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  • A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants

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  • A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants
    on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company All rights reserved For Permissions please email journals permissions oup com Related articles ContentSnapshots Content Snapshots Ann Bot 2013 112 6 i iv doi 10 1093 aob mct225 Extract Full Text HTML Full Text PDF Previous Next Article Table of Contents This Article Ann Bot 2013 112 6 965 972 doi 10 1093 aob mct163 First published online July 31 2013 Abstract Free Free Figures Free Full Text HTML Free Full Text PDF Free All Versions of this Article mct163v1 112 6 965 most recent Classifications Botanical Briefing Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Alert me if commented Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Responses Submit a response No responses published Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Van Hoewyk D Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Van Hoewyk D Agricola Articles by Van Hoewyk D Related Content Related articles in this journal Nutrition Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google Mendeley Twitter What s this Search this journal Advanced Current Issue February 2016 117 2 Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Annals of Botany Collections AoB article attracts media coverage We are mobile find out more Journals Career Network Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company Impact factor 3 654 5 Yr impact factor 4 338 Eigenfactor 0 02603 Rank 10 200 SCImago Score 1 461 Rank 124 1873 Chief Editor Professor J S Pat Heslop Harrison View full editorial board International Review Board

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  • Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation
    meristem in arabidopsis have now been identified in AON This includes the recent identification of several CLE peptides capable of activating nodule inhibition responses a low molecular weight shoot signal and a role for CLAVATA2 in AON Efforts are now being focused on directly identifying the interactions of these components and to identify the form that long distance transport molecules take Key words Legume nodulation AON signalling hormone plant peptide receptor kinase symbiosis The Author 2011 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company All rights reserved For Permissions please email journals permissions oup com Related articles ContentSnapshots Content Snapshots Ann Bot 2011 108 5 i iii doi 10 1093 aob mcr250 Extract Full Text HTML Full Text PDF Previous Next Article Table of Contents This Article Ann Bot 2011 108 5 789 795 doi 10 1093 aob mcr205 First published online August 18 2011 Abstract Free Full Text HTML Full Text PDF All Versions of this Article mcr205v1 108 5 789 most recent Classifications Botanical Briefing Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Alert me if commented Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Responses Submit a response No responses published Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Reid D E Articles by Gresshoff P M Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Reid D E Articles by Ferguson B J Articles by Hayashi S Articles by Lin Y H Articles by Gresshoff P M Agricola Articles by Reid D E Articles by Gresshoff P M Related Content Related articles in this journal Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google Mendeley Twitter What s this Search this journal Advanced Current Issue February 2016 117 2 Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Annals of Botany Collections AoB article attracts media coverage We are mobile find out more Journals Career Network Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company Impact factor 3 654 5 Yr impact factor 4 338 Eigenfactor 0 02603 Rank 10 200 SCImago Score 1 461 Rank 124 1873 Chief Editor Professor J S Pat Heslop Harrison View full editorial board International Review Board For Authors Submitting a manuscript online Self archiving policy Instructions for authors Low Rate Open Access Fees Open access options for authors visit Oxford Open Visit HighWire Press 3hWaciBYRk30rSOQ7UOpP6viAxsZnEle true Looking for your next opportunity Looking for jobs Alerting Services Email table of contents Email Advance Access CiteTrack XML RSS feed Rights Permissions This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics COPE Corporate Services Advertising sales Reprints Supplements Widget Get a Widget Most Most Read Calcium in Plants Pollen Tube Distribution in the Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosaA Chev C F Liang Pistil in Relation

    Original URL path: https://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/5/789.abstract?sid=46ebef13-27df-4cdb-b69d-5d51144d0798 (2016-02-18)
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  • Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation
