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  • NWPARC Newsletter #4 - April 2010
    task teams for more effective herp conservation Our goal in 2010 is to increase engagement of task teams and focus on producing tangible products or meeting established benchmarks The task teams that were the focus of the 2010 meeting were Communications Rich Nauman Training Kris Kendell Regulations Bill Bosworth Charlie Justus and Fish Stocking Literature Review Betsy Howell Each of these task teams has identified a specific product that they will produce in 2010 We may also continue the following task teams if interest exists Inventory and Monitoring Species Best Management Practices Linkage Areas Important Herp Areas and Disease We look forward to seeing progress on these topics and encourage everybody to check out the webpage periodically for updated information And of course stay in touch and do good work Cheers David and Elke NW PARC Co Chairs Thanks to those who contributed to the annual meeting in Boise The annual meeting was sponsored by the U S Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Conservation League We also received technical support from the U S Geological Survey including projectors printing and video Staff at USGS are working on reformatting the presentations from the Energy Symposium to make them available for general viewing from our web site keep an eye out for this Many folks contributed to the silent auction including Rogue Brewery Issaquah Betsy Howell Ancestral Spirits Marlene Jochimsen Brent Matsuda Bryce Maxell Dede Olson Josh Parker and Elke Wind We owe a BIG thanks to Denim Jochimsen and Stephen Spear for organizing the silent auction California Tiger Salamander Listed Last month the California Fish and Game Commission voted to list the California Tiger Salamander Ambystoma californiense as a state endangered species Read more HERE Click HERE for an entertaining video on the salamander s woes Center for Biological Diversity Herp Conservation The Center for Biological Diversity has petitioned the California Fish and Game Commission to list the Mountain Yellow legged Frog Rana muscosa as an endangered under the California Endangered Species Act Learn more at the CBD website HERE Due to the efforts of the CBD the California Red legged Frog Rana aurora draytonii now has over 1 6 million acres designated as critical habitat across 28 counties in California Read the press release HERE Also the CBD is currently heading a letter writing campaign to protect key habitat for the Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea They need your help by April 23rd to learn more click HERE CNAH Checklist for Oregon Now Online The Center for North American Herpetology has added Oregon to it s collection of state wide herpetofaunal checklists View the list at the CNAH website http www cnah org state list asp Summer Reptile Ecology Course Dr Roger Anderson of Western Washington University will be offering a field course this summer on reptile ecology in the Great Basin For more information view the course website HERE California Ban on Non Natives Imported for Food The California Fish and Game Commission has banned importation of live

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  • NWPARC Newsletter #3 - January 2010
    may be considered The draft EIR is expected to be available for review and comment by summer fall of 2010 For more information please visit http www dfg ca gov suctiondredge States Get Hefty Return on Investment for Supporting State Wildlife Grants Program Outreach on the Hill As you may know Congress completed work on the Interior Environment and Related Agencies Appropriations bill that will provide a substantial boost for State and Tribal Wildlife Grants 90 million up 15 million from last year and a significant reduction on the non federal match requirement for implementation projects from 50 to 35 Both the increase in funding and change in match requirement are a victory in the Association s efforts to secure increased funding for State Wildlife Action Plan implementation This is the highest level of funding since the inception of the State Wildlife Grants program and the first time we ve been able to secure a reduction in the match requirement This success is due to your efforts and support of The annual Teaming With Wildlife Fly In that resulted in more than 100 meetings with Members of Congress and was instrumental is getting our message heard when the Hill was focused on the economic downturn Calling emailing and meeting with Members and staff throughout the year Building the Teaming With Wildlife Coalition in your states to exceed 6 200 members overall In addition Association staff kept the pressure on legislators to increase funding and change the match requirement by holding dozens of meetings with Members and appropriations and administration staff working with Washington based NGOs to secure their active support coordinating the Fly In and the Teaming With Coalition and coordinating a Dear Colleague letter that included 54 Senators and 87 Representatives who signed on supporting the funding