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  • Open Access Journals: business models
    insitutional repository Hard copy sales As described above the British Medical Journal supports its Open Access publishing model partly by sales of the print version Many other Open Access journals are published using this model and thus have no need to levy an article processing charge APC at the front end of the publishing process MedKnow an Indian medical publisher publishes all its journals on this basis All the contents are freely accessible online and libraries around the world subscribe to the hard copy version See the case study for further details on this publisher whose sales have increased as a result of opening access to the online version It is not only medical publications that can make this economic model work though Journals across all disciplines find that it is a viable model Article processing charges It is commonly held that Open Access journals all levy a charge at the front end of the publishing process which has to be paid by authors their institutions or research funders this is not true A study by Kaufman and Wills showed that 53 of Open Access journals have no article processing charges A further study this time by Hooker found that 67 of fully Open Access journals on the DOAJ charge no fees and Morrison found that less than 10 of Open Access journals in psychology charge a fee Moreover Suber and Sutton showed that 83 of Open Access journals published by learned society publishers make no charge for their Open Access journals either Many journals do levy an APC however It is a sustainable model where the community served by the journal has funds to use for this purpose The funds almost always come from an author s research funder or institution Some research funders have explicitly committed to providing funds specifically for the payment of APCs In other cases funders have said that research grants money may be allocated to publishing costs at the grant holder s discretion This is something that has always happened anyway in disciplines where page charges or colour charges levied by publishers are common and explains why there is little resistance from the author community in these disciplines to paying at the front end of the publishing cycle See Funder policies on Open Access publishing for more on this BioMed Central a large Open Access publisher maintains a list of foundations that support Open Access publishing in this way Another source of funds for the payment of individual APCs is the author s institution This is not common but the number of institutions experimenting with establishing a pot of money to pay for APCs is growing These include the University of Nottingham Bielefeld University Tilburg University University of Madison Wisconsin Technical University of Delft Wageningen University Research Centre University of California at Berkeley the University of Calgary A sign of the times though is that the University of Amsterdam s fund has been discontinued because of the unpredicatable and precarious economic situation Each institution

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=347%3Aopen-access-journals-full-hybrid&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=377 (2016-02-01)
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  • Case study: Medknow Publications
    and managing director of Medknow Dr D K Sahu prepared data to examine the effect of the decision in mid 2005 to make the online version of his journals Open Access The data are for one of the journals in the Medknow portfolio the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine The graphs below are from Dr Sahu s presentation at the 93rd Indian Science Congress in 2006 Effect of Open Access on usage Usage began to rise as soon as articles were available free online Moreover usage was from around the world unlike previously when the journal s audience had primarily been in India and its region Effect of Open Access on submissions Article submissions also began to rise as the journal became better known through being Open Access And again submissions which had previously been mainly from India rapidly became international in nature Effect of Open Access on subscriptions Subscriptions also increased as the journal became important on the international stage and the subscriptions which previosuly had been largely confined to India now came in from libraries across the world Impact Sahu also calculated the impact factor of the journal it is not covered by the Web of Science service but

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=553%3Acase-study-medknow-publications&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=378 (2016-02-01)
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  • Publishers
    from the community RSS feed Publishers Articles Topics The benefits of Open Access publishing Publishing copyright and Open Access Publisher permission services Institutions and copyright Publisher policies on self archiving Open Access Journals Open Access Journals business models Case study Medknow Publications Tools and platforms Converting to Open Access Open Access Monographs Open Acess monographs business issues Case studies Open Access monographs Scholarly societies and Open Access publishing University presses