    CLE peptides also possess a 5 7 amino acid conserved extension beyond the 3 CLE motif CLE peptides require processing to generate the final product and several protease cleavage events may be required Ni and Clark 2006 Ni et al 2011 The extracellular fluid of legumes has been demonstrated to possess factors with proteolytic activity capable of producing biologically active CLE peptides Djordjevic et al 2011 The activity of CLE peptides has also been shown to be dependent on post translational modifications including hydroxylation of proline residues and glycosylation of key residues Kondo et al 2006 Ohyama et al 2009 In arabidopsis CLV3 and CLE2 which share a similar CLE domain sequence to the nodulation CLE peptides were identified with three β 1 2 linked arabinose moieties bound to Hyp7 of the 13 amino acid CLE peptide Ohyama et al 2009 Due to the systemic signalling requirement in AON it is presumed that long distance transport of the Q signal is required probably via the xylem Fig 1 D Efforts have therefore been undertaken to characterize the protein and metabolite components of the xylem sap of legume plants The soybean xylem sap proteome identified several protein components although none of these differed between plants with or without nodules Djordjevic et al 2007 There were however changes observed in the xylem sap proteome of inoculated soybeans at the seedling stage though a distinct role for these changes in nodulation was not identified Subramanian et al 2009 Previous Section Next Section SHOOT DEPENDENT COMPONENTS IN AON The secondary structure of NARK includes an N terminal signal peptide and an extracellular LRR domain which is the proposed binding site for Q Transmembrane and intracellular kinase domains are also key features of NARK and are essential for membrane localization protein protein interactions and downstream phosphorylation and signalling events Supernodulation phenotypes result from mutations in NARK in either the LRR or kinase domains indicating that both are required for AON signalling and or stabilizing the signalling complex Searle et al 2003 Modelling of the NARK LRR domain indicates that it may form a boomerang shape that acts to perceive the AON ligand Reid et al 2011 Two known missense mutants in soybean nod4 and nod3 7 display severe supernodulation phenotypes resembling those of deletion Men et al 2002 and nonsense Carroll et al 1985 Searle et al 2003 mutants despite having only single amino acid substitutions within the proposed ligand binding site Reid et al 2011 Mutants that affect the expression or localization of the AON receptor might also be predicted to cause supernodulation phenotypes Shoot controlled nodule regulation is lost in the lss like SUNN supernodulator mutant in M truncatula Schnabel et al 2010 The LSS locus maps in a region close to the SUNN gene however sequencing of SUNN and the surrounding regions indicates that there is no mutation within the 20 kbp SUNN region SUNN expression is greatly reduced in lss and epigenetic factors may be responsible for loss of SUNN activity As mentioned above NARK and its orthologues share a high degree of similarity with CLV1 in arabidopsis 75 amino acid similarity Searle et al 2003 which is required for maintenance of the shoot apical meristem SAM Several protein interactions which may be relevant to the activity of NARK in AON have been reported with CLV1 including CLAVATA2 CLV2 Jeong et al 1999 and CORYNE CRN Muller et al 2008 CLV2 is a receptor like protein that lacks an intracellular kinase domain whereas CRN is a kinase like protein that lacks an extracellular LRR domain CRN appears to lack effective kinase activity and may be required as a structural component in a CLV1 complex or for facilitating the inclusion of other components including CLV2 in a receptor complex Nimchuck et al 2011 Additional shoot controlled supernodulation mutants have recently been genetically characterized and represent further components associated with the CLV signalling pathway Fig 1 B E The shoot dependent supernodulation mutant sym28 in pea and LjCLV2 in L japonicus are the orthologues of AtCLV2 Krusell et al 2011 Experiments to determine if CLV2 forms a heterodimer complex with HAR1 in a similar manner to the CLV2 CLV1 complex in the SAM were unable to establish an interaction KLAVIER KLV is a receptor like kinase similar to RPK2 TOAD2 in arabidopsis which is required for CLV3 dependent meristem regulation Kinoshita et al 2010 Miyazawa et al 2010 KLV was shown to form homo or heterodimer complexes with itself and HAR1 respectively suggesting that a receptor complex may be required for the perception of Q Miyazawa et al 2010 This work serves to highlight the extent to which nodule regulation activity utilizes the machinery of SAM regulation Further investigation of CLV signalling components which may function in AON will be of interest including whether a CRN like protein plays a role in AON Previous Section Next Section TRANSMISSION OF AON SIGNALLING IN THE LEAF Knowledge of signal transduction mechanisms acting downstream of CLV in arabidopsis has assisted in the identification of homologous elements in AON Two kinase associated protein phosphatases KAPP1 2 were identified in soybean that are phosphorylated by NARK in vitro and subsequently dephosphorylate the NARK kinase Miyahara et al 2008 This may indicate that a sufficient equilibrium of phosphorylation states between NARK and KAPP1 2 must exist before a downstream AON response is generated Fig 1 F In arabidopsis the primary function of CLV signalling activity in the SAM is the restriction of WUSCHEL WUS production This acts to maintain an appropriate balance between differentiated and undifferentiated cells via a constant feedback between WUS and CLV3 Schoof et al 2000 WUS related homeobox WOX genes have been identified in other CLE peptide LRR receptor systems including the regulation of vascular differentiation Hirakawa et al 2010 Ji et al 2010 and in the root apical meristem Kamiya et al 2003 Sarkar et al 2007 Likewise a WOX component may be involved in AON signalling though this remains to be determined To identify components of AON acting downstream of NARK in the leaf transcriptional profiling using Affymetrix GeneChips or subtractive hybridization techniques has been undertaken in soybean Seo et al 2007 Kinkema and Gresshoff 2008 Both of these studies identified components of the jasmonic acid JA biosynthesis or response pathways being regulated following rhizobia inoculation Foliar application of methyl jasmonate in L japonicus inhibited nodulation in both wild type and har1 plants further indicating that JA may play a role in nodule regulation Nakagawa and Kawaguchi 