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  • The Net of Faith - Part 2 Section 11
    then it seems to us the spiritual life is much more worthy and the physical life should not be pardoned if the spiritual can thus be saved CHAPTER 74 ARGUMENTS OF ALBERTUS MAGNUS CONTINUED This shows says Albertus what a disgrace against God and human souls are the croakings of the erring little frog Therefore Albertus reasons since the spiritual sufferings of hell are much more painful than all physical mortal woes it is better to torture the sinners while they are alive than to have them suffer after death This we say about the little frogs who under the disguise of saintliness corrupt the faithful by their iniquity thus damaging the vineyard of the Lord of hosts CHAPTER 75 ARGUMENTS OF ALBERTUS MAGNUS CONTINUED All this is said by that great lord Albertus His wisdom shows how far the poison poured into the Church eleven hundred years ago has spread It is poison that has become life to the people and the medicine used against poison itself is such a mortal venom that those who have been nurtured by poison consider injustice as a healthy state they call that which has grown out of poison life If Albertus is right then Christ and all the apostles were wrong But Christ and his disciples went about preaching salvation through long suffering patience and humility The teaching of Albertus Magnus is contrary to the teaching of the apostles He is now considered a great doctor in the field of Christian knowledge Many a priest regards himself rich in wisdom when he preaches his reasonings to the peasants He does not know what a poverty there is in his books and how far they are from the apostles And as to the humble and suffering apostolic Christians behold He calls them frogs crawling out of an abyss arrogantly croaking against the justice of God The justice of God he makes out to be injustice falseness and evil The life of poverty is not appealing to Albertus Magnus he prefers the life of comfort of abundant food of a big belly of a red ruddy face the life of security sitting in a castle protected by swords unafraid of temptations This life appeals to Albertus more than it did even to Sylvester 487 who was hiding in the caves and in forests The apostles the fools of Christ were chased from town to town as it is written For your sake we are being killed all day long we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered 488 What the Church of Albertus is fighting for is not the justice of God but the justice of this world CHAPTER 76 ARGUMENTS OF ALBERTUS MAGNUS CONCLUSION The justice of revenge and of shedding blood as adopted by the Church is pagan and of this world Even the Church is of this world following in the footprints of the pagans The Justice of Albertus shall be judged a great injustice in the eyes of God It

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  • The Net of Faith - Part 2 Section 15
    approach During the days of Jewish persecutions Esther offered this prayer to God Lord God of Abraham who is mighty above all others listen to the voice of those who have no other hope except in you Liberate us from those who have no being and do not let them mock at our fall but turn their plan against themselves and make an example of the man who has begun this against us Remember Lord to make yourself known in this time of our affliction King of the gods and holder of all dominion put eloquent speech in my mouth before this lion and change his heart to hate the man who is fighting against us so that there may be an end of him 521 Esther knew that the injustice of evil rulers falls back on their heads That is why she prayed courageously to God saying Turn their plan against themselves When the Jews were prisoners of the King of Babylon they sent a message to the Jews of Jerusalem saying Pray for the life of Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon and for the life of Belshazzar his son that their days may be like the days of heaven upon the earth And the Lord will give us strength and we will live under the shadow of Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon and under the shadow of Belshazzar his son and we will serve them for a long time and find favor in their sight 522 This prayer was offered by prisoners and they prayed for the king their jailer He was their enemy and yet they prayed for him CHAPTER 93 INTERPRETATION OF 1 TIMOTHY 2 1 3 CONTINUED With these examples in our mind we can better understand the intention of Saint Paul and why he exhorted to pray for the governing powers He saw the temptations that surrounded the Christians living in a pagan world He prayed that they should not become contaminated by pagan hatreds For Satanic hatred is most naturally inherent in the ruling people the kings and their ilk It consumed Saul through many wars and multitudes fell when he fell Today also the ruling class oppresses the subjects But if we are good Christians we must pray to God for these haughty people that they might be turned by Him from the power of the Satan and from fighting and rebelling against truth CHAPTER 94 INTERPRETATION OF 1 TIMOTHY 2 1 3 CONCLUSION There are many other issues involved in the question of authority we have governing authorities set against each other as enemies When they are at war one side prays for its lords and so does the other side each praying for its own victory Yet both are Christian praying for their own causes The Christians of both sides are at war unjustly and they pray to God that He may help defeat the other side Whom shall God hear But because both claim to be Christian and yet are at

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  • The Net of Faith - Part 2 Section 16
