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  • The Cinta Senese: modern management for an ancient pig | Aumaitre | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Reviews Aumaitre The Cinta Senese modern management for an ancient pig Aimé Aumaitre DOI http dx doi org 10 4081 ijas 2005 204 Aimé Aumaitre Affiliation not present nadia moscato pagepress org Abstract Traditional pig breeds have received intensive interest originated from the reaction of the modern consumer more and more sensitive and enthusiastic on the link between high quality of animal products when issued from native animals Keywords Cinta

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2005.204 (2016-04-25)
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  • Dairy Sheep Nutrition | Scipioni | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Issue Home Book Reviews Scipioni Dairy Sheep Nutrition Rosanna Scipioni DOI http dx doi org 10 4081 ijas 2005 203 Rosanna Scipioni PAGEPress Publications Italy nadia moscato pagepress org Abstract This book edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina is the result of the project Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies in Italy Keywords Dairy sheep Full

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2005.203 (2016-04-25)
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  • Dairy Sheep Nutrition | Scipioni | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    required Submission Editorial Board Advisory Board Impact Factor 2014 0 718 Impact Factor Metrics DOAJ Web statistics Advertising Alert me Thanks to reviewers 2014 Indexes of volumes 1 8 Book Reviews Remembrances We fight plagiarism SNIP 0 579 IPP 0 545 SJR 0 24 Current Issue Home Book Reviews Scipioni Download this PDF file Article Metrics Metrics Loading Metrics powered by PLOS ALM The Italian Journal of Animal Science eISSN

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2005.203/1271 (2016-04-25)
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  • Genetic relationships among five zebu breeds naturalized in America accessed with molecular markers | Villalobos-Cortés | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Editorial Board Advisory Board Impact Factor 2014 0 718 Impact Factor Metrics DOAJ Web statistics Advertising Alert me Thanks to reviewers 2014 Indexes of volumes 1 8 Book Reviews Remembrances We fight plagiarism SNIP 0 579 IPP 0 545 SJR 0 24 Current Issue Home Vol 14 No 2 2015 Villalobos Cortés Download this PDF file Article Metrics Metrics Loading Metrics powered by PLOS ALM The Italian Journal of Animal

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2015.3280/2817 (2016-04-25)
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  • Genetic relationships among five zebu breeds naturalized in America accessed with molecular markers | Villalobos-Cortés | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    al 2009 report N a of 9 52 and 7 92 in the Bos indicus Gaolao and Kenkatha cattle respectively Data of A r found in this group of breeds is similar to those reported in Bos taurus Latin American native breeds with 4 67 0 51 Delgado et al 2012 The high values of f found in most of the breeds studied in the present paper except for SIN could be attributed to the effects of the genetic improvement programmes to which they have been subjected for many years If control programmes of mating were not established to prevent the increase of inbreeding there could be a detrimental effect on the productivity of these populations as observed in other breeds such as the Brown Swiss da Silva et al 2001 Studies of the breeds GYR by Aidar De Queiroz et al 2000 and NEL by Garnero et al 2008 both in Brazil demonstrated that there is a decrease in live weight at different ages in inbred animals compared with non inbred animals which supports our findings in these breeds The results of the correspondence analysis Figure 1 indicated that the first three axes explain 82 27 of the variability The first axis accounted for 32 59 of the variability separating NEL from the other breeds the second axis accounted for 27 16 of the variability separating GUZ from the other breeds and the third component accounted for 22 52 of the total variability separating GYR from other breeds All populations were presented in separate groups but BRH and SIN breeds were found in closest cloud data This can be explained by a divergent genesis of NEL GUZ and GYR breeds in its American naturalization process which might be more homogeneous and independent of maternal Creole freely Iberian origin for BRH and SIN thus maintaining an apparent common origin AMOVA results indicated that the percentage of variation within groups was 93 17 and the differences between groups were 6 83 This value agrees with the differentiation values reported among breeds by Cañón et al 2001 and Villalobos et al 2010 in Bos taurus breeds and sufficient to consider an evident genetic separation among the breeds studied here as stated in international conventions FAO 2007 The values of F ST Table 2 below the diagonal correspond to the value of genetic differentiation by pairs of breeds ranging from a low of 0 036 pair BRH GYR to 0 106 pair GUZ GYR Nm values are also presented in Table 2 above the diagonal the lowest values of Nm were observed in the pair GUZ NEL 3 03 and the highest in the pair BRH SIN 10 80 which corroborates our hypothesis about the different models of naturalization followed by the studied breeds Reynolds genetic distances Table 3 of the five breeds ranged from 0 046 in the pair SIN BRH to 0 154 in the pair NEL GUZ The NEL population was the most distanced from all the zebu populations in this study The dendrogram of distances presented Figure 2 shows NEL and GYR breeds related in a cluster GUZ in another separate cluster and SIN and BRH sharing a different cluster Within studies of bovine genetic diversity and applying the methodology described above Martínez et al 2012 and Villalobos et al 2012 observed that the five Zebu populations at stake presented values of Q 0 84 and shared the same cluster in different calculated values of K when compared with other populations of Bos taurus probably masking the intrarracial realationships associated only to the Zebu populations The method based on Bayesian clustering models allowed us to evaluate with higher resolution the genetic structure of the five zebu Figure 3 The results for K 2 indicate a clear separation between NEL and other Zebu breeds confirming other observations in the AFC and the analysis of genetic distances of Reynolds When K 3 NEL and GUZ separated from the rest of Zebu strains Similar to what was observed on axis 1 of AFC GUZ breed shows a separation compared to other breeds on axis 2 adding both NEL and GUZ 59 75 of the total inertia K 4 value considered the optimal number of ancestral populations of American zebu as calculated by Evanno et al 2005 shows that the remaining breeds were mostly related to BRH and SIN confirming the observed data in the cloud in the AFC The same pattern of behaviour was observed at Reynolds dendrogram of distances Similarly observing the values of Nm and F ST revealed that these two populations will have the highest gene flow in relation to other breeds 10 80 and one of the lowest values of genetic differentiation therefore it can be inferred that there would still be some representation of alleles of the two breeds that still share since the Brahman breed was created in the nineteenth century Sanders 1980 or recent crossbreed made between the two populations However though phenotypically the five breeds have clearly different characteristics the value of K 4 Figure 3 represents the optimum value of ancestral populations When the value of K reached the value of 5 all populations within the study are fully separated This phenomenon could be attributed to the synthetic origin of the Brahman breed originated from the Guzerat Gyr Nelore and Red Sindhi breeds themselves involved in the present study Conclusions The zebu populations GYR GUZ and NEL have shown a clear genetic differentiation justified by a diverse origin and by a different model of introgression in America Brahma and SIN have shown a strong genetic relation probably due to the intervention of the Sindhi ancestors in the formation of the American synthetic Brahma The other populations showed values above the acceptable maximum inbreeding which put them in the risk of having a negative impact on productive capacity References 1 S Aidar De Queiroz L Galvão De Albuquerque N Aparecida Lanzoni 2000 Efeito da endogamia sobre características de crescimento de bovinos da raça Gir

