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  • Invader of the Month_September 2011
    more often 40 60 feet tall Mature trees have an upright oval habit The tree has alternate glossy green leaves that look somewhat like sugar maple or sweetgum leaves They have 5 7 palmate lobes the main leaf veins originate at the center base of the leaf with small regular teeth and elongated lobe tips The specific epithet for this plant comes from the presence of seven lobes septem lobus The leaves can be as wide as 14 but are more frequently 8 10 wide Leaves turn reddish or yellowish in the fall but are not particularly flashy In late summer castor aralia sports many tiny white flowers in large umbrella like clusters A whole inflorescence can be two feet across The flowers produce tiny bluish black fruits in the fall which are avidly eaten by birds The tree s stout coarse textured branches and stems have many broad based prickles or thorns similar to its native cousin devil s walkingstick These thorns sometimes become less prominent on older bark which becomes dark ridged and furrowed Castor aralia is native to the Russian island of Sakhalin Korea Japan and China It was introduced to the U S in 1865 and is generally used ornamentally as a shade tree It is not easily available in nurseries It is not widely distributed in the U S for example the USDA Plants Database lists it as existing in the wild only in Maryland and Connecticut There are specimen trees planted in arboteta across the country including the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard and the Missouri Botanical Garden and Baltimore s own Cylburn Arboretum If castor aralia is hard to find in order to plant and is not widespread why does MISC consider it an invasive species risk This tree is suspect because it shares

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  • Invader of the Month_August 2011
    the fungal mats and through feeding activity the fungal spores will adhere to their bodies The beetles move the fungal disease from diseased trees to healthy trees through feeding and reproduction activities Once inside the trees the fungus spreads rapidly inside the water conducting tissues of the xylem causing them to become plugged and nonfunctional Trees can also become infected through root grafts between infected and adjacent healthy trees This disease attacks all oak species and has been found in 16 native oak species In general red oaks are more frequently infected compared to white oaks Additional inoculations have demonstrated over 35 native and exotic oak species are susceptible as well as American and European Chestnuts chinkapin and tan oaks and several cultivars of apple Red oak symptoms can occur as early as May with leaves turning dull green or bronze before wilting and becoming yellow or brown These symptoms typically affect the leaf tip and margins first as they move inwards towards the midrib and leaf base Wilted leaves will curl around the leaf midrib Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken for drought damage Dying red oak leaf symptoms often intensify within a few weeks throughout the canopy and the leaves at the ends of the branches often show heavy defoliation Leaves will fall in all stages of symptom development Even apparently healthy green leaves will be shed as trees begin to decline Severely diseased red oaks can die within 2 months and most die within a year of visible symptoms Recently wilted red oak branches will often show dark streaking under the bark where the fungus has plugged the xylem tissue Fresh 6 8 inch branch or twig pieces should be placed in plastic bags and transported in an insulated container for examination by trained personnel White oaks often

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  • Invader of the Month_July 2011
    a nearly microscopic eriophyiid mite Phyllocoptes fructiphilus This mite feeds on roses and is known to build up in very large numbers on multiflora rose The disease moved from the western United States eastward likely for the most part as the tiny mites infected with the disease were carried by prevailing winds and was in West Virginia by 1988 where it has been extensively studied by Dr James Amrine of the West Virginia University RRD was monitored for and first detected by the Maryland Department of Agriculture MDA in western Maryland in 1996 At first the presence of the disease on multiflora rose was considered to be beneficial because of its ability to kill the tough invasive species which was difficult to control using either mechanical or chemical measures However over the following 15 years as MDA has monitored the continuing eastward spread of RRD it has become apparent that many of our cultivated rose varieties are susceptible to the disease as well Many popular varieties have been noted exhibiting symptoms of the disease with apparent susceptibility ranging from very susceptible plants die in one to two seasons through resistant plants exhibit symptoms but live for several years to apparently immune In field trials conducted by MDA Flower Carpet varieties have proven to be very susceptible Meidland cultivars including Alba are moderately susceptible and the native species of roses Rosa setigera R virginiana and R palustris and the naturalized R rugosa seem to be very resistant to possibly immune to the disease There are reports from the landscape and nursery trade in Maryland that other rose cultivars and species affected include in no particular order Knockout Tamora Zephrine Drouhin Collette Snowbush Kew Rambler New Dawn Daybreak Carmenetta Clymenestra Alexander Girault America William R Smith Zitkala American Pillar Snow Dwarf Edmund

