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  • Institutional Advantages from Open Access
    a journal In total Southampton offers over 50000 articles to the world through these repositories Southampton University ranks in the top group of research intensive universities in the UK and comes in at position 17 in the Times Higher Education Supplement s QS Top Universities ranking for 2008 Southampton also came in equal 99th place in the world in 2008 according to this ranking which has a multifactorial basis academic peer review employer review student faculty ratio international staff international students There are other university rankings though with other bases The G Factor world ranking lists universities according to the links to their websites from the websites of other universities a form of peer ranking of a university s online presence In this ranking the top of the list is dominated by the big US universities that would be expected to top such a ranking MIT Harvard Berkeley Stanford and so on Cambridge and Oxford universities coloured pink in the chart below and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich make an appearance too but the only other European university in the top 25 places is Southampton see chart below The reason for Southampton s outstanding performance is its very strong online presence due to its huge repository content Tens of thousands of links from other universities point to articles in the repository giving Southampton s research an extremely high international profile Other universities can raise their global impact in the same way by establishing repositories full of current research outputs Usage The repository at the School of Electronics Computer Science at the University of Southampton was one of the earliest examples of the implementation of Open Access in an institutional setting It was also the earliest example of a mandatory policy one that required researchers in the School

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=142&Itemid=337 (2016-02-01)
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  • Open Access Repositories
    data and knowledge Datasets may be of many types spreadsheets photographs audio files video files representations of artwork diagrams charts and so on They may even be complex objects that is combinations of several types of data such as a numerical dataset recording weather patterns with accompanying satellite images A growing number of institutional repositories also contain books or book chapters Books are often written for monetary gain royalties on sales and in such cases authors may be reluctant to make them available for free in a repository In these cases it is still important for the book to be deposited with the metadata title author synopsis publisher details etc on display but the text may be hidden from viewers Having the metadata visible means that the book is counted in the institution s assessment procedures and it can be located by Web search engines The evidence is accumulating however to show that when the entire content of a book is visible in a repository sales of the book frequently rise This is because the visibility in the repository is raising awareness of the book and promoting it to an audience which is then likely to buy the book if it seems relevant to their work It is analogous to what Amazon offers with its Look inside facility As well as the types of content described above institutional repositories frequently contain theses dissertations and other research related outputs such as presentations and images Who uses institutional repositories Because Google and the other Web search engines index the content of repositories anyone with internet access can find themselves arriving at an article or dataset in a university or research institution s repository via a Web search But there are other ways that repositories are used too Users may search a particular repository for work by a a specific researcher at that institution Or they may follow a link from another researcher s website or blog Although these specific referrals are not uncommon by far the most usual way for searchers to arrive in a repository is through a Web search engine such as Google Les Carr s data on how the repository at Southampton University is used showed that Web search engines accounted for 64 of user traffic into the repository This underlines how important these informal world research databases that the Web search engines have created are for repositories and their institutions How do repositories fit into the scholarly communication landscape Repositories form a permanent and critically important part of the scholarly communication process Their first role is to provide the Open Access literature Additionally services may be added to repositories to provide extra functionality For example a usage reporting service gives authors and the institution information on how the content of the repository is being used A search service may help users find specific items more easily A service that organises content in specific ways may help authors for example to download a list of articles into their CV

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=137&Itemid=333 (2016-02-01)
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  • Business Aspects of Institutional Repositories
    assets easier assessment of research outputs the facilitation of collaborative and interdisciplinary research and the facilitation of workflow for researchers and teachers The benefits of a repository Opens up the outputs of the university to the world Maximises the visibility and impact of these outputs as a result Showcases the university to interested constituencies prospective staff prospective students and other stakeholders Collects and curates digital outputs Manages and measures research and teaching activities Provides a workspace for work in progress and for collaborative or large scale projects Enables and encourages interdisciplinary approaches to research Facilitates the development and sharing of digital teaching materials and aids Supports student endeavours providing access to theses and dissertations and a location for the development of e portfolios Sustainability of the repository A repository is sustainable if it contributes effectively to the university management s agenda in terms of aiding research management maximising citation impact and improving the visibility internationally of the institution Senior management s support is crucial for the financial and political sustainability of a repository as staffing needs are minimised by the adoption of a clear institutional policy The better the policy in the first place designed to fully involve research staff in depositing their own work a process known as self archiving the less staff time needs to be allocated to gathering content for the repository on an ongoing basis Repositories in institutions with a formal mandatory policy on depositing research outputs can be run with a minimum of staff time and they collect content very effectively Those with weak or no policies require staff continually to advocate their existence and purpose and they collect only a minor proportion of a university s outputs Repository services Engagement of researchers can further be encouraged by repository services that offer useful tools for their work or the means to help them take an active management role in disseminating their outputs Some universities are developing services using their repository both for internal purposes and for external users Examples of services for use by the university and its researchers include Using the repository as a management tool for the Research Assessment Exercise Measuring the usage and impact of the research output of the university Promoting the university s research activities A marketing tool for the university Generating CVs and personal reference lists Services for external users include Publishing electronic journals As a basis for or linked with the university press to publish research monographs Making doctoral theses available to the world Repository software The most commonly used softwares are EPrints developed by the University of Southampton DSpace developed at MIT FEDORA developed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia What does a repository cost There are examples of repositories that have cost huge sums but the average cost to establish a university repository in Europe is around 10000 euros 13000 USD Ongoing recurrent costs can also vary quite widely Set up costs The main types of software for running repositories are open source i