2006 The identification of additional nodule regulation mutants through candidate gene selection in TILLING populations or through screening of traditional mutant populations may be useful for identifying further downstream components of AON Previous Section Next Section SDI AND EFFORTS TO IDENTIFY IT Shoot derived inhibitor is produced in the shoot following the perception of Q Fig 1 G Phloem transport of the SDI signal from the shoot to the root would appear to be the most probable mechanism based on the timing and direction of its response It is then predicted to be perceived in the root where it acts to prevent cell divisions required for nodule development Fig 1 H A bioassay approach has been exploited to characterize the nature of SDI partially through petiole feeding of plant extracts into the phloem of intact plants Lin et al 2010 2011 Using this technique leaf extracts from wild type plants inhibited nodulation in hypernodulating nts mutants that are unable to produce SDI Various pre treatments of the leaf extract showed that SDI is probably a small heat stable molecule that is not a protein or RNA The inhibitory capacity of the leaf extracts was also dependent on NARK and on nod factor signalling Lin et al 2010 2011 The petiole feeding bioassay technique has also been exploited to show that nitrogen fixation in nodules may be systemically regulated through phloem transport of the amino acid asparagine Sulieman et al 2010 Previous Section Next Section CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Plants maintain appropriate growth and development via constant feedback to environmental and internal conditions The regulation of nodulation in legumes is one such system where systemic signalling ensures a balance between nodule formation and energy requirements Knowing the identity of both the root and shoot derived mobile signals in AON would be of immense value to the field The identification of CLE peptides capable of nodule regulation and a role for CLV2 and KLV in AON have emphasized the similarities that exist between AON and other CLE peptide ligand receptor systems particularly that of the CLAVATA signalling pathway in the SAM Ongoing research on AON will draw on these similarities and will in turn contribute to the better understanding of other environmental and developmental regulation responses occurring in the plant The decreasing cost and increased availability of high throughput sequencing technology continue to drive discoveries in plant genetics Moreover the recent sequencing of the soybean L japonicus and M truncatula genomes means that three largely complete legume genomes are now publicly available Young et al 2005 Sato et al 2008 Schmutz et al 2010 These resources will considerably support future advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying nodule regulation Previous Section Next Section ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the University of Queensland and the Australian Research Council through a Centre of Excellence grant Additional support was provided to D E R by an Australian Government DIISR Australian Postgraduate Award We thank Meng Han Lin Alina Tollenaere Dongxue Li and Alvin van Niekerk for continued support The Author 2011 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company All rights reserved For Permissions please email journals permissions oup com Previous Section LITERATURE CITED Bhuvaneswari TV Bhagwat AA Bauer WD Transient susceptibility of root cells in four common legumes to nodulation by Rhizobia Plant Physiology 1981 68 1144 1149 Abstract FREE Full Text Caetano Anolles G Gresshoff P Plant genetic control of nodulation Annual Review of Microbiology 1991 45 345 382 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Caetano Anollés G Joshi PA Gresshoff PM Spontaneous nodules induce feedback suppression of nodulation in alfalfa Planta 1990 183 77 82 Web of Science Google Scholar Calvert H Pence M Pierce M Malik N Bauer W Anatomical analysis of the development and distribution of Rhizobium infections in soybean roots Canadian Journal of Botany 1984 62 2375 2384 CrossRef Google Scholar Carroll BJ McNeil DL Gresshoff PM Isolation and properties of soybean Glycine max L MERR mutants that nodulate in the presence of high nitrate concentrations Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1985 82 4162 4166 Abstract FREE Full Text Cho M J Harper JE Effect of localized nitrate application on isoflavonoid concentration and nodulation in split root systems of wild type and nodulation mutant soybean plants Plant Physiology 1991 95 1106 1112 Abstract FREE Full Text Clark SE Williams RW Meyerowitz EM The CLAVATA1 gene encodes a putative receptor kinase that controls shoot and floral meristem size in Arabidopsis Cell 1997 89 575 585 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Day DA Lambers H Bateman J Carroll BJ Gresshoff PM Growth comparisons of a supernodulating soybean Glycine max mutant and its wild type parent Physiologia Plantarum 1986 68 375 382 CrossRef Google Scholar Delves AC Mathews A Day DA Carter AS Carroll BJ Gresshoff PM Regulation of the soybean Rhizobium nodule symbiosis by shoot and root factors Plant Physiology 1986 82 588 590 Abstract FREE Full Text Delves A Higgins A Gresshoff P Shoot apex removal does not alter autoregulation of nodulation in soybean Plant Cell and Environment 1992 15 249 254 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Djordjevic MA Oakes M Li DX Hwang CH Hocart CH Gresshoff PM The Glycine max xylem sap and apoplast proteome Journal of Proteome Research 2007 6 3771 3779 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Djordjevic MA Oakes M Wong CE et al Border sequences of Medicago truncatula CLE36 are specifically cleaved by endoproteases common to the extracellular fluids of Medicago and soybean Journal of Experimental Botany 2011 in