    have the world managed through authority that is through rulers as his officials as it were therefore those who hold power over this world have the obligation to rule it justly for the greatest good of all But can it be said about Christians that they are more honest more disciplined through faith and more patient than the world By no means Facts witness to the reality that they have abandoned God that they have entered the world and become one with the world Whatever the world considers praiseworthy vanity comfort wealth fancy notions blasphemies the Christians too praise with one accord quite blatantly without shame and without conscience We can find with difficulty one man in a thousand who does not conform himself to the world For this reason authority is necessary for the pagan world since a man of weak faith will not be better than a pagan A world contrary to God must be kept within bounds by the world s sword But true Christians love God and their neighbors as themselves they commit no evil by the grace of God It is not necessary to compel them to goodness since they know better what is good than the law imposing authority They have a knowledge of God within which is a knowledge of His commandments and His love Having His love within they do good to others and are just to all men in accordance with His law so that the authorities which rule the world have no occasion to find them guilty When faith and love die in men the two qualities that can perform miracles they are left in such corruption that secular sovereignty is hardly in the position to restrain them God has given us faith for the purpose of doing good deeds

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  • The Net of Faith - Bibliography
    obranou Markoltovou Chelčický s Certain and Uncertain Purgatory Evil Priests and Markolt s Defense Prague Sbornik Pastrnk v 1923 Smetánka E ed Dva Traktáty Výklad na druhou epištolu sv Jana O základu zákonú lidských Two Tracts Commentary on the Second Epistle of St John The Foundation of Human Laws Prague Reichel 1932 Smetánka E ed Petra Chelčického Postilla Peter Chelčický s Postil 2 vols Prague Comenium 1900 1903 Straka J ed Petra Chelčického Replika proti Mikuláši Biskupci Táborskému Chelčický s Reply to Nicholas Bishop of Tábor Tábor Jihočeský sbornik historický 1930 Literature About Chelčický Bartoš F M Chelčický a Rokycana Chelčický and Rokycana Listy filologlické vol 48 Prague Bartoš F M K datování Chelčického Síti víry a traktátu O šelm a obrazu jejím Concerning the Dating of Chelcioky s Net of Faith and his Tract About the Beast and Its Image Český časopis historický Czech Historical Review vol 20 pp 77 80 Prague Bartoš F M Kdo byl Petr Chelčický Who Was Peter Chelčický Reprint from the Jihočeský sbornik historický South Bohemian Historical Review Tábor 1946 Bartoš F M K počatk m Petra Chelčického Inquiry Into the Beginnings of Peter Chelčický Časopis českeho musea Review of the Museum of Bohemia Prague 1914 Blahoslav Jan O p vodu Jednoty bratrské a ádu v ní About the Origin of the Unity of Brethren and Its Order edited by Otakar Odložilík Prague Reichel 1928 Cedlová M Náboženské názory Petra Chelčického a bratra eho e The Religious Ideas of Peter Chelčický and Brother Gregory Časopis českeho musea vol 106 Černý K Ze spis Chelčického Chelčický s Writings Listy filologické Philological Review vol 25 Chaloupecký Václav Štítný a Chelčický Štítný and Chelčický Časopis matice moravské vol 38 Brno 1914 Denis Ernest Fin de 1 indépendance boheme Vol 1 Georges de Podiébrad Paris Leroux 1930 Denis Ernest Fin de 1 indépendance boheme Vol 2 Les premiers Habsbourgs Paris Leroux 1930 Denis Ernest Huss et la guerre des Hussites Paris Leroux 1935 Friedrich Otto Helden des Geistes Switzerland 1936 Goll J Chelčický a Jednota v XV století Chelčický and the Unity in the 15th Century Kami1 Krofta editor Prague Historický klub Klementinum 1916 Goll J Petr Chelčický a spisy jeho Petr Chelčický and His Writings Časopis českeho musea Prague 1881 Goll J Ješt jednou kdo jest Chelčického mistr Protiva Once More Who is Chelčický s Master Protiva Český časopis historický vol 1 1 1895 pp 47 49 Goll J Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder 2 vols Prague Otto 1878 and 1882 Particularly vol 2 with detailed study Peter Chelčický und seine Lehre Hájek Viktor Chelčický nebo Luther Chelčický or Luther Kres anaká Revue Prague 1928 Hájek Viktor Co učil Petr Chelčický o k tu What Did Chelčický Teach About Baptism Kalich vol 13 Prague Jastrebov N V Chelčický i Gus Chelčický and Hus St Petersburg Novij Sbornik 1905 Jastrebov N V Náčrtek života a literární činnosti Petra Chelčického An Outline of the Life and Work of Peter Chelčický St Petersburg Žurnal ministerstva narodnago prosv ščenia pp 224 280 1895 Klíma St Petr Chelčický Kalich vol 6 Prague Kopal L P Chelčického názory o manželství čistot a rodin Peter Chelčický s Ideas Concerning Marriage Chastity and Family Besedy casu vol 18 Prague 1913 Krofta Kamil Kn z Jan Protiva z Nové Vsi a Chelčického Mistr Protiva Jan Protiva the Priest of Nova Ves and Chelčický s Master Protiva Časopis českeho musea Prague vol 74 Krofta Kamil Listy z náboženských d jin českých Epistles from the Czech Religious History Prague 1936 Krofta Kamil Duchovní odkaz husitství The Spiritual legacy of Hussitism With a reprint of an earlier study on Chelčický published in Vodniany in 1913 by the Committee to Erect a Memorial to Chelčický All this material is included in the supra Listy etc Prague Svoboda 1946 Krofta Kamil N V Jastrebova studie o Petru Chelčickéma jeho dob N V Jastrebov s Study of Peter Chelčický and His Times Český časopis historický vol 15 Krofta Kamil Kn z Jan Protiva z Nové Vsi a Chelčického mistr Protiva Jan Protiva the Priest of Nová Ves and Chelčický s Master Protiva Časopis českého musea vol 74 Kubalkin S Petr Chelčický český Tolstoj XV století Peter Chelčický the Czech Tolstoy of the Fifteenth Century Prague V stník Evropy 1909 Lenz Anl Nástin učení Jana Amosa Komenského a učení Petra Chelčického Outline of the Teaching of John Amos Comenius and Peter Chelčický Prague 