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=164&Itemid=334 (2016-02-01)
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  • Institutional Repositories for Research Management and Assessment
    institutional repositories to collect together the assessable amterial is very likely Some universities have used the 2008 UK national Research Assessment Exercise to prepare for this putting into place procedures for gathering the research output of the institution into the repository in a way that suits the requirements of the Assessment Exercise and smooths the workflow within the institution An account of how this process was tackled at the University of Southampton is here Research metrics As national research assessment exercises take root the prime examples currently are in the UK and Australia there is an increasing focus on the development of metrics that can measure aspects of research activity The only metric that has been in widespread use hitherto is the Journal Impact Factor JIF developed by the Institute for Scientific Information ISI now part of the Thomson Reuters group The metric was originally developed as a measure of the impact of individual journals and was intended as a tool for publishers It is calculated annually for all the journals covered by Thomson s Web of Science WoS database around 10 000 titles The JIF prevailed over two decades because no other provider had the breadth and depth of content to create alternative meaningful metrics for measuring anything else from the research literature This is now changing with other publishers developing rival databases The most important development though is that of the growing Open Access literature An Open Access global literature will provide bibliometricians around the world with the raw material to develop many new metrics for measuring and assessing research Citation analysis is just one way to analyse the research literature Some other candidate metrics are Citations CiteRank likeGoogle Co citations Downloads Citation download correlations Hub authority indicators Chrono indicators latency longevity Endogamy exogamy patterns Book citation indices Links in andout Commentaries h index and its variants Total co authors Articles published Years of publication Semiometrics latent semantic indexing text patterns etc Citation analysis Grants Number of research students Prizes medals list courtesy of Stevan Harnad For an overview of the current situation with respect to developing research metrics click here For an overview of how research performance may be measured using an Open Access literature click here Citation analysis for books and monographs Institutional Open Access policies are designed to collect mainly journal articles the literature which academic authors write with no expectation of direct financial reward As clear from the list above citation analysis is just one tool for assessing research effort in a university but it is extremely useful It is particularly appropriate for science and technology research where researchers publish many papers and cite the work of others heavily but less so for social science and especially the humanities where journal articles are not the predominant form of output In these disciplines monographs tend to be more important and citing behaviour is concomitantly very different A repository in a typical university will therefore contain large numbers of journal articles but few full text books

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=165&Itemid=335 (2016-02-01)
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  • Institutional Policies
    do bring the high level of self archiving that provides a university with the increased visibility and impact that Open Access promises Arthur Sale s data provide evidence to support this statement see a summary of Arthur Sale s findings that evidence this What is more researchers themselves do not object to being required to make their work Open Access see data to support this statement The table below summarises existing Open Access policies Type Mandatory policies Institutional 111 Departmental 28 Multi institutional 1 Funder 47 Total 187 The growth in mandatory policies has been increasing rapidly as shown in the graph below which shows their cumulative growth The first university wide mandatory policy was implemented by Professor Tom Cochrane Deputy Vice Chancellor at Queensland University of Technology in Australia in 2004 Since then growing numbers of universities and research funders have followed suit A list of policies developed by universities research institutes and research funding agencies is maintained at the University of Southampton As this is a self registering service supplemented by the list owners adding policies that they have discovered serendipitously this list under represents the actual number of policies in existence Mandatory policies should be coupled with

