprehending organizing changing society and nature The stabilizing tendencies conflict with the subversive elements of Reason the power of positive with that of negative thinking until the achievements of advanced industrial civilization lead to the triumph of the one dimensional reality over all contradiction This conflict dates back to the origins of philosophic thought itself and finds striking expression in the contrast between Plato s dialectical logic and the formal logic of the Aristotelian Organon The subsequent sketch of the classical model of dialectical thought may prepare the ground for an analysis of the contrasting features of technological rationality In classical Greek philosophy Reason is the cognitive faculty to distinguish what is true and what is false insofar as truth and falsehood is primarily a condition of Being of Reality and only on this ground a property of propositions True discourse logic reveals and expresses that which really is as distinguished from that which appears to be real And by virtue of this equation between Truth and real Being Truth is a value for Being is better than Non Being The latter is not simply Nothing it is a potentiality of and a threat to Being destruction The struggle for truth is a struggle against destruction for the salvation sozein of Being an effort which appears itself to be destructive if it assails an established reality as untrue Socrates against the Athenian city state Inasmuch as the struggle for truth saves reality from destruction truth commits and engages human existence It is the essentially human project If man has learned to see and know what really is he will act in accordance with truth Epistemology is in itself ethics and ethics is epistemology This conception reflects the experience of a world antagonistic in itself a world afflicted with want and negativity constantly threatened with destruction but also a world which is a cosmos structured in accordance with final causes To the extent to which the experience of an antagonistic world guides the development of the philosophical categories philosophy moves in a universe which is broken in itself two dimensional Appearance and reality untruth and truth and as we shall see unfreedom and freedom are ontological conditions The distinction is not by virtue or by fault of abstract thought it is rather rooted in the experience of the universe of which thought partakes in theory and practice In this universe there are modes of being in which men and things are by themselves and as themselves and modes in which they are not that is in which they exist in distortion limitation or denial of their nature essence To overcome these negative conditions is the process of being and of thought Philosophy originates in dialectic its universe of discourse responds to the facts of an antagonistic reality What are the criteria for this distinction On what ground is the status of truth assigned to one mode or condition rather than to another Classical Greek philosophy relies largely on what was later termed in a rather derogative sense intuition i e a form of cognition in which the object of thought appears clearly as that which it really is in its essential qualities and in antagonistic relation to its contingent immediate situation Indeed this evidence of intuition is not too different from the Cartesian one It is not a mysterious faculty of the mind not a strange immediate experience nor is it divorced from conceptual analysis Intuition is rather the preliminary terminus of such an analysis the result of methodic intellectual mediation As such it is the mediation of concrete experience The notion of the essence of man may serve as an illustration Analyzed in the condition in which he finds himself in his universe man seems to be in possession of certain faculties and powers which would enable him to lead a good life i e a life which is as much as possible free from toil dependence and ugliness To attain such a life is to attain the best life to live in accordance with the essence of nature or man To be sure this is still the dictum of the philosopher it is he who analyses the human situation He subjects experience to his critical judgment and this contains a value judgment namely that freedom from toil is preferable to toil and an intelligent life is preferable to a stupid life It so happened that philosophy was born with these values Scientific thought had to break this union of value judgment and analysis for it became increasingly clear that the philosophic values did not guide the organization of society nor the transformation of nature They were ineffective unreal Already the Greek conception contains the historical element the essence of man is different in the slaves and in the free citizen in the Greek and in the Barbarian Civilization has overcome the ontological stabilization of this difference at least in theory But this development does not yet invalidate the distinction between essential and contingent nature between true and false modes of existence provided only that the distinction derives from a logical analysis of the empirical situation and understands its potential as well as its contingency To the Plato of the later dialogues and to Aristotle the modes of Being are modes of movement transition from potentiality to actuality realization Finite Being is incomplete realization subject to change Its generation is corruption it is permeated with negativity Thus it is not true reality Truth The philosophic quest proceeds from the finite world to the construction of a reality which is not subject to the painful difference between potentiality and actuality which has mastered its negativity and is complete and independent in itself free This discovery is the work of Logos and Eros The two key terms designate two modes of negation erotic as well as logical cognition break the hold of the established contingent reality and strive for a truth incompatible with it Logos and Eros are subjective and objective in one The ascent from the lower to the higher forms of reality is movement of matter as well as mind According to Aristotle the perfect reality the god attracts the world below os eromenon he is the final cause of all being Logos and Eros are in themselves the unity of the positive and the negative creation and destruction In the exigencies of thought and in the madness of love is