increase and match reduction While we have yet to realize our ultimate goal of securing long term dedicated funding to fully implement the plans overall the Teaming With Wildlife effort has produced a significant return on the investments that states have made in this program With an increase of 15 million in appropriated dollars and a savings of another 34 million with the match reduction state fish and wildlife agencies will see a net increase of almost 50 million for FY10 equating roughly to a 260 increase for every 1 that states invested in the Teaming With Wildlife program this year If only our retirement plans provided that same return Looking forward the Association has already started work on FY11 so any chance to thank Members and Congressional staff and remind them of the importance of State Wildlife Grants is helpful Moreover mark your calendars now for the 2010 Teaming With Wildlife Fly In which will be held February 23 24 2010 in Washington DC As we saw the results this year it is a key element in the Association s strategy to continue securing increased appropriations and seeking dedicated funding for state agencies Staff Contacts Mark Humpert mhumpert fishwildlife org Terra

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  • NWPARC Newsletter #2 - October 2009
    Where Owyhee Plaza Boise Idaho http www owyheeplaza com We will join Idaho PARC for the meeting The meeting will be immediately followed by Idaho Chapter of The Wildlife Society http www ictws org annual meeting March 10 11 at the same location NW PARC Facebook Amphibian and reptile conservation in the 21st century NWPARC is now on Facebook Check out our page and join the group http www facebook com group php gid 132238815532 Northwest Naturalist Herpetological Conservation in Western North America The spring 2009 issue of Northwest Naturalist Volume 90 Number 1 pages 61 96 features a 35 page review of Herpetological Conservation in Western North America This review edited by Dede Olson provides a comprehensive discussion of the distribution and status of reptile and amphibian species for each state and province in our region summaries of current research a review of government conservation efforts and provides a check list of species found in the region It highlights current efforts by Northwest PARC and summarizes specific threats of climate change to reptile and amphibian species This publication provides a fantastic source of information on NW amphibian conservation and will be a valuable reference for people active in the field and those interested in learning more For more information on Northwest Naturalist http www snwvb org Prisoners Raising Spotted Frogs An unusual piece by the Seattle Times a small group of prisoners near Olympia Washington are raising Oregon Spotted frogs for re introduction into their natural habitat Read the full story here http seattletimes nwsource com html localnews 2009421766 inmatefrogs06m html Wyoming Toads in the News NPR visited Mortenson Lake this summer and did a piece on the Wyoming toad monitoring efforts there Read the full story http www npr org templates story story php storyId 112328729 sc fb

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  • NWPARC Newsletter #1
    used as an educational tool for students in the area Monies are awarded on a competitive basis so applicants must submit a proposal that briefly details their project its projected conservation status in the area and how it will be used to educate local students and citizens A project application which also contains contact information for questions or inquiries can be downloaded here http www treewalkers org twidocs func fileinfo id 32 Amphibian Decline Public Awareness In April PBS aired an episode of their Nature program called Frogs The Thin Green Line It was an excellent look at many of the issues facing amphibians world wide featuring interviews with a number of renown researchers Incase you missed it the full episode can be streamed online at the Nature website http www pbs org wnet nature episodes frogs the thin green line video full episode 4882 Dr Kerry Kriger founder of Savethefrogs com is currently on a lecture tour around the U S giving a talk entitled The Amphibian Extinction Crisis Check out his schedule and learn more about Savethefrogs com here http www savethefrogs com events index html Painted Turtle Interns and Volunteers Needed Dr Kathy Griffin of the University of Montana recruting interns and volunteers for her painted turtle monitoring project The work takes place in Mission Valley near Ninepipes Wildlife Refuge Montana June 29 July 12 Contact Kathy for more information kgriffin mt hotmail com Farm Bill Guide Our former SWPARC Co chair Randy Gray who was also the former National Biologist for the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service NRCS has created The Field Guide to the 2008 Farm Bill for Fish and Wildlife Conservation for broad application in the conservation community This guide can be found online in an interactive format at http www nabci us org fbguidehome htm Randy and colleagues will be updating