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  • Business Models, Costs and ROI
    space but a number opt to have their repository hosted by a third party this provides some peace of mind guarantees about back ups and long term security which an institution may feel is worth paying for The benefits of a repository Opens up the outputs of the university to the world Maximises the visibility and impact of these outputs as a result Showcases the university to interested constituencies prospective staff prospective students and other stakeholders Collects and curates digital outputs Manages and measures research and teaching activities Provides a workspace for work in progress and for collaborative or large scale projects Enables and encourages interdisciplinary approaches to research Facilitates the development and sharing of digital teaching materials and aids Supports student endeavours providing access to theses and dissertations and a location for the development of e portfolios Sustainability of the repository A repository is sustainable if it contributes effectively to the university management s agenda in terms of aiding research management maximising citation impact and improving the visibility internationally of the institution Senior management s support is crucial for the financial and political sustainability of a repository as staffing needs are minimised by the adoption of a clear institutional policy The better the policy in the first place designed to fully involve research staff in depositing their own work self archiving the less staff time needs to be allocated to gathering content for the repository on an ongoing basis Repositories in institutions with a formal mandatory policy on depositing research outputs can be run with a minimum of staff time and they collect content very effectively Those with weak or no policies require staff continually to advocate their existence and purpose and they collect only a minor proportion of a university s outputs Repository services Engagement of researchers can further be encouraged by repository services that offer useful tools for their work or the means to help them take an active management role in disseminating their outputs Some universities are developing services using their repository both for internal purposes and for external users Examples of services for use by the university and its researchers include Using the repository as a management tool for the Research Assessment Exercise Measuring the usage and impact of the research output of the university Promoting the university s research activities A marketing tool for the university Generating CVs and personal reference lists Services for external users include Publishing electronic journals As a basis for or linked with the university press to publish research monographs Making doctoral theses available to the world There is further discussion of repository services here Repository software The most commonly used softwares are EPrints developed by the University of Southampton DSpace developed at MIT FEDORA developed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia These are all open source and free to download What does a repository cost There are examples of repositories that have cost huge sums but the cost of establishing most university repositories is more modest A

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=166&Itemid=357 (2016-02-01)
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  • Repository Services
    resources to further obtain complete coverage of its recent and current academic output thus contending with researchers who deposit elsewhere and not into CERN s own institutional repository Discovery Services Search and browse If users need to find content through a number of options this enables them to find what they want more easily These services can include full text and metadata searching as well as multiple browsing functionality such as by date author community and eventually by subject funding agency or document types Customising the way content can be explored makes it more usable to a wider variety of users Alert services and RSS feeds Searching for new materials requires a lot of time and has to be done regularly Repositories can make things easier for users by enabling them to set up automatic alerts or RSS feeds when new material matching their profile is added to the repository Indexibility Most users do not access the content in the repository through the repository search service but rather via an external search engine such as Google that has crawled the repository Repositories should make their content easy for search engines to index For example John Mark Ockerbloom explains in a recent blog entry d on t hide things behind Flash or Javascript unless you don t want them easily found Make sure your pages have informative titles and the site doesn t require excessive link clicking to get to content The SHERPA project lists a number of things repository managers should avoid so that content can be indexed Metadata export The OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting OAI PMH allows repository metadata records to be aggregated through OAI harvesting services Repositories that wish be harvested by these types of services an example of such a service is OAIster at the University of Michigan must ensure they are OAI PMH compliant and must be registered with the harvesting service Cross repository services There are a growing number of cross repository services available that aim to improve the visibility of repository content Many of these are national services such as CASSIR a cross repository service in India or NARCIS which harvests the content of Dutch repositories The Intute Repository Search project in the UK is creating a platform that will pull together UK repository content The project is developing a system that will allow advanced search and innovative access to the information such as personalised alerts or repurposed content streams into other websites Access Services Embargo management Content submitted to a repository may be restricted by laws policies or contractual obligations that require the author to limit public access for a period of time The Immediate Deposit Optional Access ID OA Mandate recommends that the author s final peer reviewed draft of all journal articles is required immediately upon acceptance for publication with no delays or exceptions but whether access to that deposit is immediately set to Open Access or provisionally set to Closed Access with only the metadata but not the full