the destructive refusal of the established ways of life Truth transforms the modes of thought and existence Reason and Freedom converge However this dynamic has its inherent limits insofar as the antagonistic character of reality its explosion in true and untrue modes of existence appears to be an immutable ontological condition There are modes of existence which can never be true because they can never rest in the realization of their potentialities in the joy of being In the human reality all existence that spends itself in procuring the prerequisites of existence is thus an untrue and unfree existence Obviously this reflects the not at all ontological condition of a society based on the proposition that freedom is incompatible with the activity of procuring the necessities of life that this activity is the natural function of a specific class and that cognition of the truth and true existence imply freedom from the entire dimension of such activity This is indeed the pre and anti technological constellation par excellence But the real dividing line between pre technological and technological rationality is not that between a society based on unfreedom and one based on freedom Society still is organized in such a way that procuring the necessities of life constitutes the full time and life long occupation of specific social classes which are therefore unfree and prevented from a human existence In this sense the classical proposition according to which truth is incompatible with enslavement by socially necessary labor is still valid The classical concept implies the proposition that freedom of thought and speech must remain a class privilege as long as this enslavement prevails For thought and speech are of a thinking and speaking subject and if the life of the latter depends on the performance of a superimposed function it depends on fulfilling the requirements of this function thus it depends on those who control these requirements The dividing line between the pre technological and the technological project rather is in the manner in which the subordination to the necessities of life to earning a living is organized and in the new modes of freedom and unfreedom truth and falsehood which correspond to this organization Who is in the classical conception the subject that comprehends the ontological condition of truth and untruth It is the master of pure contemplation theoria and the master of a practice guided by theoria i e the philosopher statesman To be sure the truth which he knows and expounds is potentially accessible to everyone Led by the philosopher the slave in Plato s Meno is capable of grasping the truth of a geometrical axiom i e a truth beyond change and corruption But since truth is a state of Being as well as of thought and since the latter is the expression and manifestation of the former access to truth remains mere potentiality as long as it is not living in and with the truth And this mode of existence is closed to the slave and to anyone who has to spend his life procuring the necessities of life Consequently if men no longer had to spend their lives in the realm of necessity truth and a true human existence would be in a strict and real sense universal Philosophy envisages the equality of man but at the same time it submits to the factual denial of equality For in the given reality procurement of the necessities is the life long job of the majority and the necessities have to be procured and served so that truth which is freedom from material necessities can be Here the historical barrier arrests and distorts the quest for truth the societal division of labor obtains the dignity of an ontological condition If truth presupposes freedom from toil and if this freedom is in the social reality the prerogative of a minority then the reality allows such a truth only in approximation and for a privileged group This state of affairs contradicts the universal character of truth which defines and prescribes not only a theoretical goal but the best life of man qua man with respect to the essence of man For philosophy the contradiction is insoluble or else it does not appear as a contradiction because it is a structure of the slave or serf society which this philosophy does not transcend Thus it leaves history behind unmastered and elevates truth safely above the historical reality There truth is reserved intact not as an achievement of heaven or in heaven but as an achievement of thought intact because its very notion expresses the insight that those who devote their lives to earning a living are incapable of living a human existence The ontological concept of truth is in the centre of a logic which may serve as a model of pre technological rationality It is the rationality of a two dimensional universe of discourse which contrasts with the of thought and behaviour that develop in the execution of the technological project Aristotle uses the term apophantic logos in order to distinguish a specific type of Logos speech communication that which discovers truth and falsehood and is in its development determined by the difference between truth and falsehood It is the logic of judgment but in the emphatic sense of a judicial sentence attributing p to S because and insofar as it pertains to S as a property of S or denying p to S because and insofar as it does not pertain to S etc From this ontological basis the Aristotelian philosophy proceeds to establish pure forms of all possible true and false predications it becomes the formal logic of judgments When Husserl revived the idea of an apophantic logic he emphasized its original critical intent And he found this intent precisely in the idea of a logic of judgments that is in the fact that thought was not directly concerned with Being das Seiende selbst but rather with pretensions propositions on Being Husserl sees in this orientation on judgments a restriction and a prejudice with respect to the task and scope of logic The classical idea of logic shows indeed an ontological prejudice the structure of the judgment proposition refers to a divided reality The discourse moves between the experience of Being and Non being essence and fact generation and corruption potentiality and actuality The Aristotelian Organon abstracts from this unity of opposites the general forms of propositions and of their correct or incorrect connections still decisive