press doi 10 1093 jxb err185 Engvild KC Nodulation and nitrogen fixation mutants of pea Pisum sativum Theoretical and Applied Genetics 1987 74 711 713 Web of Science Google Scholar Ferguson BJ Mathesius U Signaling interactions during nodule development Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 2003 22 47 72 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Ferguson BJ Indrasumunar A Hayashi S et al Molecular analysis of legume nodule development and autoregulation Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52 61 76 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Fletcher JC Brand U Running MP Simon R Meyerowitz EM Signaling of cell fate decisions by CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis shoot meristems Science 1999 283 1911 1914 Abstract FREE Full Text Gelin O Blixt S Root nodulation in peas Agricultural and Horticultural Genetics 1964 22 149 159 Google Scholar Gresshoff PM Lohar D Chan PK et al Genetic analysis of ethylene regulation of legume nodulation Plant Signaling and Behaviour 2009 4 818 823 CrossRef Google Scholar Hinson K Nodulation responses from nitrogen applied to soybean half root systems Agronomy Journal 1975 67 799 804 Web of Science Google Scholar Hirakawa Y Kondo Y Fukuda H TDIF peptide signalling regulates vascular stem cell proliferation via the WOX4 homeobox gene in Arabidopsis The Plant Cell 2010 22 2618 2629 Abstract FREE Full Text Ishikawa K Yokota K Li YY et al Isolation of a novel root determined hypernodulation mutant rdh1 of Lotus japonicus Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 2008 54 259 263 CrossRef Google Scholar Jacobsen E Feenstra WJ A new pea mutant with efficient nodulation in the presence of nitrate Plant Science Letters 1984 33 337 344 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Jeong S Trotochaud A Clark S The Arabidopsis CLAVATA2 gene encodes a receptor like protein required for the stability of the CLAVATA1 receptor like kinase The Plant Cell 1999 11 1925 1934 Abstract FREE Full Text Jeudy C Ruffel S Freixes S et al Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to nitrogen limitation is modulated via local and systemic nodule developmental responses New Phytologist 2010 185 817 828 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Ji J Strable J Shimizu R Koenig D Sinha N Scanlon MJ WOX4 promotes procambial development Plant Physiology 2010 152 1346 1356 Abstract FREE Full Text Kamiya N Nagasaki H Morikami A Sato Y Matsuoka M Isolation and characterization of a rice WUSCHEL type homeobox gene that is specifically expressed in the central cells of a quiescent center in the root apical meristem The Plant Journal 2003 35 429 441 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Kinkema M Gresshoff PM Investigation of downstream signals of the soybean autoregulation of nodulation receptor kinase Gm NARK Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 2008 21 1337 1348 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Kinoshita A Betsuyaku S Osakabe Y et al RPK2 is an essential receptor like kinase that transmits the CLV3 signal in Arabidopsis Development 2010 137 3911 3920 Abstract FREE Full Text Kondo T Sawa S Kinoshita A Mizuno S Kakimoto T Fukuda H Sakagami Y A plant peptide encoded by CLV3 identified by in situ MALDI TOF MS analysis Science 2006 313 845 848 Abstract FREE Full Text Kondo T Nakamura T Yokomine K Sakagami Y Dual assay for MCLV3 activity reveals structure activity relationship of CLE peptides Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2008 377 312 316 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Kosslak RM Bohlool BB Suppression of nodule development of one side of a split root system of soybeans caused by prior inoculation of the other side Plant Physiology 1984 75 125 130 Abstract FREE Full Text Krusell L Madsen LH Sato S et al Shoot control of root development and nodulation is mediated by a receptor like kinase Nature 2002 420 422 426 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Krusell L Sato N Fukuhara I et al The Clavata2 genes of pea and Lotus japonicus affect autoregulation of nodulation The Plant Journal 2011 65 861 871 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Li D Kinkema M Gresshoff PM Autoregulation of nodulation AON in Pisum sativum pea involves signalling events associated with both nodule primordia development and nitrogen fixation Journal of Plant Physiology 2009 166 955 967 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Lim CW Lee YW Hwang CH Soybean nodule enhanced CLE peptides in roots act as signals in GmNARK mediated nodulation suppression Plant and Cell Physiology 2011 in press doi 10 1093 pcp pcr091 Google Scholar Lin Y H Ferguson BJ Kereszt A Gresshoff PM Suppression of hypernodulation in soybean by a leaf extracted NARK and Nod factor dependent low molecular mass fraction New Phytologist 2010 185 1074 1086 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Lin Y H Lin M H Gresshoff PM Ferguson BJ An efficient petiole feeding bioassay for introducing aqueous solutions into dicotyledonous plants Nature Protocols 2011 6 36 45 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Lohar D Stiller J Kam J Stacey G Gresshoff PM Ethylene insensitivity conferred by a mutated Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene alters nodulation in transgenic Lotus japonicus Annals of Botany 2009 104 277 285 Abstract FREE Full Text Magori S Oka Kira E Shibata S et al TOO MUCH LOVE a root regulator associated with the long distance control of nodulation in Lotus japonicus Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 2009 22 259 268 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Mathews A Carroll BJ Gresshoff PM Development of Bradyrhizobium infections in supernodulating and non nodulating mutants of soybean Glycine max L Merrill Protoplasma 1989 150 40 47 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Men AE Laniya TS Searle IR et al Fast neutron mutagenesis of soybean Glycine soja L produces a supernodulating mutant containing a large deletion in linkage group H Genome Letters 2002 1 147 155 CrossRef Google Scholar Meng L Ruth KC Fletcher JC Feldman L The roles of different CLE domains in Arabidopsis CLE polypeptide activity and