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=167&Itemid=358 (2016-02-01)
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  • Open Access Journals
    offer authors the option of paying a fee to make their articles openly accessible This hybrid model enables publishers of traditional subscription based journals to experiment with Open Access and allows researchers publishing in those journals to adhere to funding agency mandates Open Access journals employ a number of different business models to recoup their costs including subsidies advertising article processing fees charges for hard copy versions charges for other publication services membership fees or some combination of these It should be noted that most journals do not charge an article processing fee but recover their costs in other ways This is particularly the case with journals published in developing countries and by learned societies where imposing a processing fee is considered a barrier to the exchange of scholarly information Currently most article processing fees are being paid by funding agencies with libraries providing the majority of institutional membership funds It is predicted that as the proportion of Open Access journal literature grows this will free up monies from library acquisition budgets that can be shifted over to supporting Open Access Cooperative initiatives to develop Open Access journal publishing The transition to Open Access can be accomplished much more efficiently if there is coordination among the various stakeholders libraries publishers researchers and funding agencies This is the premise that underlies some recent cooperative approaches to Open Access SciELO the Scientific Electronic Library Online for example is an initiative based in Brazil that publishes over 200 Open Access journals SciELO is a partnership between scientific agencies and journal publishers in Latin America and the Caribbean SciELO was conceived to meet the scientific communication needs of developing countries by providing an efficient way to assure universal visibility and accessibility to their scientific literature It has created new publishing venues for researchers in Latin America the Caribbean and other lusophone regions who wish to publish in their own languages as well as enabling the citizens to have access to the research being undertaken in their countries SciELO is supported by FAPESP the State of São Paulo Research Foundation BIREME the Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information CNPq of Brazil Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico as well as national and international institutions SCOAP3 Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics is a group of High Energy Physics HEP funding agencies and research libraries that are coordinating to cover journal subscription prices so that publishers can make the electronic versions of their journals freely available to all over the internet There are no article processing fees and authors are not charged directly to publish their articles The project is spearheaded by CERN with partners in France Germany Italy Sweden and the US Each SCOAP3 partner will finance its contribution through the cancellation of journal subscriptions for the 7 core peer reviewed journals in HEP Project partners have estimated that the total amount of money currently spent by the library community on these 7 titles worldwide is about 15M

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=155&Itemid=326 (2016-02-01)
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  • Promoting and cataloguing Open Access Journals
    Open Access Journals is the Directory of Open Access Journals DOAJ The Directory is a free service that provides a comprehensive listing of Open Access journals covering all subjects and languages The DOAJ is growing daily and currently lists over 4200 journals The DOAJ is international in scope and lists journals from over 80 different countries and representing about 40 different languages There are a growing number of other services to help improve the visibility of Open Access journals For example the Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB Electronic Journals Library managed by Universitätsbibliothek Regensburg University Library of Regensburg in cooperation with the Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität München University Library of the Technical University of Munich This initiative involves over 400 libraries and research institutions that collect the titles cooperatively and update the bibliographic data jointly in a central database To date the service has indexed over 40 000 journal titles about half of which are Open Access Others include Highwire Press Journals HighWire Press is a division of the Stanford University Libraries which produces the online versions of high impact peer reviewed journals and other scholarly content HighWire Press hosts the largest repository of free full text life science articles in the world with 1 832 208 articles available w ithout subscription Journals listed are not all immediately Open Access but they provide Open Access to back issues ABC Chemistry A Directory that lists the fully and partly free journals in chemistry or chemistry related areas Procedural issues in cataloguing Open Access journals Many established Open Access journals already have MARC records available through OCLC However some do not and must be uniquely catalogued Kent State University has been cataloguing Open Access journals since 2003 and has added about 90 of the journals in the DOAJ to their catalogue The procedure they have been using is described in a 2006 article in The Serial Librarian Each title was searched in OCLC for copy and evaluated before it was imported into the local catalog Constant data using the OCLC Connexion client was applied and local edits were added as each record was imported These local edits included adding subject headings a uniform title added entry Directory of Open Access Journals DOAJ for the purpose of collocation in the catalog and Persistent URLs PURLs when available Use of PURLs helps to ensure stability of the URLs in the catalog Each title received an individual bibliographic record and purchase order PO In addition a collection level bibliographic record and PO were created Because open access journals are freely available to all Kent State did not add its holdings symbol to the OCLC record For titles that did not have cataloging copy available original records were input and saved into the OCLC database for other libraries to use Hood and Howard Adding Value to the Catalog in an Open Access World 2006 vol 50 3 4 pg 249 The library also reviews DOAJ every 30 days for new titles and conducts regular URL maintenance Some libraries