this site as new information becomes available through policy changes and final rulemaking Montana Spiny Softshell Turtle Research The status of amphibians and reptiles herpetofauna is of concern because declines have been documented both locally and worldwide Due to their dependence on water for all or part of their life cycle aquatic or semi aquatic herpetofauna are sensitive to changes in their habitat and are indicators of habitat quality and quantity climate change and other environmental factors Very little information is known about the Montana populations of spiny softshell turtles Apalone spinifera a state Species of Concern Spiny softshells occupy the Missouri River from about Great Falls Montana to the headwaters of Ft Peck Reservoir within the Charles M Russell National Wildlife Refuge CMR However they are apparently absent from the 185 mile section of the Missouri from Ft Peck Dam to the Montana border and are largely absent from the Missouri River in the Dakotas As a result spiny softshell populations upstream of Fort Peck Dam are isolated from other Montana populations and are therefore at higher risk of extirpation The longer term conservation strategy for the spiny softshell turtle involves

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  • NW PARC Products: HMG
    Habitat Management Guidelines HMGs to provide proactive guidance for improving the compatibility of land management practices with these animals These guidelines are not regulations nor are they in any way an attempt to limit landowners rights They should simply be regarded as recommendations for landowners and managers to consider the needs of amphibians and reptiles in the course of their management activities The HMGs are directed towards resource managers and private landowners who have a desire to help protect amphibians and reptiles If many landowners and land managers each implement some of these guidelines then the cumulative effect can only be a positive one These guidelines use the best science available are easily understood by and practical for land managers and private landowners present measures to help maximize compatibility with existing management objectives or to optimize management actions specifically for herpetofauna provide guidance on the management and restoration of habitats such that amphibians reptiles and many other wildlife species may benefit HMGs are also available for Southeast Northeast and Midwest regions SEE LINK Access the HMGs for each region individually SE PARC NE PARC MW PARC For more information on how to obtain a free copy or copies of the

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  • NW PARC Products: HMG
    aurea from original habitats in south eastern Australia Oecologia 132 445 452 LINK Hayes M P and M R Jennings 1986 Decline of ranid frog species in western North America are bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana responsible Journal of Herpetology 20 490 509 LINK Hartel T S Nemes D Cogalniceanu K Ollerer O Schweiger C Moga and L Demeter 2007 The effect of fish and aquatic habitat complexity on amphibians Hydrobiologia 583 173 182 Hecnar S J and R T M Closkey 1997 The effects of predatory fish on amphibian species richness and distribution Biological Conservation 79 123 131 LINK Joseph M G J Piovia Scott S P Lawler and K L Pope 2010 Indirect effects of introduced trout on Cascades frogs Rana cascadae via shared aquatic prey Freshwater Biology no doi 10 1111 j 1365 2427 2010 02529 x LINK Kiesecker J M and A R Blaustein 1998 Effects of introduced bullfrogs and smallmouth bass on microhabitat use growth and survival of native red legged frogs Rana aurora Conservation Biology 12 4 776 787 LINK Knapp R A 1996 Non Native Trout in Natural Lakes of the Sierra Nevada An Analysis of Their Distribution and Impacts on Native Aquatic Biota Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project Final Report to Congress vol III Assessments and scientific basis for management options Davis University of California Centers for Water and Wildlife Resources Knapp R A and K R Matthews 2000 Non native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow legged frog Rana muscosa from within protected areas Conservation Biology 14 2 428 438 LINK Knapp R A K R Matthews and O Sarnelle 2001 Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions Ecological Monographs 71 3 401 421 LINK Knapp R A 2005 Effects of nonnative fish and habitat characteristics on lentic herpetofauna in Yosemite National Park USA Biological Conservation 121 265 279 Knapp R A C P Hawkins J Ladau and J G McClory 2005 Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions Ecological Applications 15 3 835 847 Komak S and M R Crossland 2000 An assessment of the introduced mosquitofish Gambusia affinis holbrooki as a predator of eggs hatchlings and tadpoles of native and non native anurans Wildlife Research 27 185 189 LINK Lawler S P D Dritz T Strange and M Holyoak 1999 Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red legged frog Conservation Biology 13 3 613 622 LINK Liss W J and G L Larson 1991 Ecological effects of