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  • European cooperation: what is it? - NetAffair
    204 Dollar per Megabit in 1971 Using leased lines instead reduced the cost to US 0 57 Meanwhile at the European Commission PDF Die Voraussetzungen für eine umfassende Forschung und Innovation Historical Archive of the European Commission CEAB 11 932 1 II 67 D p112 0461 1967 extract English was not an official language within the EEC in 1967 By 1967 Brussels had realised it needed to invest in modern techniques of collecting and distributing documentation in order to foster research and innovation One political argument was that the US was already investing 100 million dollars per year in this field Source Historical Archive of the European Commission CEAB 1967 Charles Herzfeld ARPA director from 1965 1967 Third from the right Source DARPA One should be careful to interpret this development against the backdrop of ARPANET Even in the US it was not until 1967 that Robert Taylor entered the office of Charles Herzfeld P ARPA s director to ask him to sign a check that would finance a feasibility study on ARPANET G Legend has it that Taylor convinced his boss in a mere twenty minutes In Europe it would take years before the first contract to build an experimental pan European research network was signed ARPANET G Experimental US research computer network Built with the notion of computer to computer communication in mind Activated at four research labs in December 1969 Taylor cuts the story short Charles Herzfeld and he had already met on the recommendation firstly of JCR Licklider and then John von Neumann who were the big stars in computing at the time He had also seen the RAND Tablet a man machine graphical communication device which was developed for ARPA in 1964 So Herzfeld was quite well prepared when Robert Taylor entered his office in 1967 Charles Herzfeld Leaving Europe 1938 That was ein Wahnsinn part 1 5 0 22 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld Material Sciences I think that changed the world part 2 5 SP LP 2 42 4 05 Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan href stories Gaps in technology IN POLITICS Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Charles Herzfeld How ARPANET began What s the fuss about this check part 3 5 SP LP 0 20 2 03 Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it href stories European cooperation IN INDUSTRY Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it Read transcript Listen to all parts Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Leaving ARPA The most wonderful job part 4 5 1 14 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld About ARPA ARPA had no enemies in the beginning part 5 5 0 58 Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics href stories Technology is always also politics IN SCIENCE Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Playing the national card Politicians in Brussels made up their mind finally that in the field of information exchange and administration computers were beneficial It was fairly clear that the only computer industry that might have a chance of blowing any influential breeze across the Atlantic towards IBM the leading company at that time was based in Britain Already in 1959 the UK had begun a series of mergers that would culminate in a single British computer company completed in 1968 with the launch of ICL G ICL G International Computers Limited Evolution of ICL 1959 1968 Source Martin Campbell Kelly ICL and the Evolution of the British Mainframe The Computer Journal Vol 38 No 5 1995 PDF The ICT 1301 was a medium sized second generation computer intended to compete with the IBM 1401 The price of a typical installation was 100 000 Source Martin Campbell Kelly ICL and the Evolution of the British Mainframe Great Britain s push towards EC membership Prime Minister Harold Wilson identified the UK s strength in technology and started a programme to unite the British computer market through a merger In 1968 this undertaking was completed and such fine sounding names as Ferranti Elliott Brothers English Electric and Leo Computers all disappeared into the archives The new name on the table was ICL International Computers Limited which had thus become the largest computer manufacturer outside the USA Though size doesn t mean everything even after Wilson s government pledged to assist with an amount of 25 30 million pounds to build the ICL computer line It was probably seen as a good investment touted as an alternative to the IBM machines for the European market Nevertheless at the end of the day the merger did not gain Wilson any leverage to enter the European Economic Community EEC due to de Gaulle s scepticism towards the British He was not at all in favour of opening the EEC s doors to the UK having blocked their membership twice in 1962 and 1967 De Gaulle wanted to expand Europe east not west Charles de Gaulle President of the French Republic from 1959 1969 The enlargement of the community close The Council and the Commission 1967 427 The Council resumed its discussion of the United Kingdom s application at its session of 18 and 19 December 1967 at the end of which it published the following statement Considering the objectives laid down in the Preamble to the Treaty of Rome and considering the tasks falling to the Member States pursuant to Article 5 which provides that they shall abstain from any measures which could jeopardise the attainment of the objectives of the Treaty the Council of the European Communities meeting at Brussels on 19 December noted that no Member State has raised any fundamental objection to the enlargement of the Communities When noting this fact the Council assumed that the new

