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  • Hot, Toxic and Healing
    Milan Italy wrote that Coley documented cases of the long term survival of individuals with malignancies that remain a major challenge to treat now Nature vol 454 p436 For example he treated a group of sarcoma patients with fever inducing injections two to three times per week for several months Many were late stage inoperable cases Yet their five year survival rate was higher than 80 per cent according to Coley Nauts s analyses Why did such treatment work at all especially given that around 20 per cent of all cancers are caused by chronic infections And in drug testing fever is seen as a toxic adverse event according to the US Food and Drug Administration In other words the belief is that fever usually signifies harm not benefit But does it Some years ago I stumbled accross a 1951 Paper reporting that among 300 cases of childhood leukaemia 26 spontaneous remissions were observed Of those 21 were preceded by a feverish infection The American Joumal of Medicine vol 10 p 238 Although this was a small study an 80 per cent correlation of spontaneous regression with fever seemed too odd to be a coincidence When I started to analyse case studies and reviews of spontaneous cancer remission it turned out that in a surprisingly large fraction a preceding infection of the type known to cause fever was reported The fever and cancer regression could just have been a coincidence but what if there was a causal link To test this I looked at analyses of cancer across large populations To my surprise I found more than 30 studies showing that people who developed fever causing infections such as measles herpes and mumps more frequently over their lifetimes had a lower risk both of developing cancer and of relapsing after standard treatment So what do Coley s treatments spontaneous remissions and the epidemiological studies have in common And what could be the molecular explanation The answer might be a diverse range of chemical danger signals known as pathogen recognition receptor ligands These PRRL are produced by invading pathogens such as bacteria viruses and fungi and they can put our innate immune system on red alert within minutes But could PRRL protect against cancer To find out we need to look more closely at the immune system For a long time it was assumed that cancer cells are more or less invisible to the immune system Millions of people die from cancer each year and if the immune system could respond we would expect to see a much larger proportion of spontaneous regressions or so the argument went However we now know many tumours are infiltrated by immune cells such as cytotoxic lymphocytes indicating that there is an active anti cancer response So while tumours are not invisible to the immune system it seems the reaction is usually too weak to stop the cancer What if PRRL could lift this immune reaction above a threshold needed for tumour shrinkage To mount

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/Hot,%20Toxic%20and%20Healing%20-%20can%20fever%20cure%20cancer.html (2016-04-25)
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  • A mathematical universe is born
    Mochizuki has done Ellenberg told New Scientist Looking at it you feel a bit like you might be reading a paper from the future or from outer space he wrote on his blog Mochizuki s reasoning is alien even to other mathematicians because it probes deep philosophical questions about the foundations of mathematics such as what we really mean by a number says Minhyong Kim at the University of Oxford The early 20th century saw a crisis emerge as mathematicians realised they actually had no formal way to define a number we can talk about three apples or three squares but what exactly is the mathematical object we call 3 No one could say Eventually numbers were redefined in terms of sets rigorously specified collections of objects Mathematicians now know that the true essence of the number zero is a set which contains no objects the empty set while the number 1 is a set which contains one empty set From there it is possible to derive the rest of the integers But this was not the end of the story says Kim People are aware that many natural mathematical constructions might not really fall into the universe of sets Rather than using sets Mochizuki has figured out how to translate fundamental mathematical ideas into objects that only exist in new conceptual universes This allowed hi to deform basic whole numbers and push their innate relationships such as multiplication and addition to the limit He is literally taking apart coventional objects in terrible ways and reconstructing them in new universes says Kim These insights led him to a proof of the ABC conjecture How he manages to come back to the usual universe in a way that yields concrete consequences for number theory I really have no idea as yet says Kim A verified proof would set off a chain reaction in one swoop proving many other open problems Because of its fundamental nature a verified proof of the ABC conjecture would set of a chain reaction in one swoop proving many other open problems that relate to it and deepening our understanding of the relationships between integers fractions decimals primes and more Ellenberg compares proving the conjecture to discovering the Higgs boson which it is hoped will reveal a path to novel physics But while the Higgs emerged from the particle detritus of a machine specifically designed to find it Mochizuki s methods are completely unexpected providing new tools for mathematical exploration Verifying the proof will itself be an endeavour as mathematicians must comb through Mochizuki s work line by line to check that the logic of each step holds true Ellenberg expects the process to take at least a year though any potential mistakes may be discovered sooner That is what happened with Andrew Wiles s proof of Fermat s last theorem in 1993 He rectified the error and published the true proof in 1995 Crank claims of solving long standing problems with esoteric methods are common in