parts of this formal logic remain committed to Aristotelian metaphysics Prior to this formalization the experience of the divided world finds its logic in the Platonic dialectic Here the terms Being Non being Movement the One and the Many Identity and Contradiction are methodically kept open ambiguous not fully defined They have an open horizon an entire universe of meaning which is gradually structured in the process of communication itself but which is never closed The propositions are submitted developed and tested in a dialogue in which the partner is led to question the normally unquestioned universe of experience and speech and to enter a new dimension of discourse otherwise he is free and the discourse is addressed to his freedom He is supposed to go beyond that which is given to him as the speaker in his proposition goes beyond the initial setting of the terms These terms have many meanings because the conditions to which they refer have many sides implications and effects which cannot be insulated and stabilized Their logical development responds to the process of reality or Sache selbst The laws of thought are laws of reality or rather become the laws of reality if thought understands the truth of immediate experience as the appearance of another truth which is that of the true Forms of reality of the Ideas Thus there is contradiction rather than correspondence between dialectical thought and the given reality the true judgment judges this reality not in its own terms but in terms which envisage its subversion And in this subversion reality comes into its own truth In the classical logic the judgment which constituted the original core of dialectical thought was formalized in the propositional form S is p But this form conceals rather than reveals the basic dialectical proposition which states the negative character of the empirical reality judged in the light of their essence and idea men and things exist as other than they are consequently thought contradicts that which is given opposes its truth to that of the given reality The truth envisaged by thought is the Idea As such it is in terms of the given reality mere Idea mere essence potentiality But the essential potentiality is not like the many possibilities which are contained in the given universe of discourse and action the essential potentiality is of a very different order Its realization involves subversion of the established order for thinking in accordance with truth is the commitment to exist in accordance with truth In Plato the extreme concepts which illustrate this subversion are death as the beginning of the philosopher s life and the violent liberation from the Cave Thus the subversive character of truth inflicts upon thought an imperative quality Logic centers on judgments which are as demonstrative propositions imperatives the predicative is implies an ought This contradictory two dimensional style of thought is the inner form not only of dialectical logic but of all philosophy which comes to grips with reality The propositions which define reality affirm as true something that is not immediately the case thus they contradict that which is the case and they deny its truth The affirmative judgment contains a negation which disappears in the propositional form S is p For example virtue is knowledge justice is that state in which everyone performs the function for which his nature is best suited the perfectly real is the perfectly knowable verum est id quod est man is free the State is the reality of Reason If these propositions are to be true then the copula is states an ought a desideratum It judges conditions in which virtue is not knowledge in which men do not perform the function for which their nature best suits them in which they are not free etc Or the categorical S p form states that S is not S S is defined as other than itself Verification of the proposition involves a process in fact as well as in thought S must become that which it is The categorical statement thus turns into a categorical imperative it does not state a fact but the necessity to bring about a fact For example it could be read as follows man is not in fact free endowed with inalienable rights etc but he ought to be because be is free in the eyes of God by nature etc Dialectical thought understands the critical tension between is and ought first as an ontological condition pertaining to the structure of Being itself However the recognition of this state of Being its theory intends from the beginning a concrete practice Seen in the light of a truth which appears in them falsified or denied the given facts themselves appear false and negative Consequently thought is led by the situation of its objects to measure their truth in terms of another logic another universe of discourse And this logic projects another mode of existence the realization of the truth in the words and deeds of man And inasmuch as this project involves man as societal animal the polis the movement of thought has a political content Thus the Socratic discourse is political discourse inasmuch as it contradicts the established political institutions The search for the correct definition for the concept of virtue justice piety and knowledge becomes a subversive undertaking for the concept intends a new polis Thought has no power to bring about such a change fireless it transcends itself into practice and the very dissociation from the material practice in which philosophy originates gives philosophic thought its abstract and ideological quality By virtue of this dissociation critical philosophic thought is necessarily transcendent and abstract Philosophy shares this abstractness with all genuine thought for nobody really thinks who does not abstract from that which is given who does not relate the facts to the factors which have made them who does not in his mind undo the facts Abstractness is the very life of thought the token of its authenticity But there are false and true abstractions Abstraction is a historical event in a historical continuum It proceeds on historical grounds and it remains related to the very basis from which it moves away the established societal universe Even where the critical abstraction arrives at the negation of the established universe of discourse the basis survives in the negation subversion and limits the possibilities of the new position At the