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2015.3280/2881 (2016-04-25)
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  • Molecular characterisation of k-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed and identification of two new alleles | Di Gerlando | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Cycle sequencing reaction was performed according to manufacturer s instruction following Ethanol EDTA Sodium Acetate precipitation Sequencing analyses were performed in an ABI PRISM 3130xl Genetic Analyzer Applied Biosystems Sequence data analysis Nucleotide sequences obtained were checked using Sequencing Analysis Software v5 3 1 Applied Biosystems and subsequently analysed with SeqScape v2 5 Software Applied Biosystems Polymorphic sites were confirmed by visual examination of the electropherograms Multiple alignments of the sequences were performed using ClustalW software Thompson et al 1994 The translation of DNA sequences to amino acid sequences was performed using ExPASy Traslate tool The same software was used to calculate the isoelectric point IP of the new genetic variants found in Girgentana goat breed The exact P value associated with the null hypothesis of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium HWE was estimated using GENEPOP version 4 0 11 Rousset 2008 The programme performed a probability test using a Markov Chain method 1000 dememorisation steps 100 batches and 1000 iterations per batch Moreover GENEPOP was used to calculate genotype and allele frequencies and fixation index F is Weir and Cockerham 1984 Expected He and observed Ho heterozygosity were calculated using the POPGENE software version 1 31 Yeh et al 1999 Results and discussion Identified alleles in Girgentana goat breed Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of CSN3 exon 4 showed the presence in Girgentana goat breed of A B D and G known alleles and two new genetic variants GenBank Acc No JX889419 JX889424 All single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs described by Prinzenberg et al 2005 including the two new polymorphic sites detected in our samples are showed in Table 1 Considering the conflicting results reported by Gupta et al 2009 and Kiplagat et al 2010 we named D and N the two new alleles identified in Girgentana goat breed according to Prinzenberg et al 2005 The new CSN3 D GenBank Acc No JX889422 allele differing from CSN3 D GenBank Acc No AY027868 in one transition G 284 A 284 which did not cause amino acid change Leu 56 Leu 56 The new CSN3 N GenBank Acc No JX889424 allele differing from CSN3 A GenBank Acc No X60763 allele in five SNPs T 245 C 245 G 284 A 284 G 309 A 309 G 471 A 471 and T 591 C 591 while differing from C GenBank Acc No AY350425 allele in one transition T 583 C 583 Comparing the amino acid sequences of CSN3 N and A alleles the first two SNPs T 245 C 245 and G 284 A 284 caused no amino acidic change whereas the other SNPs produced changes Val 65 Ile 65 Val 119 Ile 119 and Ser 159 Pro 159 respectively Comparison of CSN3 N allele with CSN3 C allele revealed the amino acid change Val 156 Ala 156 Allele frequencies and genetic variability Table 2 shows genotype and allele frequencies at CSN3 locus in Girgentana goat breed The most frequent allele was A 0 480 followed by B 0 363 D 0 112 and N 0 034 The D and G alleles were identified only in two animals and in heterozygous conditions with a very low frequency 0 005 These results are not in agreement with those reported for Girgentana goat breed by Gigli et al 2008 and by other authors for Italian Sacchi et al 2005 European and African Prinzenberg et al 2005 goat breeds where the most frequent allele was B Prinzenberg et al 2005 proposed to differentiate the nomenclature at protein level from the one used at DNA level introducing two codes A IEF and B IEF corresponding to two IPs IP 5 53 and 5 78 respectively identified using isoelectrofocusing IEF method Table 1 According to this nomenclature among the CSN3 alleles found in our study only the D and D alleles are included in B IEF group whereas A B G and N alleles belong to A IEF group Table 1 which represents the less favourable variants group in terms of milk composition and technological properties Chiatti et al 2007 Nine genotypic classes were found in our Girgentana goat samples The most common genotype was AB 39 5 followed by AA 19 5 AD 12 7 and BB 11 7 The other genotypes showed a frequency of less than 10 Table 2 In this study we found no homozygous D D GG and NN subjects Caravaca et al 2009 in a study on the effect of CSN3 genotypes on goat milk composition showed that AB and BB genotypes were significantly associated with higher levels of total casein and protein content compared with the AA genotype thus underlining the importance of taking into account the CSN3 genotype when performing selection for milk composition in dairy goats Observed and expected heterozygosity fixation index F is and P value associated with the null hypothesis of HWE were estimated Significant departure from HWE was observed for Girgentana goat breed at CSN3 locus P 0 05 probably due to heterozygote excess Ho 0 6766 vs He 0 6243 This hypothesis could be confirmed considering Ho heterozygosity and F is 0 0855 values Conclusions Two new genetic variants have been identified and characterised in Girgentana goat breed Currently phenotypic data are not available for this goat breed hence further studies could establish the possible association and the effects of polymorphisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of milk Moreover it could be useful to take into account CSN3 gene to use lines of goats producing different types of milk for specific cheese making technologies or nutritional human needs Acknowledgments This work was supported by Rural Development Program 2007 2013 Sicily Region Italy Measure 1 2 4 Grant N CUP G66D11000039999 References 1 AIA 2013 Italy milk recording activity Official statistics Italian Breeders Association Publ Rome Italy 2 R Aleandri L G Buttazzoni J C Schneider A Caroli R Davoli 1990 The effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk components and cheese producing ability J Dairy Sci 73 241 255 3 A Angiolillo M H