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=35&Itemid=378 (2016-02-01)
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  • Tools and Platforms
    UK Wikipedia http en wikipedia org wiki Digital preservation also covers digital preservation and lists a number of additional resources Workflow Management Workflow patterns differ from journal to journal and from platform to platform and quite often the only certainty you can count on is that a move to online publishing will necessitate some degree of change in how you would otherwise handle affairs The good news is that typically you can choose whether to jump in wholeheartedly and use any given platform s workflow patterns or to stick with your own for the time being and use only a subset of the system ditching online submission management review and editing workflows but using online publication and preservation components for example Also changes might be less disruptive than you might think and may even result in more streamlined and cleaner practices overall Common workflow components include Submission solicitation and management This includes the ability for authors to submit content to your journal quickly and efficiently and for them to include important metadata and other supplementary files as need be for editors to be able to efficiently manage incoming submissions separating chaff and moving worthy submissions onward and for authors to receive ongoing feedback on their submission Peer review management This includes the assigning of reviewers completion of a full review of a submission including the use of review forms if necessary support for multiple review rounds and a fully blind review process Copy and layout editing and final proofing This includes moving submissions between copyeditors proofreaders layout editors editors and the authors themselves support for layout templates if used and support for any final checks that you may find necessary as well as scheduling and publishing General Flexibility Finally the notion of general flexibility is something you will want to keep in mind as you explore your options The questions you should be asking yourself are how easily can I adapt this system to my own needs Can I change the code and if so how will that affect me later Are there custom support services available and at what price What happens if I eventually want to move to another system You may never find yourself in a position where these questions really need to be answered but if you do and the answer is negative you might wish you had asked them in the first place Hosting Options There are a number of hosting options you will have to consider when starting to publish your content online Quite often your institution may be able or willing to provide hosting and may in fact already do so you may want to try hosting on your own with your own Internet service provider or you may want to go with an established commercial practice that provides academic tools online The most common hosting options are as follows Self hosting Typically this means you download install and maintain the necessary software packages yourself in a web environment of your choosing Web hosting options are now cheap and abundant enough that individuals can purchase a domain and web space for as little as a few hundred dollars a year after which it is simply a matter of installing software packages that meet your needs A word of caution however simply is relative and although many of these software packages system requirements are low they take time and a certain level of expertise to set up and maintain You will also want to ensure that your web hosting package properly meets all system requirements for any software you wish to run The biggest advantage of self hosting is that you control the software and so can make any modifications that are supported by the software and within your means Institutional Hosting Many academic institutions now provide system installation and support for the more popular online academic tools or may be willing to if there is enough interest from their community You may lose some control over the configuration of the software but you will generally be guaranteed reasonable maintenance and support options One major advantage of this option is that you have the weight of the institution behind you and can likely fit in with their backup and preservation practices Your institution s library or IT support staff should know whether there are institutionally operated services available to you and should additionally be able to help in configuration and ongoing maintenance issues Commercial Hosting As the prevalence of online academic publishing increases so do commercially provided hosting and support options Service levels and business models differ widely but at a minimum you should ensure that you have full editorial control over the review editing publishing and dissemination of content Please note also that some academic institutions may offer commercial support to non affiliated users examples include the Electronic Text Centre at the University of New Brunswick http journals hil unb ca and Simon Fraser University Libraries http software lib sfu ca support html As with any contract you sign the one between the service provider and yourself should be carefully read and understood especially with regards to access to scholarly content some service providers mandate varying levels of access control as a cost recovery measure Examples of commercial providers include Co Action Publishing http www co action net Scholarly Exchange http www scholarlyexchange org BioMed Central http www biomedcentral com Multimed Inc http www multi med com index php and the Hindawi Publishing Corporation http www hindawi com Publishing Tools What follows is a brief survey of the most commonly used open access publishing tools Please note that the author works for the Public Knowledge Project PKP http pkp sfu ca and so while the information on PKP products below is based on actual usage all information on non PKP software applications comes from their respective websites For an excellent and in depth overview of the state of the most commonly used publishing tools circa 2007 see Mark Cyzyk and Sayeed Choudhury s