1895 Lenz Anl Papež eho VII a Petr Chelčický Pope Gregory VII and Peter Chelčický Vlast vol 11 Lenz Anl Petr Chelčický a slovnik naučný Peter Chelčický and the Encyclopaedia Vlast vol 13 Lenz Anl Petra Chelčického Učení a Soustaya The System of the Teaching of Peter Chelčický Prague Sbornik historického krouzku vol 1 Lenz Anl Učení katolické o Antikristovi a učení Petra Chelčického o tomže The Catholic Teaching About the Antichrist and Peter Chelčický s Teaching about the Same Vlast vol 12 Lenz Anl Petra Chelčického Učení o sedme e svátostí a pom r učení tohoto k Janu Viklefovi Peter Chelčický s Teaching About the Seven Sacraments and Its Relation to the Teaching of John Wyclif Prague 1889 Lenz Anl Vzájemný pom r učení Chelčického Jednoty Českých brat í a Tábor k nauce Valdenských Husi a J Viklefa Mutual Relation of the Teaching of Chelčický the Unity of Czech Brethren and the Táborites to the Doctrines of the Waldensians Hus and John Wyclif Prague 1895 Lenz Anl Z jakých p íčin jmenuje Petr Chelčický Viklifa Protivou For What Reasons is Wyclif Called the Adversary by Chelčický Vlast 1917 Lenz was Capitular Provost of Vyšehrady and all his writings present the Catholic point of view Molnár Amedeo Strážná samota Petra Chelčického Peter Chelčický s Watchful Wonderful Solitude A theological study Železný Brod Bratrská škola 1945 Molnár Enrico C S A Short Prehistory of Moravianism The Moravian vol 88 29 33 July 19 August 16 1943 Bethlehem PA Müller Dr Jos Th D jiny Jednoty bratrské The History of the Unity of Brethren Translated from the German original

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  • Dymond On War - Chapter 2 Part 2
    have been a reasonable ground for argument under different circumstances It might have been a reasonable ground of argument if the primary object of Christianity had been the reformation of political institutions or perhaps even if her primary object had been the regulation of external conduct but her primary object was neither of these She directed herself to the reformation of the heart knowing that all other reformation would follow She embraced indeed both morality and policy and has reformed or will reform both not so much immediately as consequently not so much by filtering the current as by purifying the spring The silence of Peter therefore in the case of Cornelius will serve the cause of war but little that little is diminished when urged against the positive evidence of commands and prohibitions and it is reduced to nothingness when it is opposed to the universal tendency and object of the revelation It has sometimes been urged that Christ paid taxes to the Roman government at a time when it was engaged in war and when therefore the money that he paid would be employed in its prosecution This we shall readily grant but it appears to be forgotten by our opponents that if this proves war to be lawful they are proving too much These taxes were thrown into the treasury of the state and a part of the money was applied to purposes of a most iniquitous and shocking nature sometimes probably to the gratification of the emperor s personal vices and to his gladiatorial exhibitions and certainly to the support of a miserable idolatry If therefore the payment of taxes to such a government proves an approbation of war it proves an approbation of many other enormities Moreover the argument goes too far in relation even to war for it must necessarily make Christ approve of all the Roman wars without distinction of their justice or injustice of the most ambitious the most atrocious and the most aggressive and these even our objectors will not defend The payment of tribute by our Lord was accordant with his usual system of avoiding interference in the civil or political institutions of the world Let him that has no sword sell his garment and buy one 44 This is another passage that is brought against us For what purpose it is asked were they to buy swords if swords might not be used I doubt whether with some of those who advanced this objection it is not an objection of words rather than of opinion I doubt whether they themselves think there is any weight in it To those however who may be influenced by it I would observe that as it appears to me a sufficient answer to the objection may be found in the immediate context Lord behold here are two swords said they and he immediately answered It is enough How could two be enough when eleven were to be supplied with them That swords in the sense and for the purpose of military weapons were even intended in this passage there appears much reason for doubting This reason will be discovered by examining and connecting such expressions as these The Son of man is not come to destroy men s lives but to save them said our Lord Yet on another occasion he says I came not to send peace on earth but a sword How are we to explain the meaning of the latter declaration Obviously by understanding sword to mean something far other than steel For myself I see little reason for supposing that physical weapons were intended in the instruction of Christ I believe they were not intended partly because no one can imagine his apostles were in the habit of using such arms partly because they declared that the weapons of their warfare were not carnal and partly because the word sword is often used to imply dissension or the religious warfare of the Christian Such a use of language is found in the last quotation and it is found also in such expressions as these shield of faith helmet of salvation sword of the Spirit and I have fought the good fight of faith But it will be said that the apostles did provide themselves with swords for that on the same evening they asked shall we smite with the sword This is true and I think it may probably be true also that some of them provided themselves with swords in consequence of the injunction of their Master But what then The reader of the New