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  • The MHEU | Haussmann : Paris under construction !
    Haussmann the city s civic planner who had been impressed by the reconstruction work carried out after the Great Fire of 1666 on a visit to London Under the strict authority of Napoleon III and driven by the latest thinking on hygiene Baron Haussmann repossessed demolished then rebuilt boulevards and buildings in perfectly straight lines even in the city s historical district And so the campaign to expand embellish and clean up Paris Paris agrandie Paris embellie Paris assainie got under way In 1860 the neighboring communes of Montmartre Charonne and Belleville were swallowed up by the capital The dawn of public private partnerships The work commissioned by Napoleon III and undertaken by Haussmann was extremely costly To see through the project successfully the authorities introduced new town planning regulations on compulsory purchases easement for reconstruction and turned to the private sector to seek the necessary funding The government borrowed to finance necessary purchases utilities and so on water supply gas sewers and parks It paid back these loans by reselling plots of land suitable for construction to real estate developers who were then bound to conform to the new town planning regulations The system made it possible to invest twice the city s budget in the monstrous project every year However debts soon mounted and real estate development swang towards speculation and money making an approach criticized by Emile Zola in his novel The Kill The creation of large thoroughfares was in Haussmann s eyes a means of satisfying increasing traffic demand The policy gave cars priority a rule that continued until Georges Pompidou came into office many years later A sunny disposition The time has come to clean up the insalubrious streets and create more wide open spaces The time has come to let the sun stream into

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/haussmann.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | The street : A stage for a mechanical choreography
    the way It s a dirty job Standing firm Let there be light Sleep soundly good people The beat goes on The street List of exhibited works Bibliography Sitography Partners Everything s connected With the invention of the bicycle the power of the internal combustion engine and the ability to harness the wonders of electricity modern European cities enjoyed a plethora of public and private transportation options Streets had to

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/connected.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | Jean Dubuffet's "Rue Passagère"
    that kills A lightning flash then night Fleeting beauty By whose glance I was suddenly reborn Will I see you no more before eternity Elsewhere far far from here too late never perhaps For I know not where you fled you know not where I go O you whom I would have loved O you who knew it Extract from Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire translated by William Aggeler Fresno CA Academy Library Guild 1954 Pedestrians were in turn curious onlookers customers and strollers The ambiguity of the title of Rue Passagère which could mean either Busy Street or Transient Street reflects the street s versatile role Rue Passagère Rue Passagère was painted in 1961 following a four year period 1956 1960 during which Dubuffet experimented with abstraction through works featuring a host of materials including sand tar straw and leaves mixed with oil paints known as Sols Texturologies and Matériologies The artist went back to the roots of childhood drawings through what he called Art Brut outsider art in 1947 with a style featuring simplified lines lack of perspective deliberate slips lively colors and a rejection of dominant cultural trends which he saw as suffocating The painting also marked the start of an important period for Dubuffet known as the Hourloupe Cycle which he began in 1962 and completed in 1974 during which he again turned his attention to portraying people demonstrating a highly graphical approach through the use of color in its simplest form and to the crowds first seen in La Vie Passagère In the same year 1961 Dubuffet began exploring the use of music with the Danish painter Asger Jorn leading founder of the Cobra movement Jean Dubuffet Jean Dubuffet was born in Le Havre in 1901 the son of a prosperous family His

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/passagere.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | In a roundabout fashion...
    its doors even though the workmen have yet to finish their job There Hulot encounters a charming American lady with whom he sets about transforming the luxury surroundings into a noisy sleazy populist Parisian dance hall The shift from an unpleasant reality to a dreamlike world is a recurring theme with Tati The visual and sound effects that scatter the scene almost like a film within a film stretching to a frenetic crescendo akin to trance make it one of the great moments in cinematic history In the early hours of the morning each person goes their separate way shattering the burgeoning idyll with the tourists seeing nothing more of Paris than reflections in the windows of the tower blocks and the bus that takes them back to the airport The final shot however leaves a hint of hope as a massive traffic jam turns into a wonderful carnival before Tati s magical lens Jacques Tati Jacques Tatischeff was born in the outskirts of Paris on October 9 1907 Destined to follow in the footsteps of his father a picture framer he abandoned his studies to become a mime artist He performed his pantomime parodies of sports on stage and then in short films In 1947 he made L école des facteurs School for Postmen a promising outline of his first feature length film which came out the same year Jour de Fête The Big Day This first work was greeted with critical and public success Proudly claiming descent from the great American burlesque comedians headed by Chaplin and Keaton Tati established his own offbeat style a silent and very resonant cinema a great comic filmmaker was born In 1953 Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Monsieur Hulot s Holiday was an international triumph especially in the United States This was

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/roundabout-fashion.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | The street, a place where society comes together
    Boulevard of Crime The carnival Industrious street life Colporteurs The central market Paving the way It s a dirty job Standing firm Let there be light Sleep soundly good people The beat goes on The street List of exhibited works Bibliography Sitography Partners Lining the streets The street is more than simply a thoroughfare for traffic it is a place where society comes together to attend a range of communal events The return of Napoleon s ashes by Victor Hugo The Emperor s car appeared Veiled until then the sun reappeared at the same time The effect was prodigious In the distance could be seen in the steam and sun on the grey and red background of the trees of the Champs Elysées across large white statues that resembled phantoms slowly moved a kind of golden mountain We could not yet distinguish anything but a kind of shimmering light shining over the whole surface of the car sometimes like stars sometimes like lightning A vast murmur enveloped this apparition It was said that this car drew after it the whole city s acclamation as a torch draws its smoke after it In the Middle Ages people often gave banquets in