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  • Audio Play - NetAffair
    Internet operation in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia regions Interview 2003 Leonard Kleinrock pioneered the mathematical theory of packet networks He transported many of those early Internet pioneers with his sweet 1963 Chevy Impala Super Sport Convertible all over Southern California Interview 2012 Ben Segal CERN IT Department retired Was mentor of Tim Berners Lee today he is involved in the LHC Home a crowd sourcing project at CERN Interview 2009 Maurice Allègre From 1968 to 1974 he was in charge of French government s policy for the development of the computer industry and the use of computers in society He was leading the French Délégation à l Informatique in Brussels in the 1970s Interview 2008 Tomaz Kalin He was serving on the Board of Directors of Telecom Slovenia until recently and was a member of the Management Committee of COST 11 Program aka EIN Interview 2009 Larry Landweber has been involved in the development of the international Internet In 1979 he proposed CSNET was senior advisor to the US National Science Foundation and helped to bring GENI alive the US version of Future Internet endeavours Interview 2007 Charles Herzfeld became ARPA DARPA Chief 1965 1967 He signed the first check for the Arpanet in 1966 to support Robert Taylor to make J C R Licklider s dream come true Interview 2006 Bob Kahn Kahn was responsible for the system design of the Arpanet and wrote together with Vint Cerf the TCP specification in 1974 Developed later on the Handle System a general purpose distributed information system at CNRI Interview 2004 Elisabeth Feinler Jake managed documentations for the ARPANET and the WHOIS server Doug Engelbart brought the trained bio chemist to computer networking Interview 2012 Vint Cerf Wrote together with Bob Kahn the first proposal for the internetworking protocol

    Original URL path: http://www.netaffair.org/material/audio/fast-forward-audioplay (2016-04-26)
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  • Technology is always also politics - NetAffair
    more usual research endeavours Source Richard Van Atta DARPA 50 years of bridging the gap United States Government 2008 Charles Herzfeld P adds another important point it was very important for ARPA to have no enemies But things changed when he left the agency in 1967 Charles Herzfeld P ARPA director 1965 1967 Charles Herzfeld Leaving Europe 1938 That was ein Wahnsinn part 1 5 0 22 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld Material Sciences I think that changed the world part 2 5 SP LP 2 42 4 05 Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan href stories Gaps in technology IN POLITICS Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Charles Herzfeld How ARPANET began What s the fuss about this check part 3 5 SP LP 0 20 2 03 Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it href stories European cooperation IN INDUSTRY Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it Read transcript Listen to all parts Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Leaving ARPA The most wonderful job part 4 5 1 14 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld About ARPA ARPA had no enemies in the beginning part 5 5 0 58 Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics href stories Technology is always also politics IN SCIENCE Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 HTML EUROATOM Treaty signed in 1957 Source European Union Law European nations heard the news about the space race as well but were still rebuilding Europe Early on the only case of fostering scientific research co operation was like the US driven by particle physics the CERN G laboratory set up near Geneva 1954 with the financial support of twelve European countries Then there was EURATOM to permit the advancement of the cause of peace Cortège de la Fête des Narcisse en 1954 avec la première retransmission télévisée en Eurovision Source narcisse fete CERN G Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire EBU G At management level the European Broadcasting Union was founded to exchange equipment and to set standards One further collaborative European action was agreed upon which also has its office in politically neutral Switzerland This initiative had nothing to do with science or with the recurrent belief of the time namely that atomic energy was too costly for one nation to develop alone Its purpose was and still is today to tell all western Europeans the same media story to support the notion of a united Europe Eurovision as it is called by the EBU G did not cover any scientist from CERN on its first broadcast on 6 June 1954 but rather Montreux s daffodil festival To be fair there was still precious little forthcoming from CERN s laboratories CERN