    Original URL path: https://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/5/789.full?sid=46ebef13-27df-4cdb-b69d-5d51144d0798 (2016-02-18)
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  • Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation

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  • Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions
    will experience less selection pressure to maintain high levels of defensive secondary metabolites Range expanders potentially affect ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling These features are quite comparable with what is known of intercontinental invasive exotic plants However intracontinental range expanding plants will have ongoing gene flow between the newly established populations and the populations in the native range This is a major difference from intercontinental invasive exotic plants which become more severely disconnected from their source populations Key words Climate change range expansion exotic plant plant invasion plant defence trophic interactions enemy release EICA above ground and below ground interactions nutrient cycling litter decomposition The Author 2010 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company All rights reserved For Permissions please email journals permissions oxfordjournals org Related articles ContentSnapshots Content Snapshots Ann Bot 2010 105 6 i iii doi 10 1093 aob mcq105 Extract Full Text HTML Full Text PDF Previous Next Article Table of Contents This Article Ann Bot 2010 105 6 843 848 doi 10 1093 aob mcq064 First published online March 30 2010 Abstract Free Full Text HTML Free Full Text PDF Free All Versions of this Article mcq064v1 105 6 843 most recent Classifications Botanical Briefing Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Alert me if commented Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Responses Submit a response No responses published Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Morriën E Articles by Van der Putten W H Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Morriën E Articles by Engelkes T Articles by Macel M Articles by Meisner A Articles by Van der Putten W H Agricola Articles by Morriën E Articles by Van der Putten W H Related Content Related articles in this journal Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google Mendeley Twitter What s this Search this journal Advanced Current Issue February 2016 117 2 Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Annals of Botany Collections AoB article attracts media coverage We are mobile find out more Journals Career Network Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company Impact factor 3 654 5 Yr impact factor 4 338 Eigenfactor 0 02603 Rank 10 200 SCImago Score 1 461 Rank 124 1873 Chief Editor Professor J S Pat Heslop Harrison View full editorial board International Review Board For Authors Submitting a manuscript online Self archiving policy Instructions for authors Low Rate Open Access Fees Open access options for authors visit Oxford Open Visit HighWire Press 3hWaciBYRk30rSOQ7UOpP6viAxsZnEle true Looking for your next opportunity Looking for jobs Alerting Services Email table of contents Email Advance Access CiteTrack XML RSS feed Rights Permissions This journal is a member of the Committee

    Original URL path: https://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/105/6/843.abstract?sid=46ebef13-27df-4cdb-b69d-5d51144d0798 (2016-02-18)
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  • Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions
    Exposure of the native and exotic plant species to aphids did not reveal any different responses of the aphids so the effects of range expanders may be herbivore specific If intracontinental range expansion is promoted by climate warming an indirect effect of warming will be that the incidence of plant invasions is enhanced Thus far climate change effects on insects have been considered directly on the physiology of the insects Bale et al 2002 or indirectly from the perspective of plant quality Bezemer and Jones 1998 Here we propose that climate change can also affect plant insect relationships by introducing less suitable host plant species originating from lower latitudes Aside from antagonist relationships mutualisms like pollination and symbiosis may become altered by plant invasions There are many different possible outcomes For example pollination of native plants can be reduced in the presence of invasive exotic plants that provide higher resources in their flowers Traveset and Richardson 2006 As a result the exotic plants will receive higher incidences of pollination than the natives ultimately causing loss of fitness of the natives Plants that expand their original range within the continent may experience changes in the composition of the insect community that they encounter Rohde 1992 Moreover the insects themselves may also shift range which can result in all sorts of unpredictable effects Hegland et al 2009 in general intracontinental range expanding exotic plants may experience indirect advantages over natives if they are less dependent on pollinators than native plants Enemy release is best known for above ground plant enemies However some recent studies have shown that plants may also become released from below ground enemies For example in Canada soil pathogen activity on Eurasian plant species developed as slowly as on dominant native plant species Klironomos 2002 In an