Testament will find that hitherto the destined teachers of Christianity were very imperfectly acquainted with the nature of their Master s religion their conceptions of it were still gross and Jewish The very question that is brought against us and the succeeding conduct of Peter evince how little they yet knew that His kingdom was not of this world and that his servants might not fight Even after the resurrection they seemed to be still expecting that his purpose was to establish a temporal government by the inquiry Lord wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom unto Israel 45 Why do we avail ourselves of the conduct of the apostles before they themselves knew the duties of Christianity Why if this example of Peter is to be authority to us do we not approve the subsequent example of this same apostle in denying his Master Why indeed do we urge the conduct of Peter at all when that conduct was immediately condemned by Christ And had it not been condemned how happens it that if he allowed his followers the use of arms he healed the only wound that we find they ever inflicted with them It appears to me that the apostles acted on this occasion upon the principles on which they had wished to act on another when they asked Shall we command fire to come down from heaven

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  • Dymond On War - Chapter 2 Part 6
    arms because they would not use them These Indians were sufficiently ready to commit outrages upon other states and often visited them with desolation and slaughter with that sort of desolation and that sort of slaughter which might be expected from men whom civilization had not reclaimed from cruelty and whom religion had not awed into forbearance But whatever the quarrels of the Pennsylvanian Indians were with others they uniformly respected and held as it were sacred the territories of William Penn 71 The Pennsylvanians never lost man woman or child by them which neither the colony of Maryland nor that of Virginia could say nor could the great colony of New England claim such 72 The security and quiet of Pennsylvania was not a transient freedom from war such as might accidentally happen to any nation She continued to enjoy it for more than seventy years 73 and subsisted in the midst of six Indian nations without so much as a militia for her defense 74 The Pennsylvanians became armed though without arms they became strong though without strength they became safe without the ordinary means of safety The constable s staff was the only instrument of authority among them for the greater part of a century and never during the administration of Penn or that of his proper successors was there a quarrel or a war 75 I cannot wonder that these people were not molested extraordinary and unexampled as their security was There is something so noble in this perfect confidence in the Supreme Protector in this utter exclusion of slavish fear in this voluntary relinquishment of the means of injury or of defense that I do not wonder that even ferocity could be disarmed by such virtue A people generously living without arms amidst nations of warriors Who would attack a people such as this There are few men so abandoned as not to respect such confidence It would be a peculiar and an unusual intensity of wickedness that would not even revere it And when was the security of Pennsylvania molested and its peace destroyed When the men who had directed its counsels and who would not engage in war were outvoted in its legislature when they who supposed that there was greater security in the sword than in Christianity became the predominating body From that hour the Pennsylvanians transferred their confidence in Christian principles to a confidence in their arms and from that hour to the present they have been subject to war Such is the evidence derived from a national example of the consequences of a pursuit of the Christian policy in relation to war Here were a people who absolutely refused to fight and who incapacitated themselves for resistance by refusing to possess arms and this was the people whose land amidst surrounding broils and slaughter was selected as a land of security and peace The only 76 national opportunity that the virtue of the Christian world has afforded us of ascertaining the safety of relying upon God for defense has determined that it is safe If the evidence that we possess does not satisfy us of the expediency of confiding in God what evidence do we ask or what can we receive We have his promise that he will protect those who abandon their seeming interests in the performance of his will and we have the testimony of those who have confided in him that he has protected them Can the advocate of war produce one single instance in the history of man of a person who had given an unconditional obedience to the will of heaven and who did not find that his conduct was wise as well as virtuous that it accorded with his interests as well as with his duty We ask the same question in relation to the peculiar obligations to non resistance Where is the man who regrets that in observance of the forbearing duties of Christianity he consigned his preservation to the superintendence of God And the solitary national example that is before us confirms the testimony of private life for there is sufficient reason for believing that no nation in modern ages has possessed so large a portion of virtue or of happiness as Pennsylvania before it had seen human blood I would therefore repeat the question What evidence do we ask or can we receive This is the point from which we wander WE DO NOT BELIEVE IN THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD When this statement is formally made to us we think perhaps that it is not true but our practice is an evidence of its truth for if we did believe we should also confide in it and should be willing to stake upon it the consequences of our obedience 