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  • European Networking Paradigms - NetAffair
    the European industry seems to be driven by one notion it s easier to team up with and sell an idea to a US partner than to a European one But why blame the industry alone Politicians will never call a visit to their EU colleagues a fact finding mission but they still do so when travelling to Silicon Valley However these early discussions on uniting science and research efforts and European computer industries laid the path for an experimental pan European Informatics Network Discover Also cool A portable scooter 1960 Material Discover Internet history fast forward an audio play Listen to the original voices to the people who have been involved in the development of computer networking since the 1960s Enjoy Science Networking Science European Style The discussion on an experimentally driven pan European research network began in the late 1960s It was one result of the technology gap discussion that emerged in Europe at that time bringing America s leading role for utilising technology into the limelight However scientists worldwide were not impressed They met and exchanged thoughts at their international conferences and read each other s papers Some might have become friends Some didn t Some ideas might have been forgotten others were re considered Time will tell What we can already say is that in the 1960s and 70s most computer scientists had never considered finding their purpose in life by designing databases or sending data packets electronically Standards ISO is not a drink One of the places where industry and standardisation bodies meet and try to re phrase current and not so current developments into a world standard is Geneva Namely ISO the International Organisation for Standardisation It is also to Geneva where the international body of the telecommunications companies prefers to travel In Europe

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  • Many ways to begin a story - NetAffair
    and closely reviewing the history of networking research in Europe starting from the time when telephone circuit switching was the prevalent paradigm One side did it all Well depends who is talking We prefer to tell the story that building computer networks involves more than solely one country one army one person or one machine Computer networks interconnect people and machines Nobody can deny that The primer hook up while having a conversation which includes to overcome distances and rigid mindsets The latter need more than one computer and protocol to talk cross border But wait there is more In the 1950s the evolving computer industry gave out the signal that five machines are enough to serve the world That notion needed to be abandoned by creative thinkers as well as some particular telephone paradigms which only served telecommunication monopolies well Furthermore no politician would have dared to refill the research funds if there wasn t the trigger of national pride and cost savings attached to the pot Material scientists were needed to reduce the costs of computer production and made them shrink from giant machines to tiny assistants In parallel networking researchers started to think about the concourse of computers to use pre Internet terminology and by doing so they made world wide communication much cheaper Everything is interwoven people science industry nations policy and standardisation In a nutshell that s what computer networking is all about and should not be forgotten But there is always something to add For example what was the real topic at the coffee tables in Europe at the time Was it Colour TV or the oil crisis in 1973 The Geiger counter for the lady s handbag or the student protests in France 1968 Was it the diverse political transitions that took place

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  • People - NetAffair
    Nelson Blachman Rob Blokzijl Vannevar Bush C Robert Cailliau Martin Campbell Kelly Carl Cargill Michel Carpentier Vint Cerf Michael L Coleman Wolfgang Coy Steve Crocker D André A S Danthine Howard Davies Dai Davies Donald Watts Davies Étienne Davignon John Day Michel Debré Rémi Després Ann Duenki E H W Egli Dwight D Eisenhower Douglas Engelbart F Amintore Fanfani Robert Fano David J Farber Elizabeth Feinler Jan Freese Arnold W Frutkin Patrik Fältström G Hermann G Gabler Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin Robert Galley Charles de Gaulle Valéry Giscard d Estaing Emanuel Goldberg Lucca Guzzetti H Michael Haberler Fritz Hellwig Charles Herzfeld Danny Hillis Roland Hüber I Theodor Irmer J Kai Jakobs Dennis Jennings Tor Hjalmar Johannessen Lyndon B Johnson K Bob Kahn Tomaz Kalin Charles K Kao Daniel Karrenberg James Killian Peter Kirstein Leonard Kleinrock Ken Krechmer L Henri La Fontaine Butler Lampson Larry Landweber Gesualdo Le Moli J C R Licklider Christian Loesch Stephen J Lukasik M Robin Mansell Robert Marjolin André Maréchal Hermann Maurer John McCarthy N Kees Neggers O Ken Olsen Severo Ornstein Wilhelm Ostwald Paul Otlet P John Postel Louis Pouzin R Peter Rastl Eckart Raubold Lawrence G Roberts Tony Rutkowski Philipp Rösler S Peter H Salus

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  • Glossary - NetAffair