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  • Invader of the Month_June 2011
    Month Sold as an ornamental plant this member of the mint family is extremely invasive by wind borne seeds Recognize it by the odd odor supposedly like raw beef when you rub it The flowers are white or purple and bloom from August through October The leaves are oval shaped with toothed margins and opposite arrangement When viewed from the top there are four leaves two larger opposite leaves and two smaller opposite leaves As is the case with many invasive species beefsteak plant was introduced intentionally with the intent of beautifying the landscape Originally from the Himalayas to Eastern Asia beefsteak plant is desirable to homeowners for its unique form and late blooming Areas surrounding a beefsteak plant in a landscaped setting need to be watched closely Beefsteak plant can easily escape and become established creating even more competition for desirable plants in forest and open settings Browsing by animals is low due to toxic characteristics which give it a leg up when compared to most native plant species To prevent the spread of beefsteak plant do not plant it Plant alternatives and eradicate beefsteak plants that you find Alternatives for beefsteak plant as a ground cover include Evergreen Golden ragwort Senecio aureus and green and gold Chrysogonum virginianum have showy yellow flowers in spring and grow in moist shade Wild stonecrop Sedum ternatum has lacy white flowers it grows in thin rocky soil in light shade Moss phlox Phlox subulata the familiar landscape plant has a looser form in the wild and usually has white flowers it tolerates very poor soil but needs good drainage Semi evergreen Allegheny spurge Pachysandra procumbens is indigenous to the mountains but will grow here It looks much like its Japanese cousin Deciduous Wild ginger Asarum canadense has kidney shaped leaves that seem

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  • Invader of the Month_April 2011
    can make the difference and help prevent further introductions of invasive bait species For this reason the Maryland Invasive Species Council has chosen live bait as the April 2011 Invader of the Month Dumping unused bait into a stream river lake or on shore is often viewed by anglers as humane or beneficial to game fishes However this simple act can have unexpected repercussions The release of live bait by anglers has been responsible for the introduction of invasive crayfishes fishes earthworms and fish diseases across the nation Following their introduction invasive bait species can quickly overpopulate invaded areas and reduce native biodiversity water and habitat quality and cause dramatic changes in ecosystem function These changes can cascade through an aquatic food web affecting everything from algae to commercially and recreationally important fishes Even a benign looking earthworm can have ecological impacts Dramatic changes to forests of northern North America have been linked to invasive earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris a European species commonly sold as bait These invasive earthworms alter soil chemistry reduce the diversity of other invertebrates amphibians and native vegetation and hasten the spread of invasive plants At least nine non native earthworms have been introduced in Maryland many of these are common bait species Invasive earthworms crayfishes and fishes are not the only concern Pathogens fungi or other small invaders can hitchhike in bait water packaging material or attached to the bait species themselves These microscopic organisms can be transported and inadvertently introduced by anglers and dramatically reduce the health of anglers favorite game fishes For example Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia VHS is a highly contagious disease that has caused massive fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005 and has spread to other waters in New York Ohio Wisconsin and Michigan VHS infects over 40 species

    Original URL path: http://mdinvasivesp.org/archived_invaders/archived_invaders_2011_04.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Invader of the Month_March 2011
    and a method of raising awareness about invasive species issues at agritourism and other operations Although some time and money is required for a successful operation remember that the goats are still meeting the owner s primary objectives meat dairy etc while simultaneously providing the grazing service The type of fence you choose to contain the goats will have a big impact on the ease with which you can set up and tear down your temporary enclosure Electric netting with self staking posts works well in most situations It is lightweight fairly easy to maneuver and affordable Power can be supplied by a portable battery pack or by a solar charger if no outlet is available Because the netting extends all the way to the ground it is effective in excluding most predators as well as keeping goats from ducking under it This type of fence requires at least a three foot wide clearing to keep leaves and branches from touching the fence and creating a short circuit Hog wire panels are another option but are heavy and do not have an electrical deterrent Because many goats are physically able to jump over temporary fencing it s important to establish the fence as a psychological barrier before relying on it in the woods You can train goats to respect the fence by first setting it up in their normal enclosure After curiosity gets them close enough for a few zaps they will learn to avoid the fence and it should be able to contain them even in a new setting where they may get spooked Once your browsing project is underway make sure that the goats are actually eating your target species Just like people goats keep an ordered list of foods in their heads with their favorites at the