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=144&Itemid=338 (2016-02-01)
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  • Developing an Institutional Open Access Policy
    Commons and from SURF JISC the national ICT organisations in the Netherlands and the UK Although increasing numbers of authors feel strongly that they wish to retain copyright in their own work there are also many who do not relish the procedure of organising this with their publisher Open Access can be achieved satisfactorily without this negotiation if authors are reluctant to engage in it see types of policy wording Choice of journal in which to publish Authors generally have strong opinions on the best journals in which to publish their work Open Access policies should always ideally leave that choice with them though some big funder mandates have closed the door on journals where the publisher does not permit the conditions that the funder requires The biggest of these is the US National Institutes of Health which along with the Wellcome Trust mandates Open Access for all research it funds If journals do not permit Open Access within 6 months of publication then the author is required to publish in a journal that does The result of this tough policy is that journals are changing their terms to comply with the funder mandates very few journals wish to deny themselves the chance to publish articles from work funded by these prestigious funders Individual institutions do not have the same clout as the NIH though so it is best for institutional policies to be crafted in such a way that authors are free to publish in whichever outlet they choose It is possible to word a policy that gives authors this freedom yet still effectively provides Open Access even if publisher policies seem to preclude this see below Types of institutional Open Access policy There are three basic types of policy Type 1 Immediate deposit with immediate Open Access This type of policy requires authors to deposit their articles upon acceptance for publication once the final corrections have been made and make them immediately available in Open Access through the repository The outcome of this type of policy is immediate Open Access the disadvantage is that some journals do not permit immediate Open Access and so this type of policy constrains the choice of journals in which an author can publish Type 2 Later deposit after the embargo period This type of policy requires authors to deposit their articles after publication and at the end of the publisher s embargo period The advantage is that this complies with publisher requirements but the disadvantage is that it delays Open Access and runs the risk of the author forgetting to deposit the article so long after publication Type 3 Immediate deposit with optional later access This type of policy requires immediate deposit but if it is submitted to a journal with an embargo then the policy permits access to be opened only at the end of the embargo period During that period however the article s metadata title authors affiliation abstract references should be fully Open Access at all times publisher embargoes

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=145&Itemid=339 (2016-02-01)
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  • The Optimal Open Access Policy for Institutions
    much wider dissemination and can be read without restriction by anyone with Internet access This increases the impact of their research Indeed evidence is accumulating to show that open access articles are cited 25 250 more than non open access articles from the same journal and year As readers researchers benefit because they will increasingly be able to access and use the full text of all the research published in their area not just the research available to them via the subscriptions their institution can afford What are the benefits to institution name First institution name s research will be more accessible to global researchers hence better known and more widely used and cited The prestige of high profile institution name researchers will increase even lesser known researchers will gain more exposure and impact Second all institution name research will be open to all institution name entrepreneurs and the general public with Internet access This will be beneficial both commercially and culturally Third access usage and citation data on this research will increasingly become available and analysable to help shape researchers institutions and nations strategies and policies What should be deposited when I have a paper ready for publication The final manuscript of the author s research paper should be deposited This is the author s own final draft as accepted for journal publication including all modifications resulting from the peer review process In addition depositing pre peer review preprint drafts is welcome if the author desires early priority and peer feedback but this is of course not a requirement In some cases publishers may permit their own published version either in SGML XML or PDF to be deposited as well this too is welcome but not a requirement When should papers be deposited An electronic version of the author s final manuscript resulting from research supported in whole or in part by public funding must be deposited immediately upon acceptance for publication Will authors still be able to publish in a journal of their choice Authors will of course still decide in which journal they choose to publish their research papers They will merely have to ensure that a copy of the final peer reviewed paper is deposited in their institutional repository immediately upon acceptance for publication How can I find out whether my journal has a policy compliant with depositing my manuscript in my institutional repository You should consult the individual journal s policy which is given at http www sherpa ac uk romeo php or at http romeo eprints org publishers html About two thirds of journals do allow this practice If the journal you wish to publish in does not permit it please remember that your contractual obligations are first to this institution and then to journal publishers How do I ensure contractual compliance Authors contractual obligations with this institution to conduct their research pre date any contractual agreement with the journal in which the resulting research is published apart from the brief transitional period when

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=148&Itemid=340 (2016-02-01)
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  • Researchers and Open Access Policies
    Policy Makers Two studies by Key Perspectives Ltd surveying researchers at universities worldwide have shown the same result This result has also been found in surveys carried out in individual countries by other surveyors When researchers are asked the question if your employer or funder required you to make your work Open Access how would you respond the result is that 81 of them say they would comply willingly A further 14 say they would comply reluctantly and 5 say they would not comply at all The results are shown graphically below On an international basis the responses are like this This result is borne out in practice Those universities and funders with mandatory Open Access policies are quickly accumulating content The oldest mandate that introduced in 2003 at the School of Electronics Computer Science at the University of Southampton has resulted in over 90 compliance and the School s repository has almost 12000 items in it Original studies Key Perspectives Ltd 2005 Open Access self archiving an author study Arthur Sale 2006 Comparison of IR content policies in Australia Last Updated on Thursday 25 June 2009 06 20 Topics Institutional Advantages for Open Access Open Access Repositories Business Aspects

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=156&Itemid=318 (2016-02-01)
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