    were sold to Intel Source ithistory EBU European Broadcasting Union At management level the European Broadcasting Union was founded to exchange equipment and to set standards In their own words its mission is to defend the interests of public service media and to promote their indispensable contribution to modern society It is the point of reference for industry knowledge and expertise Source EBU ECSC European Coal and Steel Community The treaty for that oldest club in EU history was signed by West Germany France Italy Belgium Luxembourg and the Netherlands in 1951 The treaty expired on 23 July 2002 EEC European Economic Community Established through the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957 by Italy France West Germany Belgium the Netherlands and Luxembourg Renamed the European Union in 1993 EFTA European Free Trade Association Established on 3 May 1960 as a trade bloc alternative within Europe Today the member states are Iceland Lichtenstein Norway and Switzerland EIT The European Institute for Innovation and Technology EIT opened its doors officially in Budapest in March 2008 Yet its associated institutes are spread over seven European countries industries and universities Helsinki Stockholm Eindhoven London Berlin Paris Trento ELDO European Launcher Development Organisation This particular convention to unite space industry and research was signed in 1962 but right from the beginning the plan showed signs of weakness The space industry had perhaps the least encouraging development at a European level during the 1960s here the European Launcher Development Organisation ELDO had worked on the development of a rocket which had it been built would have been unable to transport the satellites planned by the European Space Research Organisation Source ESRO Neither researchers nor the US were amused In 1966 Britain threatened to withdraw from this large scale European venture for which costs had risen Finally in 1975 space research was handed over to the newly formed European Space Agency ESA For more information we recommend J Krige and A Russo A History of the European Space Agency 1958 1987 2000 Elliott Brothers Elliott Brothers London Ltd Elliot Automation 1946 1967 Elliott Brothers entered the general purpose computer field in the early 1950s producing several serial scientific machines The first business data processing machine made by Elliott was the 405 computer using tube diode logic a magnetic tape memory and a 16 000 word magnetic disk memory In 1958 Elliott introduced the partly transistorised 802 computer followed almost immediately by the completely transistorised 803 which was promoted as a small scale scientific computer a small scale business data processor or as the computer unit of an online industrial data processing system Source Isaac L Auerbach European Electronic Data Processing A Report on the Industry and the State of the Art Proceedings of the IRE p 330 January 1961 EMUA European Monetary Units of Account EMUAs were used by the European Communities in order to determine the value of financial transactions within the community other than as national currencies This was before the EURO was introduced It was used in sixteen areas of the Community s activities the main ones being the budget the agricultural policy the Coal and Steel Community the European Investment Bank and the Statistical Office See Commission of the European Communities CEC 87 75 The Units of Account as a Factor of Integration in Information Economy and Finance English Electric Company Ltd In 1947 the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington England formed an Electronics Section to undertake the design and construction of an electronic digital computer designated ACE In 1952 the English Electric Company was given the task of designing an engineered model of the ACE design with expanded capability The result was DEUCE Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine a vacuum tube serial machine with mercury delay storage and magnetic drum backup storage Source Isaac L Auerbach European Electronic Data Processing A Report on the Industry and the State of the Art Proceedings of the IRE p 330 January 1961 ERAC European Research Area Committee Formerly CREST ERAC is a strategic policy advisory body whose function is to assist the European Commission and the Council of the European Union in performing the tasks incumbent on these institutions in the sphere of research and technological development In its Resolution of 7 December 2009 the Council has launched the process of redefining the mission of CREST in the context of an enhanced governance of the European Research Area In its Resolution of 26 May 2010 this resulted in a revised mandate for CREST Source CREST ESRO European Space Research Organisation A predecessor organisation of ESA the European Space Agency After the USSR won the space race by launching the Sputnik I satellite NASA was created in the US and ESRO in Europe At the time the UK was the leading country in the space effort in Europe The British worked on the development of solid fuel guided rockets during the war and as early as October 1945 launched three captured V 2s with the help of German specialists See J Krige and A Russo A History of the European Space Agency 1958 1987 2000 EURATOM Atomic Energy Community The Treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 The idea of building an infrastructure that could foster the exchange of scientific and technical information was also inspired by the need for particle physicists to share their information Currently two information centres exist at a European level Euratom for nuclear issues and ESRO CNRS for space research Both work quite satisfactorily and the Euroatom centre seems to approach the stage of automatic documentation quite successfully as it is apparently ahead of the US Source CEAP 11932 1967 History Archive of the European Commission Eureka French President François Mitterand 1981 1995 proposed a Research Development programme to counteract the civilian repercussions of the US Strategic Defense Initiative SDI in 1985 The French argued and many Europeans agreed