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  • Regulating communication - NetAffair
    as it identifies an early version of data retention In 1850 the instruction for providers was that the original message should be preserved for two years Good to know The Domain Name System DNS was invented in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris The idea of it was included in Request for Comment RFC 882 which describes the technical development of computer networking Peter Kirstein British computer scientist In 1973 he set up the link to the US Arpanet in the UK Domestic regulations on correspondence remained untouched by this convention and remained a purely internal government affair The same was true for the system setup and equipment As a consequence messages needed to be translated at the border station This was a pattern that was still in place more than 130 years later when electronic mail was sent from the UK across the Atlantic as Peter Kirstein recalls from the early 1980s Peter Kirstein Doing it the British way And the translation in between part 1 1 SP LP 0 49 2 20 Chapter 1 Regulating communication href stories Regulating communication IN STANDARDS Chapter 1 Regulating communication Read transcript Listen to all parts Interview 17 July 2003 Vienna Interview 17 July 2003 Vienna CCITT G Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique ITU T G International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector Formerly known as CCITT renamed in 1992 The picture shows a projection on TELSTAR I s first nine orbits i e the first 24 hours The commercial communications satellite Telstar was launched in 1962 Source Telektronikk 1964 The formation of CCITT G dates back to 1925 and the so called Paris conference After the Second World War in 1957 it finally found its permanent home in Geneva At the Plenipotentiary Conference in Geneva in 1992 CCITT was renamed the International Telecommunication Union ITU T G PDF International Telecommunication Union anniversary brochure 2006 Source ITU digital archive No trespassing PTT G Postal Telegraph and Telephone service Formerly PTTs G were government bodies This special status lasted within the European Union until 1998 a year that constituted an ultimatum for France Telecom the last to be privatised However since the laying of the first transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858 telecommunications has been an international affair Yet up until today every government seems to favour its own industry foremost Heads of delegation attending the first Conference of the International Telegraph Union in Paris 1865 Source ITU The Cultural Revolution in China was launched in May 1966 Source Wikipedia In the 1960s this behaviour was justified by local needs as well as interest in exporting the equipment But the latter never happened as E M Deloraine from the Laboratoire Central de Télécommunications Paris France wrote Some of these national companies have financial or technical links but this only avoids complete duplication and permits but a limited degree of technical coordination Despite all local efforts at the end of the day the transmission systems of the various PTTs did not differ very much from those in

    Original URL path: http://www.netaffair.org/stories/Regulating_communication (2016-04-26)
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  • Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan - NetAffair
    concluded by expressing hope for another talk with Fanfani before both left Brussels to discuss Communist China and other matters As meeting broke up Fanfani handed over aide mémoire on Italian approach to EximBank concerning 45 billion lire purchase of supplies in U S for Fiat factories Secretary observed problem was essentially technical with no top level political aspects Text of aide mémoire will follow septel Not found Source Foreign Relations of the United States 1964 1968 Vol XII WesternEurope US Dept of State Released by the Office of the Historian last visited 27 August 2013 http history state gov historicaldocuments frus1964 68v12 d123 The Marshall Plan was named after General George C Marshall and was more than just a foreign aid program It was also an opportunity for US companies to expand their business area overseas Furthermore the roots of the foundation of the OECD can be traced back to 1948 and the Marshall Plan Marshall Plan G foreign aid program installed by US to help Europe to regain economic health after World War II There was no shortage of ideas on how to push technological research within Europe For example the Italian foreign minister Amintore Fanfani proposed a technological Marshall Aid scheme An idea that found favour in the US as it also implied a surplus for US computer companies The six European Economic Community EEC members in 1967 were France Italy West Germany the Netherlands Belgium and Luxembourg The Italian plan was shortly followed by a British proposal for a European Technological Community as part of the EEC G Yet no agreement was reached on that matter Best game in town searching for names Instead the EEC decided to address this problem by setting up a new working group within the medium term Economic Policy Committee by