classical origins of philosophic thought the transcending concepts remained committed to the prevailing separation between intellectual and manual labor to the established society of enslavement Plato s ideal state retains and reforms enslavement while organizing it in accordance with an eternal truth And in Aristotle the philosopher king in whom theory and practice were still combined gives way to the supremacy of the bios theoreticos which can hardly claim a subversive function and content Those who bore the brunt of the untrue reality and who therefore seemed to be most in need of attaining its subversion were not the concern of philosophy It abstracted from them and continued to abstract from them In this sense idealism was germane to philosophic thought for the notion of the supremacy of thought consciousness also pronounces the impotence of thought in an empirical world which philosophy transcends and corrects in thought The rationality in the name of which philosophy passed its judgments obtained that abstract and general purity which made it immune against the world in which one had to live With the exception of the materialistic heretics philosophic thought was rarely afflicted by the afflictions of human existence Paradoxically it is precisely the critical intent in philosophic thought which leads to the idealistic purifications critical intent which aims at the empirical world as a whole and not merely at certain modes of thinking or behaving within it Defining its concepts in terms of potentialities which are of an essentially different order of thought and existence the philosophic critique finds itself blocked by the reality from which it dissociates itself and proceeds to construct a realm of Reason purged from empirical contingency The two dimensions of thought that of the essential and that of the apparent truths no longer interfere with each other and their concrete dialectical relation becomes an abstract epistemological or ontological relation The judgments passed on the given reality are replaced by propositions defining the general forms of thought objects of thought and relations between thought and its objects The subject of thought becomes the pure and universal form of subjectivity from which all particulars are removed For such a formal subject the relation between ν and μ ν change and permanence potentiality and actuality truth and falsehood is no longer an existential concern it is rather a matter of pure philosophy The contrast is striking between Plato s dialectical and Aristotle s formal logic In the Aristotelian Organon the syllogistic term horos is so void of substantial meaning that a letter of the alphabet is a fully equivalent substitute It is thus entirely different from the metaphysical term also horos which designates the result of the essential definition the answer to the question ti estin Kapp maintains against Prantl that the two different significations are entirely independent of one another and were never mixed up by Aristotle himself In any case in formal logic thought is organized in a manner very different from that of the Platonic dialogue In this formal logic thought is indifferent toward its objects Whether they are mental or physical whether they pertain to society or to nature they become subject to the same general laws of organization calculation and conclusion but they do so as fungible signs or symbols in abstraction from their particular substance This general quality quantitative quality is the precondition of law and order in logic as well as in society the price of universal control The general concept which discursive logic had developed has its foundation in the reality of domination Horkheimer and Adorno Aristotle s Metaphysics states the connection between concept and control the knowledge of first causes is as knowledge of the universal the most effective and certain knowledge for disposing over the causes is disposing over their effects By virtue of the universal concept thought attains mastery over the particular cases However the most formalized universe of logic still refers to the most general structure of the given experienced world the pure form is still that of the content which it formalizes The idea of formal logic itself is a historical event in the development of the mental and physical instruments for universal control and calculability In this undertaking man had to create theoretical harmony out of actual discord to purge thought from contradictions to hypostatize identifiable and fungible units in the complex process of society and nature Under the rule of formal logic the notion of the conflict between essence and appearance is expendable if not meaningless the material content is neutralized the principle of identity is separated from the principle of contradiction contradictions are the fault of incorrect thinking final causes are removed from the logical order Well defined in their scope and function concepts become instruments of prediction and control Formal logic is thus the first step on the long road to scientific thought the first step only for much higher degree of abstraction and mathematisation is still required to adjust the modes of thought to technological rationality The methods of logical procedure are very different in ancient and modern logic but behind all difference is the construction of a universally valid order of thought neutral with respect to material content Long before technological man and technological nature emerged as the objects of rational control and calculation the mind was made susceptible to abstract generalization Terms which could be organized into a coherent logical system free from contradiction or with manageable contradiction were separated from those which could not Distinction was made between the universal calculable objective and the particular incalculable subjective dimension of thought the latter entered into science only through a series of reductions Formal logic foreshadows the reduction of secondary to primary qualities in which the former become the measurable and controllable properties of physics The elements of thought can then be scientifically organized as the human elements can be organized in the social reality Pretechnological and technological rationality ontology and technology are linked by those elements of thought which adjust the rules of thought to