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=353%3Atools-and-platforms&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=379 (2016-02-01)
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  • Converting to Open Access
    some years ago and found the result such a success that the whole journal was turned into a fee based publication after two years Sudden conversion Although Oxford University Press has not converted many of its journal to full Open Access in this way it does offer a hybrid option where authors can pay an APC to make their own article Open Access across 90 of its titles Other publishers though have decided to flip their model from Toll Access to Open Access in one move The Hindawi Publishing Corporation experimented with a mixed model for a few years but found it difficult as a young publishing house to make inroads into the library subscriptions market at a time when library budgets are largely taken up with Big Deals whereby the library licenses access to the entire journal output of the biggest publishers a very expensive process Hindawi was also up against the fact that libraries focus on purchasing access to journals perceived to be of good quality because they are covered by the Web of Science and thus have an Impact Factor and new or young journals have not had a chance to gain such a thing All in all selling subscriptions was a difficult process for Hindawi yet the company s Open Access option was proving to be popular due to the low cost of APCs Hindawi has low operating costs and is able to keep its APCs at a very reasonable level The publisher decided to flip to a business model offering full Open Access to all articles based on the payment of APCs Peters 2007 The Open Society Institute has published two guides for journal publishers who are interested in Open Access One is a guide to launching new journals that are to be Open Access

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=357%3Aconverting-to-open-access&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=380 (2016-02-01)
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  • Publishers
    RSS feed Publishers Articles Topics The benefits of Open Access publishing Publishing copyright and Open Access Publisher permission services Institutions and copyright Publisher policies on self archiving Open Access Journals Open Access Journals business models Case study Medknow Publications Tools and platforms Converting to Open Access Open Access Monographs Open Acess monographs business issues Case studies Open Access monographs Scholarly societies and Open Access publishing University presses and Open Access

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=35&Itemid=380 (2016-02-01)
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  • Open Access Monographs
    monographs There are also calls for more Open Access textbooks amidst ongoing concern about the high prices of student texts Open Access is a concept realistically applicable only to electronic products so Open Access books must necessarily be published in digital form whether or not there is a print version too Some scholars are themselves writing books and making them freely available on the Web A study carried out in the spring of 2009 cites one academic economist as saying that most people I know who write books now just stick them up on the Web for free Aside from this foray into publishing by researchers themselves established presses have been tentatively trying Open Access as a way of delivering books and early experiments appear to be encouraging The National Academies Press in the US has made its monograph series freely available on its website since 1996 in a page by page form and in recent years has begun offering free downloads of whole volumes Not all its titles are available this way the Press explains that to cover its running costs it still needs to charge for some electronic versions of its books and it charges for all the hardcopy versions of course See more on the NAP s business model for monograph publishing here It is notable that some university presses are also experimenting with Open Access for their monographs Breaking down price barriers to the use of research monographs aligns university presses once more with the core values of the academy and more prosaically hugely increases usage For example the Australian National University ANU Press an early mover in exploring Open Access as a way of delivering its products and which makes its monographs freely available in a variety of formats including for mobile devices saw 1

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=348%3Aopen-access-monographs&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=381 (2016-02-01)
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  • Open Access monographs: business issues
    print sales A number of university presses have already begun operating this business model apparently successfully and some commercial publishers are also experimenting with it Sales of the hard copy can support a book s production and editing costs especially with the use of modern POD print on demand technology Book publishers no longer have to include substantial inventory in their calculations because there is no need anymore for sizeable print runs and the concomitant warehousing of the copies waiting to be sold Remaindering is old hat part of a past that required substantial forward investment in production and the application of the art of prophesy by publishing editors Copies can be printed and bound on demand and bookshops are rapidly installing machines that provide this service so printing and distribution of single copies it does not even have to be an overhead for publishers See these university press case studies and a commercial publisher case study and examples of how some presses make this model work Licensing Open Access books Monographs that are to be offered free to download in digital form must have a licence to control how they can be used A publisher needs a licence to cover terms of use including copying and further distribution and re use whether in full or in part The most convenient way to do this is to select a Creative Commons licence There is a range of these and there will be one to suit the needs of publisher and author in every instance References and further reading AAUP Task Force on Economic Models for Scholarly Publishing 2011 Sustaining scholarly publishing new business models for university presses http mediacommons futureofthebook org mcpress sustaining Adema J and Schmidt B 2010 From Service Providers to Content Producers New Opportunities For Libraries in

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?view=article&catid=80%3Aarticles&id=554%3Aopen-access-monographs-business-issues&tmpl=component&print=1&layout=default&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=382 (2016-02-01)
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