77 We can talk with sufficient fluency of trusting in Providence but in the application of it to our conduct in life we know wonderfully little Who is it that confides in Providence and for what does he trust him Does his confidence induce him to set aside his own views of interest and safety and simply to obey precepts that appear inexpedient and unsafe This is the confidence that is of value and of which we know so little There are many who believe that war is disallowed by Christianity and who would rejoice that it were forever abolished but there are few who are willing to maintain an undaunted and unyielding stand against it They can talk of the loveliness of peace yes and argue against the lawfulness of war but when difficulty or suffering would be the consequence they will not refuse to do what they know to be unlawful they will not practice the peacefulness which they say they admire Those who are ready to sustain the consequences of undeviating obedience are the supporters of whom Christianity stands in need She wants men who are willing to suffer for her principles It is necessary for us to know

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  • Dymond On War - Chapter 1 Part 2
    his arms might be directed indifferently to the annoyance of another country or to the oppression of his own The truth is that we give to the soldier that of which we are wont to be sufficiently sparing a gratuitous concession of merit In ordinary life an individual maintains his individual opinions and pursues correspondent conduct with the approbation of one set of men and the censures of another One party says he is benefiting his country and another maintains that he is ruining it But the soldier for whatever he fights and whether really in promotion of his country s good or in opposition to it is always a patriot and is always secure of his praise If the war is a national calamity and was foreseen to be such still he fights for his country If his judgment has decided against the war and against its justice or expediency still he fights for his country He is always virtuous If he but uses a bayonet he is always a patriot To sacrifice our lives for the liberties and laws and religion of our native land are undoubtedly high sounding words but who are they that will do it Who is it who will sacrifice his life for his country Will the senator who supports a war Will the writer who declaims upon patriotism Will the minister of religion who recommends the sacrifice Take away glory take away war and there is not a man of them who will do it Will you sacrifice your life at home If the loss of your life in London or at York would procure just so much benefit to your country as the loss of one soldier in the field would you be willing to lay your head upon the block Are you willing to die without notice and without remembrance and for the sake of this little undiscoverable contribution to your country s good You would perhaps die to save your country but this is not the question A soldier s death does not save his country The question is whether without any of the circumstances of war without any of its glory or its pomp you are willing to resign yourself to the executioner If you are not you are not willing to die for your country And there is not an individual among the thousands who declaim upon patriotism who is willing to do it He will lay down his life indeed but it must be in war He is willing to die but it is for glory not patriotism The argument we think is clear that patriotism is not the motive and that in no rational use of language can it be said that the soldier dies for his country Men will not sacrifice their lives at all unless it is in war and they do not sacrifice them in war from motives of patriotism 14 What then is the foundation of military fame Is it bravery Bravery has little connection with reason and less with religion Intellect may despise it and Christianity condemns it Is it patriotism Do we refer to the soldier s motives and purposes If we do he is not necessarily or often a patriot It was a common expression among sailors and perhaps may be so still I hate the French because they are slaves and wear wooden shoes This was the sum of their reasoning and their patriotism and I do not think the mass of those who fight on land possess greater Crimes should be traced to their causes and guilt should be fixed upon those who occasion although they may not perpetrate them And to whom are the frequency and the crimes of war to be principally attributed To the directors of public opinion to the declaimers upon glory to men who sit quietly at home in their studies and at their desks to the historian the biographer the poet the moral philosopher the pamphleteer the editor of the newspaper and to the teacher of religion One example of declamation from the pulpit I would offer to the reader Go then ye defenders of your country Advance with alacrity into the field where God himself musters the hosts to war Religion is too much interested in your success not to lend you her aid She will shed over this enterprise her most select influence I cannot but imagine the virtuous heroes legislators and patriots of every age and country are bending from their elevated seats to witness this contest as if they were incapable until it is brought to a favorable conclusion of enjoying their eternal repose Enjoy that repose illustrious immortals Your mantle fell when you ascended and thousands inflamed with spirit and impatient to tread in your steps are ready to swear by Him that sitteth upon the throne and liveth for ever and ever that they will protect freedom in her last asylum and never desert that cause which you sustained by your labors and cemented with your blood And thou sole Ruler among the children of men to whom the shields of the earth belong gird on thy sword thou most Mighty Go forth with our hosts in the day of battle Impart in addition to their hereditary valor that confidence of success which springs from thy presence Pour into their hearts the spirit of departed heroes Inspire them with thine own and while led by thine hand and fighting under thy banners open thou their eyes to behold in every valley and in every plain what the prophet beheld by the same illumination chariots of fire and horses of fire Then shall the strong man be as tow 15 and the maker of it as a spark and they shall both burn together and none shall quench them 16 Of such irreverence of language employed to convey such violence of sentiment the world I hope has had few examples Oh How unlike another exhortation Put