March 1965 The name of this group changed several times it is best known as the PREST group PREST G The Politique de Recherche Scientifique et Technologique Group was founded in 1965 PDF The European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organisation ELDO was launched in April 1962 The initial programme foresaw the construction of a three stage rocket capped by a satellite test vehicle with the work on each component spread between the four major western European states Source J Krige and A Russo A History of the European Space Agency 1958 1987 2000 I tried to find a name and I proposed calling The Group Politique de la Recherche Européenne Scientifique et Technique Organisée PRESTO Well they dropped the O so it is a PREST Group and the Group has been looking at what we are doing in the various countries of Europe to find new areas of cooperation Source Pierre Aigrain Computing and scientific research in Europe Computer Physics Commmunications 3 Supplement pp 166 173 North Holland Publishing Company 1972 PDF Lucca Guzzetti A brief History of European Union Research Policy European Commission Studies 5 October 1995 Source bookshop europa eu On 31 October 1967 the first PREST report was presented to the Commission It emphasised once more the economic importance of R D and the need to optimise the overall use of resources through cooperation which should be enlarged to non EEC member states The idea was to install a united research policy instead of reaching ad hoc agreements solely between individual states This is a brief that sounds familiar even in 2013 to examine the problems involved in developing a co ordinated policy for scientific and technological research bearing in mind the possibility of co operations with non member countries Source Lucca Guzzetti A Brief History of European Union Research Policy European Commission Studies 5 October 1995 USA Europe one conclusion two styles After more than 10 years of debate on whether and how to unite Europe in the area of science and research a debate largely driven by a lack of money seven areas of cooperation were finally identified and agreed upon at the EU Council PREST was given the mandate to investigate the feasibility of fields such as information sciences telecommunications transport metallurgy meteorology oceanography and the control of environmental pollution ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency founded in 1958 in the US as a result of the launching by the Soviet Union of the first earth orbiting satellite Sputnik At ARPA research teams investigated the field of information science in order to study command and control but also communication structures The department for the latter was the IPTO which was led by Robert Taylor at the time Metallurgy for example had been an area of interest for ARPA since 1963 More than 500 000 people visited the legendary Woodstock Music Art Fair in Bebel New York from August 15 to 18 1969 Charles Herzfeld P Director of ARPA 1965 1967 Charles Herzfeld P then deputy director was one physicist who was especially interested in that sort of interdisciplinary work The hope was that new findings in metallurgy could bring down the production costs of computers Rightly so As scientists discovered how to produce silicon more cheaply the semiconductor industry flourished Research funding in meteorology covered the financial need for satellite research Oceanography meant investing in submarines and nuclear test detection Charles Herzfeld Leaving Europe 1938 That was ein Wahnsinn part 1 5 0 22 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld Material Sciences I think that changed the world part 2 5 SP LP 2 42 4 05 Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan href stories Gaps in technology IN POLITICS Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Charles Herzfeld How ARPANET began What s the fuss about this check part 3 5 SP LP 0 20 2 03 Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it href stories European cooperation IN INDUSTRY Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it Read transcript Listen to all parts Interview 8 September

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  • Charles Herzfeld (born 1925) - NetAffair
    several years with the National Bureau of Standards he became Assistant Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defence Charles Herzfeld s father was an Austrian monarchist who fought in World War I He brought me up in that tradition a little bit Herzfeld told us in an interview One can assume that this background helped him to handle his job at ARPA G and to understand the mind set of four star generals at the Pentagon better Charles Herzfeld the third from the right at an ARPA meeting Source DARPA 50 Years of Bridging the Gap 2008 Robert Bob Lamb Sproull ARPA director 1963 1965 He worked on the ballistic missile defences programme As a physicist he was also very much interested in the creation of interdisciplinary centres for material sciences at universities though this was an area for which his boss Bob Sproull P was responsible until Charles Herzfeld succeeded him and was promoted to become the director of ARPA in 1965 Charles Herzfeld Leaving Europe 1938 That was ein Wahnsinn part 1 5 0 22 