the rules of control and domination Pre technological and technological modes of domination are fundamentally different as different as slavery is from free wage labor paganism from Christianity the city state from the nation the slaughter of the population of a captured city from the Nazi concentration camps However history is still the history of domination and the logic of thought remains the logic of domination Formal logic intended universal validity for the laws of thought And indeed without universality thought would be a private non committal affair incapable of understanding the smallest sector of existence Thought is always more and other than individual thinking if I start thinking of individual persons in a specific situation I find them in a supra individual context of which they partake and I think in general concepts All objects of thought are universals But it is equally true that the supra individual meaning the universality of a concept is never merely a formal one it is constituted in the interrelationship between the thinking and acting subjects and their world Logical abstraction is also sociological abstraction There is a logical mimesis which formulates the laws of thought in protective accord with the laws of society but it is only one mode of thought among others The sterility of Aristotelian formal logic has often been noted Philosophic thought developed alongside and even outside this logic In their main efforts neither the idealist nor the materialist neither the rationalist nor the empiricist schools seem to owe anything to it Formal logic was non transcendent in its very structure It canonized and organized thought within a set framework beyond which no syllogism can pass it remained analytics Logic continued as a special discipline alongside the substantive development of philosophic thought essentially unchanging in spite of the new concepts and new contents which marked this development Indeed neither the Schoolmen nor the rationalism and the empiricism of the early modern period had any reason to object to the mode of thought which had canonized its general forms in the Aristotelian logic Its intent at least was in accord with scientific validity and exactness and the rest did yet interfere with the conceptual elaboration of the new experience and the new facts The contemporary mathematical and symbolic logic is certainly very different from its classical predecessor but they share the radical opposition to dialectical logic In terms of this opposition the old and the new formal logic express the same mode of thought it is purged from that negative which loomed so large at the origins of logic and of philosophic thought the experience of the denying deceptive falsifying power of the established reality And with the elimination of this experience the conceptual effort to sustain the tension between is and ought and to subvert the established universe of discourse in the name of its own truth is likewise eliminated from all thought which is to be objective exact and scientific For the scientific subversion of the immediate experience which establishes the truth of science as against that of immediate experience does not develop the concepts which carry in themselves the protest and the refusal The new scientific truth which they oppose to the accepted one does not contain in itself the judgment that condemns the established reality In contrast dialectical thought is and remains unscientific to the extent to which it is such judgment and the judgment is imposed upon dialectical thought by the nature of its object by its objectivity This object is the reality in its true concreteness dialectical logic precludes all abstraction which leaves the concrete content alone and behind uncomprehended Hegel detects in the critical philosophy of his time the fear of the object and he demands that a genuinely scientific thought overcome this position of fear and comprehend the logical and the pure rational in the very concreteness of its objects Dialectical logic cannot be formal because it is determined by the real which is concrete And this concreteness far from militating against a system of general principles and concepts requires such a system of logic because it moves under general laws which make for the rationality of the real It is the rationality of contradiction of the opposition of forces tendencies elements which constitutes the movement of the real and if comprehended the concept of the real Existing as the living contradiction between essence and appearance the objects of thought are of that inner negativity which is the specific quality of their concept The dialectical definition defines the movement of things from that which they are not to that which they are The development of contradictory elements which determines the structure of its object also determines the structure of dialectical thought The object of dialectical logic is neither the abstract general form of objectivity nor the abstract general form of thought nor the data of immediate experience Dialectical logic undoes the abstractions of formal logic and of transcendental philosophy but it also denies the concreteness of immediate experience To the extent to which this experience comes to rest with the things as they appear and happen to be it is a limited and even false experience It attains its truth if it has freed itself from the deceptive objectivity which conceals the factors behind the facts that is if it understands its world as a historical universe in which the established facts are the work of the historical practice of man This practice intellectual and material is the reality in the data of experience it is also the reality which dialectical logic comprehends When historical content enters into the dialectical concept and determines methodologically its development and function dialectical thought attains the concreteness which links the structure of thought to that of reality Logical truth becomes historical truth The ontological tension between essence and appearance between is and ought becomes historical tension and the inner negativity of the object world is understood as the work of the historical subject man in his struggle with nature and society Reason becomes historical Reason It contradicts the established order of men and things on behalf of existing societal forces that reveal