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  • Dymond On War - Chapter 2 Part 1
    God It is some satisfaction to be able to give on a question of this nature the testimony of some great minds against the lawfulness of war opposed as those testimonies are to the general prejudice and the general practice of the world It has been observed by Beccaria that It is the fate of great truths to glow only like a flash of lightning amidst the dark clouds in which error has enveloped the universe and if our testimonies are few or transient it matters not so that their light may be the light of truth There are indeed many who in describing the horrible particulars of a siege or a battle indulge in some declamations on the horrors of war such as has been often repeated and often applauded and as often forgotten But such declamations are of little value and of little effect He who reads the next paragraph finds probably that he is invited to follow the path to glory and to victory to share the hero s danger and partake the hero s praise and he soon discovers that the moralizing parts of his author are the impulse of feedings rather than of principles and thinks that though it may be very well to write yet it is better to forget them There are however testimonies delivered in the calm of reflection by acute and enlightened men which may reasonably be allowed at least so much weight as to free the present inquiry from the charge of being wild or visionary Christianity indeed needs no such auxiliaries but if they induce an examination of her duties a wise man will not wish them to be disregarded They who defend war says Erasmus must defend the dispositions which lead to war and these dispositions are absolutely forbidden by the gospel Since the time that Jesus Christ said Put up thy sword into its scabbard Christians ought not to go to war Christ suffered Peter to fall into an error in this matter on purpose that when he had put up Peter s sword it might remain no longer a doubt that war was prohibited which before that order had been considered as allowable I am persuaded says the Bishop of Llandaff that when the spirit of Christianity shall exert its proper influence over the minds of individuals and especially over the minds of public men in their public capacities over the minds of men constituting the councils of princes from whence are the issues of peace and war when this happy period shall arrive war will cease throughout the whole Christian world 24 War says the same acute prelate has practices and principles peculiar to itself which but ill quadrate with the rule of moral rectitude and are quite abhorrent from the benignity of Christianity 25 The emphatic declaration that I have already quoted for another purpose is yet more distinct The prohibition of war by our Divine Master is plain literal and undeniable 26 Dr Vicesimus Knox speaks in language equally specific Morality and religion forbid war in its motives conduct and consequences 27 In an inquiry into the decisions of Christianity upon the question of war we have to refer to the general tendency of the revelation to the individual declarations of Jesus Christ to his practice to the sentiments and practices of his commissioned followers to the opinions respecting its lawfulness which were held by their immediate converts and to some other species of Christian evidence It is perhaps the capital error of those who have attempted to instruct others in the duties of morality that they have not been willing to enforce the rules of the Christian Scriptures in their full extent Almost every moralist pauses somewhere short of the point which they prescribe and this pause is made at a greater or lesser distance from the Christian standard in proportion to the admission in a greater or lesser degree of principles which they have superadded to the principles of the gospel Few however supersede the laws of Christianity without proposing some principle of expediency some doctrine of natural law or some theory of intrinsic decency and turpitude which they lay down as the true standard of moral judgment They who reject truth are not likely to escape error Having mingled with Christianity principles that it never taught they are not likely to be consistent with truth or with themselves and accordingly he who seeks for direction from the professed teachers of morality finds his mind bewildered in conflicting theories and his judgment embarrassed by contradictory instructions But wisdom is justified by all her children and she is justified perhaps by nothing more evidently than by the laws which she has imposed for all who have proposed any standard of rectitude other than that which Christianity has laid down or who have admixed any foreign principles with the principles which she teaches have hitherto proved that they have only been sporting themselves with their own deceivings 28 It is a remarkable fact that the laws of the Mosaic dispensation which confessedly was an imperfect system are laid down clearly and specifically in the form of an express code while those of that purer religion which Jesus Christ introduced into the world are only to be found casually and incidentally scattered as it were through a volume intermixed with