that SDI would harm Europe s high tech enterprises by 1 subsidizing technological advances in US industries that would translate into market advantages 2 inducing a brain drain as European scientists and technologists followed the allure of cash rich SDI projects Wayne Sandholtz High Tech Europe The politics of international cooperation University of California Press 1992 EUROVISION A collaborative European action under the leadership of public European Broadcasting Corporations was set up to get a feel for European culture The first united broadcast covered the Montreux daffodil festival on 6 June 1954 The only vestige now remaining of this public initiative for media unification is the annual Eurovision Song Contest Ferranti Ferranti Limited 1885 1993 This UK electrical engineering and equipment firm began to develop computers in the late 1940s Their machines had interesting names such as Mark 1 Pegasus Atlas and Titan Ferranti was merged into International Computers and Tabulators ICT in 1963 See Martin Campbell Kelly ICL and the Evolution of the British Mainframe 1995 7th Framework The Framework Programme was the name for the EU s main instrument for funding research in Europe Number 7 or FP7 for short indicates the timeframe 2007 to 2013 Yet in 2012 a new name was sought and chosen The research and technical development programme is now called Horizon 2020 GE General Electric 1892 General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady New York and headquartered in Fairfield Connecticut United States The company operates through four segments Energy Technology Infrastructure Capital Finance and Consumer Industrial IT History Society The French Computer Company Bull had been sold to GE due to bankruptcy in 1964 for a 50 stake In 1970 the computer division of GE was sold to Honeywell another American multinational conglomerate company GMD Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung Darmstadt GMD Darmstadt was involved in COST Project 11 the experimental pan European Informatics Network which was established in 1971 It was nominated as an associated centre not connected permanently to the network but capable of access through the public switched telephone network to a number of primary and secondary centres Source Presentation of the European Informatics Network 5 April 1978 Horizon 2020 EU programme for research and technical development funding Formerly known as the Framework Programme IBM International Business Machines Corporation 1911 according to IBM Several dates could be selected by IBM to celebrate its birth There is the establishment of the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 The enterprise did business with its Hollerith machine which was consulted for the statistical evaluation of censuses and by selling punch cards Little paper strips in which information such as sex age and nationality was stored in the form of holes Or else 1924 could be considered the year of its founding At that time the name International Business Machines Corporation was registered in the American Companies Register In addition June 1911 is the date of a merger and the birth of the company Computing Tabulating and Recording Company Incorporated which is what IBM was called up until 1924 Much has been written about IBM s eventful history Here we pick just one milestone for now the creation of System 306 This new product was announced in 1964 and cost IBM five billion dollars It is said that System 360 was the company s most risky venture It was conducted by Arthur K Watson Just the announcement of the new product line was enough to put pressure on European computer manufacturers In general one could conclude that if Europe ever came close to establishing a computer industry policy it was because of IBM the world s leading computing company in the 1960s and 70s with a market share of over 70 This was simply because all nations had to confront and pay court to the same enemy IBM and the seven dwarfs was a popular catchphrase in the US media for IBM and the other US computer manufacturers during the 1960s ICL International Computers Limited 1968 2002 ICL was Britain s national champion a flagship computer manufacturer The company was created by a government inspired merger The idea was to strengthen forces in order to establish an alternative to IBM and other US suppliers who were enthusiastically crowding into the European market Martin Campbell Kelly writes To understand the history of ICL it is necessary to appreciate that both ICL and IBM have a common ancestor and that for over 40 years they had something of a love hate relationship To understand ICL better we suggest taking the time to read Campbell Kelly s ICL and the Evolution of the British Mainframe 1995 IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers This British organisation of electronics electrical manufacturing and information technology professionals was formed in 1968 In 2006 the IEE merged with the Institution of Incorporated Engineers IIE to create the Institution of Engineering and Technology IET I E T IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Laxenburg Austria The IIASA charter was signed in London in October 1972 In 1966 American president Lyndon Johnson gave a rather remarkable speech this was during the Cold War in which he said it was time that the scientists of the United States and the Soviet Union worked together on problems other than military and space matters He called for a liaison between the scientists of East and West Source IIASA history From the 1970s onward networking scientists from all over the world came to the IIASA castle in Laxenburg for conferences and workshops The proceedings of the IIASA conference