stocked trout in naturally fishless high elevation lakes North Cascades National Park Service Complex WA USA Phase II Park Science 11 3 22 23 Liss W J G L Larson and R L Hoffman eds 2002 Ecological impact of introduced trout on native aquatic communities in mountain lakes Phase III Final Report U S Geological Survey Corvallis OR Matthews K R K L Pope H K Preisler and R A Knapp 2001 Effects of non native trout on Pacific treefrogs Hyla regilla in the Sierra Nevada Copeia 4 1130 1137 LINK Macan T T 1966 The influence of predation on the fauna of a moorland fish pond Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 61 432 452 Martinez solano I L J Barbadillo and M Lapena 2003 Effect of introduced fish on amphibian species richness and densities at a montane assemblage in the Sierra de Neila Spain Herpetological Journal 13 167 173 LINK McGarvie Hirner J L and S P Cox 2007 Effects of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on amphibians in productive recreational fishing lakes of British Columbia Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64 1770 1780 LINK Meyer A H B R Schmidt and K Grossenbacher 1998 Analysis of three amphibian populations with quarter century long time series Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265 523 528 LINK Monello R J and R G Wright 1999 Amphibian habitat preferences among artificial ponds in the Palouse region of northern Idaho Journal of Herpetology 33 2 298 303 LINK Murphy P D 2002 The effects of different species of introduced salmonids on amphibians in headwater lakes of North central Idaho M S Thesis Department of Biological Sciences Idaho State University Pocatello Idaho Murphy M A R Dezzani D S Pilliod and A Storfer 2010 Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations Molecular Ecology 19 3634 3649 LINK Orizoala G and F Braña 2006 Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern Spain Animal Conservation 9 171 178 LINK Paoletti D J 2009 Responses of foothill yellow legged larvae Rana boylii to an introduced predator Master s Thesis Oregon State University Pearl C A M J Adams N Leuthold and R B Bury 2005 Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape Implications for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley Oregon USA Wetlands 25 1 76 88 LINK Pilliod D S and C R Peterson 2001 Local and landscape effects of introduced trout on amphibians in historically fishless watersheds Ecosystems 4 322 333 LINK Pilliod D S C R Peterson and P I Ritson 2002 Seasonal migration of Columbia spotted frogs Rana luteiventris among complementary resources in a high mountain basin Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 1849 1862 LINK Pilliod D S B R Hossack P F Bahls E L Bull P S Corn G Hokit B A Maxell J C Munger and A Wyrick 2010 Nonnative salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales Diversity and Distributions 16 959 974 LINK Reid I S 2005 Amphibian fish stocking and habitat relationships in Siskiyou mountain wilderness lakes California and Oregon Northwestern Naturalist 86 1 25 33 LINK Reshetnikov A N 2003 The introduced fish Rotan Perccottus glenii depresses populations of aquatic animals macroinvertebrates amphibians and a fish Hydrobiologia 510 83 90 LINK Rosen P C C R Schwalbe D A Parizek Jr P A Holm and C H Lowe 1995 Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region effects on declining native ranid frogs Pages 251 261 in DeBano L F G J Gottfried R H Hamre C B Edminster P F Folliott A Ortega Rubio eds Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago the Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico Gen Tech Rep RM GTR 264 U S Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Ft Collins Colorado LINK Schank C M M 2008 Assessing the effects of trout stocking on native amphibian communities in small boreal foothills lakes of Alberta Master s Thesis University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Sexton O J and C Phillips 1986 A qualitative study of fish amphibian interactions in three Missouri ponds Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Sciences 20 25 35 Smith G R J E Rettig G G Mittelbach J L Valiulis and S R Schaack 1999 The effects of fish on assemblages of amphibians in ponds a field experiment Freshwater Biology 41 829 837 LINK Webb C E and J Joss 1997 Does predation by the fish Gambusia holbrooki Atheriniformes Poeciliidae contribute to declining frog populations Australian Zoologist 30 316 324 LINK Welsh Jr H H K L Pope and D Boiano 2006 Sub alpine amphibian distributions related to species palatability to non native salmonids in the Klamath mountains of northern California Diversity and Distributions 12 298 309 LINK Yoon D 1977 The effect of introduced fish on the amphibian life in Westfall meadow Yosemite Nature Notes 46 2 LINK 4 Effects of introduced or predatory fish on salamanders and newts Bull E L and D B Marx 2002 Influence of fish and habitat on amphibian communities in high elevation lakes in northeastern Oregon Northwest Science 76 3 240 248 Currens C R W J Liss and R L Hoffman 2007 Impacts of a gape limited brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on