intercontinental comparison Prunus serotina black cherry suffered from soil pathogens in the root zone in the native range whereas the plants from the invaded range were free from pathogenic effects Reinhart et al 2003 Other exotic plants were shown to accumulate local pathogens as is demonstrated for above ground viruses Malmstrom et al 2005 and soil pathogens Mangla et al 2008 Intracontinental range expanding plant species are exposed to less soil borne pathogenic activity than related natives Van Grunsven et al 2007 Engelkes et al 2008 Moreover in a first comparison between the native and new range of an intracontinental range expander the plants were shown to experience soil pathogenic activity in their native but not in the new range Van Grunsven et al 2010 Mutualistic relationships of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMFs can be quite non specific so that alterations in these mutualisms are supposed to be less involved in plant invasions Richardson et al 2000 Whether or not this is a general pattern during range shift remains to be investigated In some cases local mutualistic symbionts can even be strongly suppressed by invasive non mycorrhizal exotic plants These exotics may use an active process by which phytochemicals are excreted that suppress AMFs in the soil Stinson et al 2006 or a passive process by which the abundant non mycorrhizal exotics do not support the AMFs in the soil leading to their decline Vogelsang and Bever 2009 In both cases the capacity of native mycorrhizal dependent plant species to persist and survive in the invaded community was reduced This has been studied for intercontinental exotic plants only Plant defence chemistry Interactions between plants and their environments are mediated through plant secondary product chemistry For example plant secondary compounds can act as toxins or deterrents towards herbivores and pathogens can attract predators of the herbivores and pollinators and can also be phytotoxic Plant secondary product chemistry plays a role in at least two different hypotheses explaining biological invasions The first is the novel weapons hypothesis the second is the evolution of increased competitive ability EICA hypothesis Here the role and consequences of plant secondary compounds in the invasion of intracontinental range expanders will be explored The novel weapons hypothesis Callaway and Aschehoug 2000 states that invasive exotic plants may release from the roots compounds to which the native plants in the new range are not adapted This gives the invasive exotic plant a competitive advantage over the native competitors Initially the novel weapons hypothesis was posed for allelopathic effects in the soil but this can be extended to above ground interactions as well Native above ground herbivores may also not be adapted to the novel chemistry of invasive exotic plants Cappuccino and Arnason 2006 showed that invasive exotic plants are more likely to have unique compounds compared with non invasive exotic plants and natives suggesting that novel chemistry indeed leads to invasion success Similar to intercontinental invasions the success and invasion of intracontinental range expanding exotics could at least in part be due to whether or not these plants contain novel chemistry In Europe climate warming is one of the factors enabling plants to shift their distribution northwards It is often assumed that plants from lower latitudes are better defended against herbivores owing to higher consumer pressures Coley and Aide 1991 Lower latitude salt marsh plants indeed are less palatable than high latitude genotypes Salgado and Pennings 2005 If these better defended low latitude plants moved northwards in the northern hemisphere they might thus experience less negative impact of herbivores and pathogens compared with the native plants of the north This better defence of lower latitudinal plants can be due to both novel chemistry and higher concentrations of chemical compounds Successful intracontinental range expanders showed a higher induction of phenolic compounds than related native plants after herbivory Engelkes et al 2008 The release from herbivores and consequently the loss of top down control of plant population sizes in the new range can promote plant invasiveness Keane and Crawley 2002 The release from herbivores also has another consequence Plants can afford to invest less in plant defences and more into plant growth which can further lead to invasion success as is stated in the EICA hypothesis Blossey and Nötzold 1995 The EICA hypothesis was extended by incorporation of the different selection of generalist versus specialist enemies Müller Schärer et al 2004 While specialists can be attracted to plant secondary metabolites generalists are thought to be deterred by these compounds With intercontinental invasive plants usually mainly the specialist herbivores are lacking in the introduced range Hence an increase of plant secondary metabolites can be expected in the new range if the costs of producing these compounds are low Joshi and Vrieling 2005 In intracontinental range expanding plants differences in selection between the old and new range could be less dramatic than for intercontinental invaders Herbivores may be present in the new range that feed on closely related plant species and can perhaps easily switch to a novel host plant from lower latitudes Furthermore herbivores at least those acting above ground could move at the same rate as their host plants Berg et al 2010 Nevertheless the chance is high that the multitrophic interactions between the plant and its biotic environment will change during range expansion and therefore selection on plant chemistry will also change in the new range If selection in the new range is mainly exerted by generalist herbivores selection towards higher concentrations of plant secondary