other subjects elicited by unconnected events delivered at distant periods and for distant purposes in narratives in discourses in conversations and in letters Into the final purpose of such an ordination for an ordination it must be supposed to be it is not our present business to inquire One important truth however results from the fact as it exists that those who would form a general estimate of the moral obligations of Christianity must derive it not from codes but from principles not from a multiplicity of directions in what manner we are to act but from instructions respecting the motives and dispositions by which all actions are to be regulated 29 It appears therefore to follow that in the inquiry of whether war is sanctioned by Christianity a specific declaration of its decision is not likely to be found If then we are asked for a prohibition of war by Jesus Christ in the express term of a command in the manner in which Thou shalt not kill is directed to murder we willingly answer that no such prohibition exists and it is not necessary to the argument Even those who would require such a prohibition are themselves satisfied respecting the obligation of many negative duties on which there has been no specific decision in the New Testament They believe that suicide is not lawful Yet Christianity never forbade it It can be shown indeed by implication and inference that suicide could not have been allowed and with this they are satisfied Yet there is probably in the Christian Scriptures not a twentieth part of as much indirect evidence against the lawfulness of suicide as there is against the lawfulness of war To those who require such a command as Thou shalt not engage in war it is therefore sufficient to reply that they require that which upon this and upon many other subjects Christianity has not chosen to give We refer then first to the general nature of Christianity because we think that if there were no other evidence against the lawfulness of war we should possess in that general nature sufficient proof that it is virtually forbidden That the whole character and spirit of our religion are eminently and peculiarly peaceful and that it is opposed in all its principles to carnage and devastation cannot be disputed Have peace one with another By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples if ye have love one to another Walk with all lowliness and meekness with long suffering forbearing one another in love Be ye all of one mind having compassion one of another Love as brethren be pitiful 30 and be courteous not rendering evil for evil or railing for railing Be at peace among yourselves See that none render evil for evil to any man God hath called us to peace Follow after love patience and meekness Be gentle showing all meekness unto all men Live in peace Lay aside all malice Put off anger wrath and malice Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and evil speaking be put away from you with all malice Avenge not yourselves If thine enemy hungers feed him if he thirsts give him drink Recompense to no man evil for evil Overcome evil with good Now we ask of any man who looks over these passages what evidence do they convey respecting the lawfulness of war Could any approval or allowance of it have been subjoined to these instructions without obvious and most gross inconsistency But if war is obviously and most grossly inconsistent with the general character of Christianity if war could not have been permitted by its teachers without any egregious violation of their precepts we think that the evidence of its unlawfulness rinsing from this general character alone is as clear as absolute and as exclusive as could have been contained in any form of prohibition whatever To those solemn discriminative and public declarations of Jesus Christ which are contained in the Sermon on the Mount a reference will necessarily be made upon this great question and perhaps more is to be learned from these declarations of the moral duties of his religion than from any other part of his communications to the world It should be remarked in relation to the injunctions that follow that he repeatedly refers to that less pure and less peaceable system of morality that the Law of Moses had inculcated and contradistinguishes it from his own Ye have heard that it hath been said An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth but I say unto you that ye resist not evil but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek turn to him the other also Ye have heard that it hath been said Thou shalt love thy neighbor and hate thine enemy but I say unto you love your enemies bless them that curse you do good to them that hate you and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you for if ye love them only which love you what reward have ye 31 There is an extraordinary emphasis in the form of these prohibitions and injunctions They are not given in an insulated manner They inculcate the obligations of Christianity as peculiar to itself The previous system of retaliation is introduced for the purpose of prohibiting it and of distinguishing more clearly and forcibly the pacific nature of the new dispensation Of the precepts from the Mount the most obvious characteristic is greater moral excellence and superior purity They are directed not so immediately to the external regulation of the conduct as to the restraint and purification of the affections In another precept 32 it is not enough that an unlawful passion be just so far restrained as to produce no open immorality the passion itself is forbidden The tendency of the discourse is to attach guilt not to action only but also to thought It hath been said Thou shalt not kill and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment but I say that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment 33 Our lawgiver attaches guilt to some of the violent feelings such as resentment