larval northwestern salamander Ambystoma gracile growth a field enclosure experiment Journal of Herpetology 41 2 321 324 LINK Denoel M G Dzukic and M L Kalezic 2005 Effects of widespread fish introductions on paedomorphic newts in Europe Conservation Biology 19 162 170 LINK Efford I E and J A Mathias 1969 A comparison of two salamander populations in Marion Lake British Columbia Copeia 4 723 736 LINK Gamradt S C and L B Kats 1996 Effect of introduced crayfish and mosquitofish on California newts Conservation Biology 10 1155 1162 LINK Larson G L and R L Hoffman 2002 Abundances of northwestern salamander larvae in montane lakes with and without fish Mount Rainier National Park Washington Northwest Science 76 1 35 40 Leyse K E 2005 Intentional introductions and biodiversity in fishless waters the effects of introduced fish on native aquatic species Dissertation University of California Davis Liss W J and G L Larson 1991 Ecological effects of stocked trout in naturally fishless high elevation lakes North Cascades National Park Service Complex WA USA Phase II Park Science 11 3 22 23 LINK Liss W J G L Larson and R L Hoffman eds 2002 Ecological impact of introduced trout on native aquatic communities in mountain lakes Phase III Final Report U S Geological Survey Corvallis OR Macan T T 1966 The influence of predation on the fauna of a moorland fish pond Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 61 432 452 Maret T J J D Snyder and J P Collins 2006 Altered drying regime controls distribution of endangered salamanders and introduced predators Biological Conservation 127 129 138 Martinez solano I L J Barbadillo and M Lapena 2003 Effect of introduced fish on amphibian species richness and densities at a montane assemblage in the Sierra de Neila Spain Herpetological Journal 13 167 173 LINK McGarvie Hirner J L and S P Cox 2007 Effects of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on amphibians in productive recreational fishing lakes of British Columbia Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64 1770 1780 Monello R J and R G Wright 2001 Predation by goldfish Carassius auratus on eggs and larvae of the eastern long toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum Journal of Herpetology 35 350 353 LINK Orizoala G and F Braña 2006 Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern Spain Animal Conservation 9 171 178 LINK Pearson K J 2004 The effects of introduced fish on the long toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum in southwestern Alberta Canada Master s Thesis University of Lethbridge Lethbridge Alberta Canada Pearson K J and C P Goater 2008 Distribution of long toed salamanders and introduced trout in high and low elevation wetlands in southwestern Alberta Canada Ecoscience 15 453 459 LINK Pearson K J and C P Goater 2009 Effects of predaceous and nonpredaceous introduced fish on the survival growth and antipredation behaviours of long toed salamanders Canadian Journal of Zoology 87 948 955 Pilliod D S and C R Peterson 2001 Local and landscape effects of introduced trout on amphibians in historically fishless watersheds Ecosystems 4 322 333 LINK Pilliod D S B R Hossack P F Bahls E L Bull P S Corn G Hokit B A Maxell J C Munger and A Wyrick 2010 Nonnative salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales Diversity and Distributions 16 959 974 LINK Reid I S 2005 Amphibian fish stocking and habitat relationships in Siskiyou mountain wilderness lakes California and Oregon Northwestern Naturalist 86 1 25 33 LINK Reshetnikov A N 2003 The introduced fish Rotan Perccottus glenii depresses populations of aquatic animals macroinvertebrates amphibians and a fish Hydrobiologia 510 83 90 LINK Reshetnikov A N and Y B Manteifel 1997 Newt fish interactions in Moscow Province a new predatory fish colonizer Perccottus glehni transforms metapopulations of newts Triturus vulgaris and T cristatus Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union 2 1 12 Schank C M M 2008 Assessing the effects of trout stocking on native amphibian communities in small boreal foothills lakes of Alberta Master s Thesis University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Sexton O J and C Phillips 1986 A qualitative study of fish amphibian interactions in three Missouri ponds Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Sciences 20 25 35 Smith G R J E Rettig G G Mittelbach J L Valiulis and S R Schaack 1999 The effects of fish on assemblages of amphibians in ponds a field experiment Freshwater Biology 41 829 837 LINK Tyler T W J Liss L M Ganio G L Larson R Hoffman E Deimling and G Lomnicky 1998 Interaction between introduced trout and larval salamanders Ambystoma macrodactylum in high elevation lakes Conservation Biology 12 1 94 105 LINK Tyler T J W J Liss R L Hoffman and L M Ganio 1998 Experimental Analysis of Trout Effects on Survival Growth and Habitat Use of Two Species of Ambystomatid Salamanders Journal of Herpetology 32 3 345 349 LINK Welsh Jr H H K L Pope and D Boiano 2006 Sub alpine amphibian distributions related to species palatability to non native salmonids in the Klamath