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/a_mathematical_universe_is_born.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Index of /files/ai_attic
    Index of files ai attic Parent Directory PleaseReadMeFirst txt Programs

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/ai_attic/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Index of /files/aspell-nroff-fix
    Index of files aspell nroff fix Parent Directory nroff filter info nroff filter la nroff filter so nroff amf

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/aspell-nroff-fix/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Index of /files/blender
    Jump instructions txt 7 Ragdoll High Jump1 blend Radiosity instructions txt Radiosity blend cuteBEAR3 blend cuteBear Instructions TXT cuteBear README txt gallerypacked blend gt4f packed blend walk anim blend walk

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/blender/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Index of /files/echidna
    Index of files echidna Parent Directory Image012 jpeg Image014 jpeg Video004 3gp

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/echidna/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Index of /files/fluidics
    Index of files fluidics Parent Directory FluidControlDevices html images science mechanics fluid transistor circuits

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/fluidics/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Food, not flab, is the real killer
    adipocytes begin to die and leak their contents into the bloodstream including saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid Such fats then accumulate in tissues such as the liver pancreas and heart where they may prompt the symptoms of metabolic syndrome The theory is certainly plausible says Gökhan Hotamisligil a diabetes and obesity researcher at the Harvard School of Public Health Boston who was not involved in the study When fat cells break it s like an oil tanker being hit he says It unloads this toxic cargo almost like an oil slick It also fits with what we know about age related obesity Leptin a hormone produced by fat cells directs surplus dietary fat into adipocytes and orders other cells to burn off any fat Unger and Scherer point to rodent studies showing that leptin s ability to do this drops off with age When fat cells break it s like an oil tanker being hit It unloads this toxic cargo almost like an oil slick The researchers conclude that fats locked safely away in adipocytes get released as we age and that this could explain why older people who are obese are more at risk of metabolic syndrome By shifting the blame from fat to food Unger and Scherer s hypothesis also helps to explain why not all overweight people develop metabolic syndrome and some lean people do In 2008 a study found that half of overweight and a third of obese Americans had healthy metabolic profiles whereas a quarter of lean people had signs of metabolic syndrome Archives of Internal Medicine vol 168 p 1617 So why is fat a problem when it breaks free of the protective adipocytes The answer it seems lies with the immune system Preeti Kishore and her colleagues at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York injected the amount of fat typically found in a large beefburger into the blood of 30 volunteers The volunteers bodies responded by producing 3 to 5 times as much as normal of a hormone called plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 We were surprised by the magnitude of the rise in PAI 1 says Kishore The researchers suggest that this increase in PAI 1 leads to metabolic syndrome This makes sense as we already know that PAI 1 aggravates the symptoms of diabetes by making cells less responsive to insulin which regulates blood concentrations of glucose It is also involved in blood clotting and blood clots can lead to strokes and heart attacks Kishore s team was equally surprised to discover that PAI 1 was not produced by fat cells as had been assumed but immune cells called macrophages lodged in fat tissue Fatty acids and fat cells both needed to be present to trigger the production by macrophages of PAI 1 Science Translational Medicine DOI 10 1126 scitranslmed 3000292 Kishore says drugs that block PAI 1 or mop up free fatty acids might help prevent metabolic syndrome Meanwhile the link between metabolic syndrome and the

    Original URL path: http://miriam-english.org/files/food%20not%20flab%20is%20the%20real%20killer.html (2016-04-25)
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