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  • The MHEU | Paving the way...
    to the Fronde Taking to the streets Forward march The resilient Republic Let the party begin The Boulevard of Crime The carnival Industrious street life Colporteurs The central market Paving the way It s a dirty job Standing firm Let there be light Sleep soundly good people The beat goes on The street List of exhibited works Bibliography Sitography Partners Paving the way The huge transformation of the urban landscape in the 19 th century converting cracked byways into cambered roads with pavements alongside building boulevards planting lines of trees installing sewer systems and so on provided work for thousands of laborers including road menders perforators foremen and gardeners Streetwalkers The meaning of this expression has changed significantly over time In the Middle Ages the French expression être sur le trottouer literally to be on the sidewalk meant to be seen to be in the foreground In his Essays Montaigne used se jeter sur le trottoir in the sense of accentuating or underscoring something By the late 17 th century a girl who was sur le trottoir was ready to marry free of any other connotations It was only in the 19 th century when sidewalks were actually paved that

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/paving-the-way.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | Standing firm
    Fête de la Madeleine It was decided without delay that henceforth we would entrust an elected official from La Marchandise with the task of ensuring that those who worked on the roadways put in sufficiently long and complete days as they were expected to do The official would set the laborers to work each day and ensure a good day s work was done He would also oversee how much stone and mortar was used during the day On Saturdays the official would report to the clerk of La Marchandise on the number of stones and the quantity of mortar used Leroux de Lincy Histoire de l Hôtel de Ville de Paris Paris 1846 Free translation from the French It was not until the 19 th century that Paris was paved on a massive scale some one million paving stones were used annually circa 1830 John Loudon McAdam John Loudon McAdam 1756 1836 gave his name to the technique he invented for building hard surfaced roads The process involved using layers of materials one on top of the other with each new layer thinner than the previous the largest at the bottom to provide stable a foundation followed by a finer layer to fill any holes then a very thin layer to provide the finishing Today the final layer consists of asphalt or tar which the French often mistakenly refer to as macadam A more accurate term is tarmac a contraction of tar macadam Materials evolved in line with requirements and techniques ranging from sandstone and granite to wood and asphalt Gisèle Freund Gisela Freund was born in Berlin in 1908 to a middle class family Her father was a keen art collector He gave his daughter a camera for her high school graduation before she went on to study

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/standing-firm.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | Let there be light !
    is beautiful it is truly useful When he arrived on the planet he respectfully saluted the lamplighter Good morning Why have you just put out your lamp Those are the orders replied the lamplighter Good morning What are the orders The orders are that I put out my lamp Good evening And he lighted his lamp again But why have you just lighted it again Those are the orders replied the lamplighter I do not understand said the little prince There is nothing to understand said the lamplighter Orders are orders Good morning And he put out his lamp That man said the little prince to himself as he continued farther on his journey that man would be scorned by all the others by the king by the conceited man by the tippler by the businessman Nevertheless he is the only one of them all who does not seem to me ridiculous Perhaps that is because he is thinking of something else besides himself Extract from The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint Exupéry 1943 Gaslights appeared in the streets of Paris in the early 19 th century Lamplighters worked 12 hours a day seven days a week In addition to lighting and snuffing out the lamps it was their job to control the gas supply to customers until the electricity fairy waved her magic wand and put them all out of a job Brighter prospects There have been no lanterns for 16 years now They have been replaced by streetlamps In the past eight thousand lanterns with their awkwardly fixed candles blown out or made to run in the wind served to cast a poor pale wavering light in the streets interspersed by dangerous shifting shadows Nowadays we have found a way to cover the city in better light

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/light.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | Sleep soundly, good people !
    force and was also given the task of handling matters of everyday justice The policeman s job has changed significantly since those times In 1667 the king s minister Jean Baptiste Colbert appointed Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie as Paris Lieutenant de Police senior sergeant and described the associated duties as follows The police are there to ensure the safety of the public and private individuals to safeguard the city against disorder Hiding out in churches One of the main obstructions to everyday justice stemmed from the churches right to grant safe haven to lawbreakers asylum was given as soon as the person held the church door knocker or ring Such practices based on respect for holy ground show to what extent abuses could be committed in the name of religion and to what extent the Church when involved in earthly matters could be a hindrance to society It was only under Louis XII who reigned from 1498 to 1515 and was known as the Father of the People that this often exploited loophole related to the right to asylum was stamped out Extract from Honoré Frégier s 1850 history of the Parisian police force based on the legal assembly of 1789 Histoire de l administration de la police de Paris depuis Philippe Auguste jusqu aux États généraux de 1789 Tableau moral et politique de la ville de Paris durant cette période considéré dans ses rapports avec l action de la police Free translation from the French From constables to police officers from beat cops to the Police Urbaine de Proximité public order and traffic control policing is a profession that will be around for a long time to come Halasz Gyula aka Brassaï Halasz Gyula more commonly known by the name Brassaï was born in 1899 in Brasso hence

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/sleep-soundly.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | The beat goes on...
    meaning city which provides the root for the terms police and policy today It is the city and its streets that foster the art of living together and finding more elaborate ways to organize societies as they grow into megacities such as Tokyo Clip from City Girl The video for Kevin Shields City Girl features outtakes from Sofia Coppola s film Lost in Translation It shows a young girl making her way through Tokyo by night in an attempt to assuage her boredom The lights crowds and perpetual movement show a thoroughly modern city The pace of life is fast and high buildings dominate yet sensations of loneliness artificiality and a lack of connection are tangible too The film was criticized in some quarters for its series of hackneyed shots of the city which it was suggested did little to assuage the viewer s boredom Kevin Shields Kevin Shields is a singer and guitarist born into an Irish family living in New York in 1963 He followed his parents back to Ireland at the age of ten where he began playing guitar In 1984 he created the band My Bloody Valentine which became known for its saturated guitar sound The

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/the-beat.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • Cook Fanning the Fire | Musée historique de l'environnement urbain
    Is Holding in His Left Hand anonymous c 2000 B C wood sculpture Egyptian Museum Turin TopFoto Roger Viollet View this work in the exhibition Fire The work Ancient Egyptian tombs contain many funerary groups in stuccoed wood depicting servants at work providing invaluable historical evidence of daily life in the period Making bread grinding corn brewing beer roasting foul and slaughtering cows the servants were expected to attend to

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/timeline/cook.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • Bathtub - marble | Musée historique de l'environnement urbain
    Friends of the mheu Back to the timeline Previous Next Bathtub anonymous 2nd century AD marble 236cm x 113cm x 70cm Paris Musée National du Moyen Age Cluny Thermal Baths RMN All rights reserved View this work in the exhibition

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/timeline/bathtub.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • Young women in bikinis (detail) | Musée historique de l'environnement urbain
    the Villa Casale near the town of Piazza Armerina in the center of Sicily A huge late 3 rd century villa at the center of a large agricultural estate latifundia the Villa Casale is a typical example of the way the countryside was developed at the end of the Roman Empire The mosaics decorating the villa are exceptional on several counts quantity 3 500 square meters diversity of subject and

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/timeline/young-women-bikinis.htm (2016-04-28)
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