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/lining-the-streets.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | Processions
    The city dwellers were invited by the religious authorities to partake in a range of different processions for various reasons from ordinary festivals to celebrate the patron saints of the parishes and professions to votive and expiatory processions to ward off drought and flooding The events were also an opportunity to bring the statuary and relics out of the churches to pray and sing in the streets and quite simply to interact with one another Procession of the True Cross in Piazza San Marco Venice Gentile s Procession gives us a fairly accurate picture of what Piazza San Marco looked like in the late 15 th century before the Byzantine buildings were replaced in the early 16 th century by the Procuratie Vecchie and their 50 arcades and before it was remodeled by Napoleon who introduced the Ala Napoleonica The background clearly shows the front of Saint Mark s Basilica then a lot more colorful than it is today with its green domes Behind the procession in the trapezoid shaped square the artist depicts men absorbed in natural conversation Elsewhere a face looks out from the picture from below one of the daises According to Vasari that face belongs to Giovanni Gentile s half brother Gentile Bellini The Bellini family had its fair share of painters the father Jacopo his eldest son Gentile and Gentile s younger half brother Giovanni Gentile was born in Venice around the year 1428 perhaps a little earlier He was a realist artist who lacked his brother s sensibility and focused on genre paintings such as processions and scenes of daily life His first acclaimed work dates back to 1465 Gentile became the official portrait artist for the Doges and was sent to Constantinople in 1479 to record the peace treaty signed between the Republic

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/processions.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | From the League to the Fronde
    creation of the Holy League processions began to change growing more political and taking up arms The street became a forum for people to promote their views and put on shows of strength often lapsing into confrontations involving varying degrees of violence The steady shift towards absolutism with its string of taxes paved the way for the kind of angry political social and economic movements embodied by the Fronde The Fronde Fronde sling being the name given to the faction I will give you the etymology of it which I omitted in the first book Bachaumont once said in jest that the Parliament acted like the schoolboys in the Paris ditches who fling stones and run away when they see the constable but meet again as soon as he turns his back This was thought a very pretty comparison It came to be a subject for ballads and upon the peace between the King and Parliament it was revived and applied to those who were not agreed with the Court We therefore resolved that night to wear hatbands made in the form of a sling and had a great number of them made ready to be distributed among a parcel of rough fellows and we wore them ourselves last of all for it would have looked much like affectation and have spoilt all had we been the first in the mode It is inexpressible what influence this trifle had upon the people their bread hats gloves handkerchiefs fans ornaments were all à la mode de la Fronde and we ourselves were more in the fashion by this trifle than in reality And the truth is we had need of all our shifts to support us against the whole royal family Extract from the Memoirs of Jean François Paule de Condi

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/league-fronde.htm (2016-04-28)
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  • The MHEU | The streets hold the power !
    will never forget repeat The sans culottes who came to fight repeat Let us now drink to their health Long live those upstanding lads 01 Death of Princess de Lamballe Léon Maxime Faivre 1908 265cm 367cm oil on canvas Versailles Versailles Palace Faivre Léon Maxime RMN Gérard Blot Léon Maxime Faivre Little is known about Léon Maxime Faivre He was born in Paris in 1856 and studied under Jean Léon Gérôme one of the most influential figures of Academic Art during the Second Empire Academic Art was derided by some as Fireman Art due to the unfortunate similarities between the headgear shown in the paintings and that worn by French firemen at the time Léon Maxime Faivre joined the Société des Artistes Français in 1886 and regularly exhibited his works at the annual art exhibitions known as Salons Death of Princess de Lamballe featured at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1908 The painting depicts a scene from the French Revolution the 1792 September massacres which marked the start of the extermination of the nobility and ushered in the Reign of Terror A study for the painting has also been preserved though slightly different from the finished work featuring one more boy than the painting a little more animated and less rigid and is on display at the Musée de Vernon Léon Maxime lived a long happy and fulfilled life until his death in Paris in 1941 02 Battle in Rue de Rohan July 29 1830 Hippolyte Lecomte 1831 43cm 60cm oil on canvas Paris Musée Carnavalet RMN Agence Bulloz Hippolyte Lecomte Not much can be said about Hippolyte Lecomte 1781 1857 He was a respectable painter of historical scenes particularly those from the First Empire and the Napoleonic Wars He married Camille Vernet the sister of the painter Horace Vernet with whom he had a son Charles Emile Lecomte Vernet who also became a painter Orientalist Along with Auguste Garneray he designed costumes for the Opera ballets Battle in Rue de Rohan shows a scene from 1830 on the final day of the July Revolution which saw the monarchy overthrown The painting is not however Lecomte s most outstanding work with its somewhat static crowd scene and horizontal composition Eugène Delacroix s Liberty Leading the People is a more impressive piece on the same theme 03 The Barricade Rue de la Mortellerie Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier 19 th century 29cm 22cm oil on canvas Paris Musée du Louvre RMN All rights reserved Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier Jean Louis Etienne Meissonier was born in Lyons in 1815 He was a painter who occasionally lapsed into Fireman Art due to the official academic nature of certain works but who was better than his poor reputation might imply The acclaimed artist multiple Salon award winner member of the Académie des Beaux Arts in 1861 chairman of the Institut de France from 1876 until his death in 1891 and Grand Croix de la Légion d Honneur in 1889 had the unfortunate idea of

    Original URL path: http://www.mheu.org/en/street/take-the-streets.htm (2016-04-28)
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