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=256&Itemid=403 (2016-02-01)
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  • Supporting existing OA journals
    financial stake in the journal These measures ensure that the peer review process is not biased by the promise of income or lack of it The costs of Open Access fees range from about 500 to 3000 250 4000 US depending on the publisher Libraries can set up a fund to pay article processing fees for Open Access journals The fee based model has the advantages of being very transparent and of awakening researchers to the costs of the publishing system As noted by Stephen Pinfield reference below in the subscription based system there is a disconnect between researchers and the economic realities of the market pg 5 With article processing fees authors are aware of publication charges and able to draw comparisons between different journals and publishers Institutional memberships Another way of supporting Open Access journals is through institutional membership programmes Some journals that charge article processing fees offer institutional memberships which then reduce or eliminate the per article fees they charge The fee structures for institutional memberships vary from publisher to publisher but fees are usually tiered based on the size of the institution with smaller institutions paying less than large ones Hybrid journals Some subscription based journals also offer Open Access options to authors This generally involves authors paying an Open Access fee after which the journal will make the article freely available The SHERPA ROMEO site maintains a list of such hybrid publishers paid Open Access options and the associated pricing One of the issues with the hybrid model is that institutions that pay Open Access fees for hybrid journals are also still paying subscription fees for those same journals to the publishers in essence paying twice for the same content A few publishers such as Oxford University Press do offer discounts on their subscription charges

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=454&Itemid=404 (2016-02-01)
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  • Promoting Open Access
    about Open Access for researchers are Open Access will improve the visibility and impact of your research Open Access will enable you to gain immediate and free access to all the literature you need for your research Open Access will enable you to have more control over how your publications are used More For university administrators Open Access particularly through the implementation of institutional repositories is attractive for university administrators because repositories allow them to assess and monitor their research programmes and also make the research being undertaken at the university more visible The key messages about Open Access for universities are Open Access will improve the visibility and prestige of your institution More Open Access will enable research institutions to better account for their research output More For policy makers and funding agencies Research funders are interested in Open Access because it ensures that the results of their spending have had the widest possible dissemination If they are a publicly funded research agency then the argument for public access is also very powerful The key messages about Open Access for policy makers are Members of the public are entitled to access to the peer reviewed scientific articles based on research that has been funded by governments Open Access will increase the government s return on investment in research by enabling more widespread dissemination and uptake of knowledge Open Access will enable research funders who need to be able to access and keep track of outputs from their funding and measure and assess how effectively their money has been spent There are many ways in which libraries can promote Open Access By implementing an Open Access repository By supporting Open Access journals By developing advocacy programmes on campus Through the library website Through membership in other library organisations Resources EIFL