metabolites can be expected as has been observed for intercontinental invasive plants In contrast to the situation with invaders from other continents there is continuing gene flow between the source populations in the native range and the populations in the new range of intracontinental range expanding plants On the one hand this can hamper evolution of plant chemistry through random processes such as genetic drift or founder effects and also natural selection by diluting any local adaptation in the new range Kirkpatrick and Barton 1997 On the other hand gene flow will increase genetic variation in the newly founded populations providing more opportunities for natural selection to act Consequently evolutionary processes will be different between classic invaders from other continents Sakai et al 2001 and climate warming induced range expanders Soil nutrient cycling Root exudates and litter inputs mediate the interactions between plant composition and soil nutrient cycling Aerts and Chapin 2000 Intercontinental exotic plants can change these interactions when their litter or their root exudates differ qualitatively or quantitatively from those of native plants Ehrenfeld 2003 For example litter with a high nutrient concentration is decomposed at a faster rate than litter with high lignin content Cornwell et al 2008 This can result in faster nutrient cycling of higher quality litter and slower nutrient cycling of lower quality litter When exotic plants alter soil nutrient cycling after establishment this can have consequences for the whole ecosystem so that native plants will have to deal with the changed nutrient cycling conditions Ehrenfeld 2003 To date no study has examined the effects of intracontinental climate warming induced range expanding plants on soil nutrient cycling For intercontinental invasions 70 of all studies determine impacts of invasive plants on soil nutrient cycling based on field observations Ehrenfeld 2003 These may include hidden factors for example that sites invaded by the exotic plants already had higher nutrient cycling prior to invasion In general invasive exotic plants can have positive negative or neutral effects on nutrient cycling Ehrenfeld 2003 The effects are site dependent Dassonville et al 2008 and the traits of the exotic plants especially nitrogen fixation play a major role in the responses of soil nutrient cycling to invasion Liao et al 2008 In some experimental studies effects of invasive plants on soil nutrient cycling operated through altering soil microbial community structure Kourtev et al 2003 In other studies invasive exotic plants increased gross nitrification rates by increasing the quantity and diversity of bacteria involved through altered inputs from roots and litter Hawkes et al 2005 However most intercontinental plant invaders tend to have higher decomposition rates of dead leaves than natives that are replaced by the invaders Ehrenfeld 2003 This is probably due to higher litter quality as invasive exotic plants have been observed with higher shoot nutrient concentrations Dassonville et al 2008 In some cases litter quality of the exotic plants was not higher than of the natives whereas litter from the exotics still decomposed faster than that of the natives Allison and Vitousek 2004 Although it is expected that invasive plants increase nutrient cycling and availability through litter inputs this mechanism has rarely been studied experimentally in comparison with related natives On average faster decomposition of invasive plant litter can result in increased nitrogen loss from this litter Allison and Vitousek 2004 Ashton et al 2005 However pair wise comparisons between litter from related native plants and exotic invaders do not necessarily support this view Ashton et al 2005 Moreover nitrogen concentrations in soils are not always increased when litter decomposition rates are increased e g Ashton et al 2005 suggesting that instead of making nitrogen directly available to plants soil microbes first immobilize and store the nitrogen in their own biomass This immobilized nitrogen can later be released Because altered nutrient cycling can affect whole ecosystems experimental studies are needed to answer the question of how intracontinental range expanding plants may alter nutrient cycling via root and litter inputs and how this compares with intercontinental exotic invaders Previous Section Next Section DISCUSSION Thus far consequences of warming have been studied experimentally by warming drying or exposure of field plots to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide e g Körner 2006 Modelling studies have assessed changing vegetation zones Schröter et al 2005 or responses of species to changing climate envelopes Guisan and Thuiller 2005 However in spite of a number of studies pointing to climate warming induced intracontinental range expansions e g Walther et al 2002 very few studies have actually assessed the impacts of such range expansion on the biology and ecology of plant species and on ecosystem properties and functions Here we point out a number of characteristics that intracontinental range expanding plants have in common with intercontinental invaders Range expansions within a continent may enable plants from warmer climate regions to become released from their above and below ground natural enemies Possibly above ground enemy species more easily co migrate to higher latitudes Berg et al 2010 although it is not necessarily so that when all species migrate to higher latitudes the original species interactions become re established in the new range Menendez et al 2008 For example the herbivores may not recognize their original hosts in the new environment or they may prefer native plant species over their original hosts Soil organisms have poorer active dispersal and host location capacity which makes their re interacting