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld Material Sciences I think that changed the world part 2 5 SP LP 2 42 4 05 Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan href stories Gaps in technology IN POLITICS Chapter 2 Gaps in Technology and a Marshall Plan Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Charles Herzfeld How ARPANET began What s the fuss about this check part 3 5 SP LP 0 20 2 03 Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it href stories European cooperation IN INDUSTRY Chapter 1 European cooperation what is it Read transcript Listen to all parts Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Interview 8 September 2006 Geneva Leaving ARPA The most wonderful job part 4 5 1 14 Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Charles Herzfeld About ARPA ARPA had no enemies in the beginning part 5 5 0 58 Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics href stories Technology is always also politics IN SCIENCE Chapter 1 Technology is always also politics Read transcript Listen to all parts Telephone Interview 19 December 2005 Robert Taylor US computer scientist 1932 He was director of the Information Processing Techniques Office at ARPA from 1965 1969 and became later founder of the Xerox PARC Computer Systems Laboratory Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider was also called JCR and Lick by his friends 1915 1990 In the early 1960s he formulated the idea that computers could operate together in an integrated network In Memoriam J C R Licklider In the context of internetting as computer networking was then called he earned credits for signing the first check for an Arpanet study in 1967 This laid the foundation for Robert Taylor P to fulfil J C R Licklider s P dream of working on an intergalactic computer

    Original URL path: http://www.netaffair.org/people/Charles_Herzfeld (2016-04-26)
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  • Charles Herzfeld - NetAffair
    to combine physics chemistry metallurgy mathematics electrical engineering into integrated programmes And there were 12 of these and very big programmes In those days 10 to 20 million per year per university It is real money And it lasted for 20 years or so and I think without it the electronics revolution could not have happened as fast as rapidly You see what I am saying Because we trained a completely new class of student and by the thousands There were people who were not specialists in only metallurgy or only physics or only mathematics but they came to understand all of these connected fields And they picked their own niche of course that was fine but in this very broad spectrum and using all these various tools which they had not been using before So that changed metallurgy for example that advanced metallurgy very much and that advanced the materials for electronics How to make very pure silicon for example very very difficult Nobody knew how to do it until all these advanced techniques were developed And now it is a routine matter to get silicon that has maybe I don t know a few parts per billion of impurity That is an absolutely fantastic achievement Then now it is routine and you can go and buy 10 kilograms if you like and it will be expensive but you know exactly where to go and buy it It is the longest in fact it went on for 20 years as I said it is the longest basic research that DARPA did And I think the most important in many ways as far as the basic sciences in engineering are concerned It was hugely important Transcript LP The so called Interdisciplinary Centres for Materials Science It was an idea that was started by Eisenhower and one of the early projects for ARPA It is an interesting story there why would Eisenhower care He was the president and he had many other problems on his mind Well I think I figured out what the connection is Killian James Killian was president at MIT and a very good scientist He was friends with Eisenhower How did that happen I do not know but I think they Eisenhower was president of Columbia University for about a year a year and a half before he went into politics After he went out of the army he became president of Columbia Now university presidencies in America there is an organisation of university presidencies And Killian was president of MIT Many things happened because of this Maybe all of ARPA I am doing the research Killian persuaded Eisenhower first of all to do ARPA and then to do a number of actually he established it That is recorded That is well known And I think he did also put in a materials science programme The problem to solve was this it was clear that materials science the science of metals of plastics of electronics was going

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  • Roger Williams - NetAffair
    Funding Council for Wales Professor Williams was educated at Tredegar Grammar School and Worcester College Oxford where he is an honorary fellow Following a period with the National Coal Board in Operational Research he was on the staff of the University of Manchester from 1966 to 1993 with periods of secondment in the US Canada and Australia He was Special Adviser to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science

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