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  • Invader of the Month_January 2011
    area forming almost impenetrable thickets and effectively crowding out all native vegetation Due to their aggressive growth habit and ability to overwhelm native habitats running bamboos have been chosen as the January 2011 Invader of the Month Bamboo is an attractive plant and is very useful in many ways The young shoots are edible and are often found in Asian cuisines The wood from bamboo notably timber bamboo is used commercially for flooring furniture paper utensils musical instruments and in the Far East for scaffolding Bamboos have a unique flowering habit They are synchronous flowerers meaning that all populations in a given area flower at the same time This happens every 30 150 yrs depending on the species As the physiological process of flowering uses so much energy many of the plants die after flowering their food reserves exhausted In 2009 the native switchcane produced flowers in Maryland which caused a lot of brown dead looking populations and has decreased the size of MD populations until the next generation pops up One of the most common uses for bamboo is for living screens as a wind and sound barrier These are very effective but will start to outgrow the area and escape into adjacent habitats Once it is established bamboo can spread at a rate up to 30 feet in a year A better alternative is to use native evergreens such as eastern red cedar arbor vitae or Atlantic white cedar Control of Bamboo Do not plant running bamboo There are trees and shrubs that can be used as alternatives for screens and ornamental effects If you must plant then use a container or plant in an area where the roots are restricted from spreading Controlling running varieties of bamboo is difficult at best Root barriers that physically prevent roots from growing and spreading are not fool proof and are not easy to install Since running bamboos spread vegetatively through underground rhizomes it is difficult to control through mowing or other mechanical means Trying to grub out running bamboo unless it s in very small patches is usually futile Leaving one small piece of the rhizome in the ground is enough for the bamboo to start growing all over again The process of grubbing the rhizomes out is also rather disruptive to the surface and will expose the disturbed soil to erosion by wind and rain In certain jurisdictions this type of activity will require a permit so check with local official before attempting There are no known biological controls for bamboo unless you count the Giant panda Certain spider mites feed on bamboo leaves but they do not cause extensive damage Pandas on the other hand actively eat the leaves and tender shoots of bamboo and in fact bamboo makes up 95 of their diet Since adult pandas eat about 20 30 pounds of bamboo per day a pair would make short work of an infested area Pandas are however notoriously scarce with only about 1 000 found in

    Original URL path: http://mdinvasivesp.org/archived_invaders/archived_invaders_2011_01.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Invader of the Month_December 2010
    forms of pollen allergies ever documented due to which many people have died said Mohammad Osman Yusuf a prominent Pakistani allergy and asthma specialist So as you plan for spring around your landscapes you may want to take the winter months to destroy a few paper mulberry before they bloom this spring Not to mention that the paper mulberry aggressively displaces native vegetation consumes high levels of water breaks cinder blocks and pipes and is easily uprooted onto your houses paths roads and other forest trees For these reasons paper mulberry has been chosen as the MISC Invader of the Month for December 2010 Paper mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera syn Morus papyrifera L was introduced to the United States in 1903 as a fast growing ornamental shade tree Paper mulberry threatens ecosystems by physically displacing native species and consuming high volumes of water The roots are quite shallow which can lead to wind throw and uprooting yet the roots are strong enough to break cinder blocks and damage buried pipes Trees can form dense thickets by spreading vegetatively from roots and its vigorous growth can out compete native trees for light and nutrients Root suckers can emerge up to 75 feet from the main tree expanding the impact of this plant Paper mulberry can grow 30 45 feet tall It particularly likes disturbed areas like forest edges fields and roadsides but can also invade canopy openings within undisturbed natural areas Paper mulberry is native to Japan and Taiwan In the United States it occurs from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Illinois and Texas it is invasive in 28 states and over 12 countries Paper mulberry differs from another exotic mulberry white mulberry and a native mulberry red mulberry in its white fuzzy leaves and fuzzy reddish brown twigs Leaf sizes

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