with original hosts a matter of chance Therefore intracontinental climate warming induced range expansion may result in both above and below ground enemy release but the chance of below ground enemy release is probably higher owing to the limited dispersal and search capacities of most root herbivores and soil pathogens Fig 1 Since most intracontinental range expanding plant species originate from warmer climate regions with higher insect abundance they will be better defended against high insect feeding pressure than the native species from the more temperate areas Thus intracontinental range expansions may introduce novel chemicals into the former temperate regions which can have strong consequences for ecological interactions Specialist enemies may not be able to recognize the exotic plants whereas the high concentrations of defensive compounds in plant tissues may prevent abundance control of the range expanding plants by generalists To what extent these effects of novel chemistry also apply to below ground interactions is not known above and below ground defensive chemistry is not necessarily coupled Van Dam et al 2003 It is difficult to predict the consequences of intracontinental plant range expansions for nutrient cycling processes in the new range because of the paucity of studies on the decomposability of leaf litter and root exudates of lower versus higher latitude species Thus far climate change research has resulted in predictions based on data from both latitudes and altitudes Using altitudinal data in order to predict latitudinal responses may underestimate the differences in dispersal capacities of below ground and above ground biota Berg et al 2010 Therefore in order to enhance the predictions for intracontinental latitudinal range expansions the consequences of above and below ground biotic interactions for plant abundance and invasiveness need to be considered more explicitly There is some evidence now showing that intracontinental plant range expansions along latitudinal gradients indeed involve enemy release Van Grunsven et al 2010 similar to that already found for intercontinental invasions It will be important to study further above and below ground biotic interactions in relation to plant range expansion and to relate these findings to altitudinal range expansions and to intercontinental plant invasions In conclusion we think that the recent intracontinental climate warming induced range expansions of many plant species from lower to higher latitudes may introduce novel plant traits that change ecological interactions with the potential of changing ecosystem processes These range expansions within continents provide many new questions for botanists plant biologists and ecologists such as how these exotic plants are performing in their new range how they change ecological relationships in the new range what their direct and indirect influences are on the native plant species and how ecosystem processes will change To some degree the concepts developed in studies on classic intercontinental exotic invaders can be used for the studies on intracontinental range expanding plants However as we have outlined there are also substantial differences between intra and intercontinental invasions Within continents there are more opportunities for ongoing gene flow between plants from the original and new ranges Fig 1 which will influence the rate of adaptation to novel conditions Moreover natural enemies symbionts and carnivores from the native range may in principle migrate as well although not all species will be able to migrate to higher latitudes Sooner or later however some species assemblages may become re established but the question is whether they will interact similarly to how they did in the original range are the species still the same and how does their interaction depend on other environmental conditions As some of the conditions for intracontinental range expanders are in strong contrast to those of intercontinental invasions understanding and predicting the consequences of rapid range shifts requires new studies that will further develop current ecological hypotheses and concepts Clearly the recent experimental findings on ecological consequences of climate warming induced plant range expansion result in a wealth of new research questions to ecology Previous Section Next Section ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was funded by an ALW VICI grant to W H v d P The Author 2010 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company All rights reserved For Permissions please email journals permissions oxfordjournals org Previous Section LITERATURE CITED Aerts R Chapin FS The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited a re evaluation of processes and patterns Advances in Ecological Research 2000 30 1 67 Web of Science Google Scholar Allison SD Vitousek PM Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai i Oecologia 2004 141 612 619 CrossRef Medline Web of Science Google Scholar Ashton IW Hyatt LA Howe KM Gurevitch J Lerdau MT Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest Ecological Applications 2005 15 1263 1272 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Bale JS Masters GJ Hodkinson ID et al Herbivory in global climate change research direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores Global Change Biology 2002 8 1 16 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Berg MP Kiers ET Driessen G et al Adapt or disperse understanding species persistence in a changing world Global Change Biology 2010 16 587 598 CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar Bezemer TM Jones TH Plant insect herbivore interactions in elevated atmospheric CO 2 quantitative analyses and guild effects Oikos 1998 82 212 222 CrossRef Web of Science

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