hatred and revenge and by doing this we contend that he attaches guilt to war War cannot be carried on without these passions which he prohibits Our argument therefore is syllogistic War cannot be allowed if that which is necessary to war is prohibited It was sufficient for the Law of Moses that men maintained love towards their neighbors towards an enemy they were at liberty to indulge rancor and resentment But Christianity says If ye love them only which love you what reward have ye Love your enemies Now what sort of love does that man bear towards his enemy who runs him through with a bayonet We contend that the distinguishing duties of Christianity must be sacrificed when war is carried on The question is between the abandonment of these duties and the abandonment of war for both cannot be retained 34 It is however objected that the prohibitions resist not evil and the like are figurative and that they do not mean that no injury is to be punished and that no outrage to be repelled It has been asked with complacent exultation what would these advocates of peace say to him who struck them on the right cheek Would they turn to him the other What would these patient moralists say to him who robbed them of a coat Would they give him a cloak also What would these philanthropists say to him who asked them to lend a hundred pounds Would they not turn away This is argumentum ad hominem one example among the many of that lowest and most dishonest of all modes of intellectual warfare which consists in exciting the feelings instead of convincing the understanding It is however of some satisfaction that the motive to the adoption of this mode of warfare is itself an evidence of a bad cause for what honest reasoner would produce only a laugh if he were able to produce conviction But I must ask in my turn what do these objectors say is the meaning of the precepts What is the meaning of resist not evil Does it mean to allow bombardment devastation and murder If it does not mean to allow all this it does not mean to allow war What again do the objectors say is the meaning of love your enemies or of do good to them that hate you Does it mean ruin their commerce sink their fleets plunder their cities and shoot through their hearts If the precept does not mean all this it does not mean war We are then not required to define what exceptions Christianity may admit to the application of some of the precepts from the Mount since whatever exceptions she may allow it is manifest what she does not allow If we give to our objectors whatever license of interpretation they may desire they cannot either by honesty or dishonesty so interpret the precepts as to make them allow war I would however be far from insinuating that we are left without any means of determining the degree and kind of resistance that is lawful in some cases although I believe no specification of it can be previously laid down for if the precepts of Christianity had been multiplied a thousand fold there would still have arisen many cases of daily occurrence to which none of them would precisely have applied Our business then in so far as written rules are concerned is in all cases to which these rules do not apply to regulate our conduct by those general principles and dispositions that our religion enjoins I say in so far as written rules are concerned for if any man lack wisdom and these rules do not impart it let him ask of God 35 Of the injunctions that are contrasted with an eye for eye and a tooth for tooth the entire scope and purpose is the suppression of the violent passions the inculcation of forbearance forgiveness benevolence and love They forbid not specifically the act but the spirit of war and this method of prohibition Christ ordinarily employed He did not often condemn the individual doctrines or customs of the age however false or however vicious but he condemned the passions by which only vice could exist and inculcated the truth that dismissed every error And this method was undoubtedly wise In the gradual alterations of human wickedness many new species of profligacy might arise which the world had not yet practiced In the gradual vicissitudes of human error many new fallacies might be revealed which the world had not yet held and how were these errors and these crimes to be opposed but by the inculcation of principles that were applicable to every crime and to every error principles which tell us not always what is wrong but which tell us what always is right There are two modes of censure or condemnation the one is to reprobate evil and the other to enforce the opposite good and both these modes were adopted by Christ in relation to war He not only censured the passions that are necessary to war but also inculcated the affections that are most opposed to them The conduct and dispositions upon which he pronounced his solemn benediction are exceedingly remarkable They are these and in this order poverty of spirit mourning meekness desire of righteousness mercy purity of heart peacemaking and sufferance of persecution Now let the reader try whether he can propose eight other qualities to be retained as the general habit of the mind which shall be more incongruous with war Of these benedictions I think the most emphatic is that pronounced upon the peacemakers Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God 36 Higher praise or a higher title no man can receive Now I do not say that these benedictions contain an absolute proof that Christ prohibited war but I say they make it clear that he did not approve it He selected a number of subjects for his solemn approbation not one of them possesses any congruity with war and some of them cannot possibly exist in conjunction with it Can anyone believe that he who made this selection and who distinguished the peacemakers with peculiar approbation could have sanctioned

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