the irrational character of this order for rational is a mode of thought and action which is geared to reduce ignorance destruction brutality and oppression The transformation of ontological into historical dialectic retains the two dimensionality of philosophic thought as critical negative thinking But now essence and appearance is and ought confront each other in the conflict between actual forces and capabilities in the society And they confront each other not as Reason and Unreason Right and Wrong for both are part and parcel of the same established universe both partaking of Reason and Unreason Right and Wrong The slave is capable of abolishing the masters and of cooperating with them the masters are capable of improving the life of the slave and of improving his exploitation The idea of Reason pertains to the movement of thought and of action It is a theoretical and a practical exigency If dialectical logic understands contradiction as necessity belonging to the very nature of thought it does so because contradiction belongs to the very nature of the object of thought to reality where Reason is still Unreason and the irrational still the rational Conversely all established reality militates against the logic of contradictions it favors the modes of thought which sustain the established forms of life and the modes of behaviour which reproduce and improve them The given reality has its own logic and its own truth the effort to comprehend them as such and to transcend them presupposes a different logic a contradicting truth They belong to modes of thought which are non operational in their very structure they are alien to scientific as well as common sense operationalism their historical concreteness militates against quantification and mathematisation on the one hand and against positivism and empiricism on the other Thus these modes of thought appear to be a relic of the past like all non scientific and non empirical philosophy They recede before a more effective theory and practice of Reason 6 From Negative to Positive Thinking Technological Rationality and the Logic of Domination In the social reality despite all change the domination of man by man is still the historical continuum that links pre technological and technological Reason However the society which projects and undertakes the technological transformation of nature alters the base of domination by gradually replacing personal dependence of the slave on the master the serf on the lord of the manor the lord on the donor of the fief etc with dependence on the objective order of things on economic laws the market etc To be sure the objective order of things is itself the result of domination but it is nevertheless true that domination now generates a higher rationality that of a society which sustains its hierarchic structure while exploiting ever more efficiently the natural and mental resources and distributing the benefits of this exploitation on an ever larger scale The limits of this rationality and its sinister force appear in the progressive enslavement of man by a productive apparatus which perpetuates the struggle for existence and extends it to a total international struggle which ruins the lives of those who build and use this apparatus At this stage it becomes clear that something must be wrong with the rationality of the system itself What is wrong is the war in which men have organized their societal labor This is no longer in question at the present time when on the one side the great entrepreneurs themselves are willing to sacrifice the blessings of private enterprise and free competition to the blessings of government orders and regulations while on the other side socialist construction continues to proceed through progressive domination However the question cannot come to rest here The wrong organization of society demands further explanation in view of the situation of advanced industrial society in which the integration of the formerly negative and transcending social forces with the established system seems to create a new social structure This transformation of negative

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/ebooks/marcuse/one-dimensional-man.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Archive of eBooks, Print-ready Books, and Audiobooks of Marx and Engels
    pdf Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 1859 epub mobi pdf prc Critique of the Gotha Programme 1875 epub mobi pdf Critique of Hegel s Philosophy of Right pdf Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 doc epub mobi pdf prc The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte 1852 doc pdf The First International pdf The German Ideology pdf Grundrisse 1857 epub mobi pdf The Hague Congress pdf Heroes of the Exile doc pdf The Holy Family 1845 epub mobi pdf The Holy Family or Critique of Critical Critique pdf Lord Palmerston 1853 doc pdf Manifesto of the Communist Party 1848 audio doc epub pdf prc Mathematical Manuscripts 1881 pdf On Freedom of the Press pdf On the Jewish Question 1844 doc pdf The Poverty of Philosophy 1847 doc epub mobi pdf Value Price and Profit 1865 doc epub mobi pdf prc Wage Labour Capital 1847 audio doc epub mobi pdf prc Writings on the North American Civil War pdf The Young Marx pdf Biographies of Marx pdf Engels Anti Dühring 1878 doc epub mobi pdf Articles from the Labour Standard pdf Brentano vs Marx pdf The Campaign for the German Imperial Constitution doc pdf The Condition of the Working Class

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Franz Mehring Internet Archive
    the German Communist Party established on New Years Day 1919 but died later in the month shortly after the murder of his comrades Luxemburg and Liebknecht Works The Origins of German Middle Class Culture The Lessing Legend 1892 1893 On Historical Materialism 1893 alternative translation Aesthetical Raids excerpts 1899 Ibsen s Greatness and Limitations 1900 Frederick Engels 1906 Obituary of Friedrich Sorge 1906 Review of Hermann Schlüter s The Beginnings

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/mehring/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The William Morris Internet Archive
    Works Journalism Chronology Ebooks Marxists Internet Archive

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/archive/morris/index.htm (2016-02-12)
    Open archived version from archive



  •