mountains of northern California Diversity and Distributions 12 298 309 LINK 5 Effects of introduced fish on aquatic insects aquatic systems Bradford D F S D Cooper T M Jenkins Jr K Kratz O Sarnelle and A D Brown 1998 Influences of natural acidity and introduced fish on faunal assemblages in California alpine lakes Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55 11 2478 2491 Carlisle D M and C P Hawkins 1998 Relationships between invertebrate assemblage structure 2 trout species and habitat structure in Utah mountain lakes Journal of the North American Benthological Society 17 286 300 Donald D B 1987 Assessment of the outcome of eight decades of trout stocking in the mountain national parks Canada North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7 545 553 LINK Dunham J B D S Pilliod and M K Young 2004 Assessing the consequences of nonnative trout in headwater ecosystems in western North America Fisheries 29 18 26 LINK Epanchin P N R A Knapp and S P Lawler 2010 Nonnative trout impact an alpine nesting bird by altering aquatic insect subsidies Ecology 91 8 2406 2415 LINK Knapp R A 1996 Non native trout in natural lakes of the Sierra Nevada an analysis of their distribution and impacts on native aquatic biota Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project Final Report to Congress vol III Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options Davis University of California Centers for Water and Wildlife Resources LINK Knapp R A K R Matthews and O Sarnelle 2001 Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions Ecological Monographs 71 3 401 421 LINK Knapp R A C P Hawkins J Ladau and J G McClory 2005 Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions Ecological Applications 15 3 835 847 LINK Luecke C 1990 Changes in abundances and distribution of benthic macroinvetebrates after introduction of cutthroat trout into a previously fishless lake Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119 6 1010 1021 LINK Nasmith L E 2008 Effects of stocked trout on native fish and littoral invertebrates in boreal foothills lakes Master s Thesis University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Reshetnikov A N 2003 The introduced fish Rotan Perccottus glenii depresses populations of aquatic animals macroinvertebrates amphibians and a fish Hydrobiologia 510 83 90 LINK Schindler D E R A Knapp and P R Leavitt 2001 Alteration of nutrient cycles and algal production resulting from fish introductions into mountain lakes Ecosystems 4 308 321 LINK Vander Zanden M J J D Olden J H Thorne and N E Mandrak 2004 Predicting occurrences and impacts of smallmouth bass introductions in north temperate lakes Ecological Applications 14 1 132 148 LINK 6 Competition for food resources between introduced fish and amphibians Eby L A W J Roach L B Crowder and J A Stanford 2006 Effects of stocking up freshwater food webs Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21 10 576 584 Finlay J C and V T Vredenburg 2007 Introduced trout sever trophic connections in watersheds consequences for a declining amphibian Ecology 88 9 2187 2198 LINK 7 Mountain lake fish stocking patterns and policies Adams S B C A Frissell and B E Rieman 2001 Geography of invasion in mountain streams consequences of headwater lake fish introductions Ecosystems 296 307 LINK Bahls P 1992 The status of fish populations and management of high mountain lakes in the western United States Northwest Science 66 3 183 193 Courtenay W R and P B Moyle 1992 Crimes against biodiversity the lasting legacy of fish introductions Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 57 365 372 Courtenay W R and J R Stauffer 1984 Distribution Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes The John Hopkins University Press Baltimore Courtenay W R D A Hensley J N Taylor and J A McCann 1984 Distributions of exotic fish in the continental United States Pages 41 78 in Courtenay W R and J R Stauffer eds Distribution Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes The John Hopkins University Press Baltimore Courtenay W R Jr and G K Meffe 1989 Small fishes in strange places a review of introduced poeciliids Pages 319 331 in Meffe G K and F F Snelson Jr eds Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes Poeciliidae Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs New Jersey Corn P S and R A Knapp 2000 Fish stocking in protected areas summary of a workshop USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS P 15 VOL 5 LINK Crossman E J 1984 Introduction of exotic fishes in Canada Pages 78 101 in Courtenay W R and J R Stauffer Distribution Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes The John Hopkins University Press Baltimore Donald D B 1987 Assessment of the outcome of eight decades of trout stocking in the mountain national parks Canada North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7 545 553 LINK Drake J F DiCastri R Groves F Kruger H Mooney M Rejmanek and M Williamson 1989 Biological Invasions a Global Perspective John Wiley Sons Chichester UK Drost C A and G M Fellers 1996

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