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=133&Itemid=257 (2016-02-01)
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  • Library-run advocacy programmes on campus
    for librarians to understand the context and concerns of the specific research community they are addressing Providing concrete examples of the problems with the subscription based system such library budget figures or examples of cuts to acquisitions can help to crystalise the argument This can be accompanied by a discussion of why researchers should make their work Open Access using the following points Impact and visibility Authors principal motivations are almost always to disseminate the results of their research advance their careers and contribute to the public good When an article is published in a subscription based journal it may only be accessible to a small number of readers in institutions whose libraries can afford to pay for the subscription When an article is Open Access however the potential readership includes everyone with an internet connection including all an author s peers around the world Scholars and researchers at institutions without journal subscriptions and interested individuals outside the academy will have immediate access With a broader audience and no access delays the research has the potential for the greatest impact Open Access A SPARC Brochure is a good resource for authors Accessibility Readers have access to only a portion of the subscription based literature in their field the portion that is made available through their library The prices of journals have risen at a much higher rate than the consumer price index forcing libraries to cut subscriptions Even the most well endowed library cannot afford to subscribe to all the journals requested by its research community In an Open Access environment readers will have immediate access to the entire corpus of literature in their field Faculty are not often aware of how much money libraries are paying for journal subscriptions The Sticker Shock web sites developed by the Engineering Library at Cornell University are an excellent way of demonstrating the high costs of journals For a good overview read Library Journal s annual Periodicals Price Survey The most recent version is Periodicals Price Survey 2008 Embracing Openness Funding agency policies In many countries funding agencies have implemented policies that require funded researchers to make their published articles open access within a certain amount of time Talking to researchers about these policies is an excellent way of initiating a dialogue about Open Access Librarians should be well informed of the relevant policies in their jurisdictions Authors rights Standard publishing agreements generally require that authors transfer the copyright for their work to the publisher This restricts them from placing their work on course web sites copying it for students or colleagues depositing it in a public online archive or reusing portions in a subsequent work without permission from the publisher In order for authors to control and optimise access to their work they must retain the rights they need This can be done by negotiating directly with publishers or attaching one of many authors addenda which have been developed for this purpose Many publishers also already allow authors to place articles in

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=260&Itemid=396 (2016-02-01)
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  • Examples of successful library advocacy programmes
    for resource selection that explicitly account for and preference materials and vendors that encourage economic and service sustainability e g persistent access access integration predictable business terms and models co branding etc b Investigate the potential for multi variant and quantifiable measure s of resource value relevance to UC apply them to different resources share promote the results and discuss the potential for acquiring resources accordingly 4 Leverage individual and collective effort Build expertise within and across the university libraries create a network of highly engaged and informed library staff to shape and support systemwide as well as campus based efforts a Survey UC libraries to create deep and comprehensive knowledge of the expertise that is available and of the individuals deeply engaged and active or with such potential b Create a known community that coordinates common and shared efforts More information is available on the University of California Office of Scholarly Communication website http osc universityofcalifornia edu University of Glasgow DAEDALUS Project Glasgow University received funding from JISC in 2002 for three years to set up the DAEDALUS Data Providers for Academic E content and the Disclosure of Assets for Learning Understanding and Scholarship Project The project formed one of the core strategic aims for Glasgow University Library and feeds into Library strategy at all levels A major part of the DAEDALUS Project was the development and implementation of an institutional advocacy campaign which aimed to create an open access culture at the University while also seeking to populate the university s repositories The advocacy campaign was led by the Project Manager Advocacy but all library staff involved with researchers were fully briefed on repository developments and able to explain to interested academics why the repository was developed and how they can deposit The project developed an advocacy website to highlight the issues around scholarly communications and this is regularly updated with news links to other relevant websites and advocacy materials that can be used by anyone interested The project also established a project board with three senior academics representing each of the three territorial subject groupings within the University who have been of great assistance in developing advocacy strategies Project staff contacted academics that had posted copies of their papers onto personal or departmental web pages to encourage them to place them in the university repositories They also identified a number of journals with what appear to be liberal editorial policies around the re use of copyrighted papers and we have contacted researchers publishing in these journals so that we can test the journal policies with regard to the deposit of papers in institutional repositories Subject librarians arranged for presentations to be made at faculty departmental and research group meetings distributing publicity materials and kept the issues alive in their discussions with researchers The project organised two campus events each attended by around 50 academics with speakers from bodies such as SPARC and other FAIR projects who contextualised the issues and discussed international developments More information is available

    Original URL path: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=549&Itemid=402 (2016-02-01)
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