On Computer Communications Networks October 21 25 1974 is an especially interesting read IMP An interface message processor IMP was needed to connect mainframe computers via telephone lines You could compare its functionality with that of a router ISO International Organisation for Standardisation 1947 This is the place where you go and look up country codes and other international standards ITT International Telephone Telegraph 1920 This company was originally founded to develop phones Sosthenes and Hernand Behn set out to build the first worldwide system of interconnected telephone lines This was a case of a business catching up with its aspirational name as the company had a small beginning as the Puerto Rico Telephone Company but grew quickly through strategic acquisitions and the purchase of telephony patents The result was the creation of a major international provider of telephone switching equipment and telecommunications services History of ITT Charles Herzfeld one protagonist of our story stepped down as director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency USA 1965 1967 to move to ITT This brought him back to Europe because ITT had acquired many companies at that time including Sheraton Hotels Avis Rent a Car Hartford Insurance and Continental Baking the maker of Wonder Bread ITT had also bought telephone companies in Spain in the 1920s In fact what is now Telefónica in Spain was once ITT In Germany it owned Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG which became Alcatel Lucent in 1987 ITU T International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector Formerly known as Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique CCITT renamed in 1992 MAC Project MAC stands for Man and Computer Machine Aided Cognition and Multi Access Computer It was started by JCR Licklider at the Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA in 1963 Project MAC brought together for example Marvin Minsky s artificial intelligence work Douglas Ross s computer aided design systems Herbert Teager s studies in languages and devices and Martin Greenberger s work with human machine systems While the program was justified to the military as a command and control program Licklider s goal was much broader He sought the possibility of a profound advance which will be almost literally an advance in the way of thinking about computing In an interview with the Charles Babbage Institute Licklider said I wanted interactive computing I wanted time sharing I wanted themes like computers are as much for communication as they are for calculation Source Funding a Revolution NAP Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan was named after General George C Marshall and was more than just a foreign aid programme It was also an opportunity for US companies to expand their business area overseas Furthermore the roots of the OECD s foundation can be traced back to 1948 and the Marshall Plan In the mid 1960s Italian foreign minister Amintore Fanfani proposed a technological Marshall Aid scheme to push technological research within Europe The US liked that idea MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA Founded by William Barton Rogers in 1861 it was the place to be in the early computer era There was Project Whirlwind and SAGE at MIT s Lincoln Lab designed in a cooperative effort between MIT and IBM Furthermore there were Project MAC and Multics which were tackling man and computer issues and timesharing No wonder European computer scientists wanted to be at MIT in the 1960s Louis Pouzin FR was there as well as Pietro Schicker CH Both returned home and soon after started their work on computer networking About MIT s history MUA Million Units of Account The reform of the unit of account is one aspect of the strategy for constructing a European monetary union The use of units of account and their extension to non administrative areas are steps in this direction As the present distortions in its application are phased out the unit of account will cease to be a factor of dislocation and will again become a factor of integration One fallacy must however be avoided the introduction of a new unit of account has nothing to do with the introduction of a European currency A European currency could be created only if specific economic and political requirements were met and the unit of account does not provide the right framework for an approach to this problem See Commission of the European Communities CEC 87 75 The Units of Account as a Factor of Integration in Information Economy and Finance Multics Multiplexed Information and Computing Service A mainframe timesharing operating system project started in 1965 One of the overall design goals is to create a computing system which is capable of meeting almost all of the present and near future requirements of a large computer utility Such systems must run continuously and reliably 7 days a week 24 hours a day in a way similar to telephone or power systems and must be capable of meeting wide service demands from multiple man machine interaction to the sequential processing of absentee user jobs from the use of the system with dedicated languages and subsystems to the programming of the system itself and from centralised bulk card tape and printer facilities to remotely located terminals Such information processing and communication systems are believed to be essential for the future growth of computer use in business in industry in government and in scientific laboratories as well as stimulating applications which would be otherwise undone Source F J Corbató V A Vyssotsky Introduction and Overview of the Multics System NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA officially came into being on 1 October 1958 It expanded rapidly taking over all space activities currently under way except those of strict military interest In December 1958 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena came under NASA s control In May 1959 the key personnel in the Navy s Project Vanguard were transferred to a new facility at Greenbelt Maryland later named the Goddard Space Flight Center in honour of the American rocket pioneer And in October 1959 the NASA space programme acquired the Army team at Huntsville Alabama under Wernher von Braun The centre at Huntsville was renamed the George C Marshall Space Flight Center and von Braun was appointed its first Director His specific task was to develop the heavy launchers for the man in space programme which was also under NASA s control Source J Krige and A Russo A History of the European Space Agency 1958 1987 2000 National Champion A term used by European politicians to talk about their main national industrial players For example Germany has Siemens and SAP France has Bull

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  • Material - NetAffair
    The State of Digital Technology in Europe Nelson M Blachman Communication of the ACM 1961 1961 blachman the state of digital technology in europe pdf PDF 2 77 MB CEAB 2 CEAB 11 932 1 II 67 D Historical Archive of the European Commission 1967 ceab forschung pdf PDF 5 37 MB OECD General Report Gaps In Technology Comparisons between member countries Publication 24 685 68 Paris 1968 1968 oecd report gaps in technology pdf PDF 2 86 MB The Units of Account as a Factor of Integration Commission of the European Communities CEC 87 75 in Information Economy and Finance 1975 units of account pdf PDF 460 kB A Brief History of European Union Research Policy Lucca Guzzetti European Commission Studies 5 October 1995 EU bookshop 1995 a brief history of european research pdf PDF 6 74 MB ICL and the Evolution of the British Mainframe Martin Campbell Kelly The Computer Journal Vol 38 No 5 1995 Oxford University Press 1995 kelly campbell icl and the uk mainframe pdf PDF 2 72 MB A History of the European Space Agency 1958 1987 J Krige and A Russo The story of ESRO and ELDO 1958 1973 Vol 1 2000 esa

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  • Discuss - NetAffair
    Europe has a story to tell Who s behind it Story People Glossary Material Discuss More Discuss Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus

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  • Resources - NetAffair
    OSI The Internet That Wasn t 29 July 2013 IEEE Spectrum http spectrum ieee org computing networks osi the internet that wasnt Andrew Russell Open Standards and the Digital Age History Ideology and Networks Cambridge University Press 2014 http www amazon com dp 1107039193 tag newbooinhis 20 USA Internet Hall of Fame http www internethalloffame org Collection of original papers about packet switching http rogerdmoore ca PS Interesting Sources European Union EU bookshop An online bookshop and archive of publications from the European institutions http bookshop europa eu Historical Archive of the European Commission Brussels Worth a personal visit Smell of papers and microfiche included http ec europa eu historical archives index en htm OECD Digital Economy Papers http www oecd ilibrary org science and technology oecd digital economy papers 20716826 page 5 Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l Europe http www cvce eu recherche corpus Austria IIASA Laxenburg Webarchive http webarchive iiasa ac at cgi bin pub pubsrchKK Search term computer networks France History CII http www feb patrimoine com projet histoire informatique histoire cii 1972 1975 htm Entreprises et histoire n 29 2002 1 http www cairn info revue entreprises et histoire 2002 1 htm USA Charles

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  • How it all began - NetAffair
    excuse to ask for a larger money pot New labs such as ARPA G the D for Defence was added in 1972 and NASA were funded and calls were made for a re evaluation of engineering education In the post Sputnik period beginning in the late 1950s engineering schools emphasised quantitative analytical skills even more Accompanied by a strengthening of mathematics requirements International Competitiveness in Electronics Washington D C U S Congress Office of Technology Assessment OTA ISC 200 November 1983 VIDEO Computer tennis brought to you by William A Higinbotham in 1958 Source Media played their role well by supporting the concept of a threatening sky The meme that was finally implanted in the collective mind was one that described the nation s pride and an unknown war nuclear war Viewed in hindsight one might conclude that it was rather strange that a mere piece of metal could have had such an affect Yet one cannot deny that this occurred in the United States One treaty and six fountain pens Signing the Rome Treaty Source cvce eu In Europe the story of networking began differently even though it carries the same time stamp In 1957 the key place for Europeans was not Leninsk but Rome in Italy Europe was still sunk deep into a fiscal black hole licking the wounds caused by World War II EEC signing members Italy France West Germany Belgium the Netherlands and Luxembourg PDF The EEC Treaty also called Treaty of Rome Source Bayrische Staatsbibliothek Six European politicians and their advisors appeared before the cameras on 25 March 1957 Seated in a magnificent room they signed a piece of paper The image handed down over decades is not one of technology or conquering but of technocracy and a desire for peace VIDEO CEE signature à

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