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2015.3464/2889 (2016-04-25)
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  • Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming | Rivas | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Submission Editorial Board Advisory Board Impact Factor 2014 0 718 Impact Factor Metrics DOAJ Web statistics Advertising Alert me Thanks to reviewers 2014 Indexes of volumes 1 8 Book Reviews Remembrances We fight plagiarism SNIP 0 579 IPP 0 545 SJR 0 24 Current Issue Home Vol 14 No 2 2015 Rivas Download this PDF file Article Metrics Metrics Loading Metrics powered by PLOS ALM The Italian Journal of Animal

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2015.3513/2820 (2016-04-25)
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  • Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming | Rivas | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    and a negative relationship with the grazing area The third factor was a size factor and it accounted for 14 1 of total variance There was a positive relationship between the total surface area and the flock size while a negative relationship with the family workforce Farm typology Cluster analysis which presented the most significant results was the solution of three groups with Ward s method based on the Euclidean distances Figure 1 Table 1 shows the main characteristics of each type Group I smallholder It comprised 62 farms 39 5 and had the smallest size 405 5 ewes and 564 7 ha with the lowest area in ownership 1 5 ownership area The cultivated surface was the lowest of all groups 37 2 ha and the main economic activity derived from sheep farming 95 2 It consisted of family farms 90 8 family labour which generated around 2 AWU This group had the high dependence on external inputs where 74 5 of feed was off farm Table 1 It was established two feeding managements according to the animal s production stage On the one hand the milking group which remained stabled and the feeding system used was concentrate and forage 63 of farms although it was unbalanced by milk production in the 82 of the farms On the other hand the open group which was composed of non pregnant no milking pregnant ewes rams replacement ewe lambs and ewe lambs put This group made grazing 98 4 throughout the year on large rented areas of natural pasture and fallow Reproductive management was planned in 72 6 of farms consisting of the 2 3 season mating it differed P 0 01 from that of mixed technifed group For the remainder 27 4 rams are kept with ewes during all year The lambing interval was 344 d Table 1 This group showed the shortest lactation length P 0 05 and the lowest milk yield 140 4 kg ewe with an intermediate figure in the milk productivity 124 2 kg ha it differed P 0 01 from that of mixed technified group Table 1 The average litter size was 1 4 lambs parity and the mean productivity was of 1 3 lamb ha which was differed P 0 01 from the mixed technified farms Table 1 The mean unitary cost was 2 2 kg of milk intermediate for the rest of the groups although the mean benefit 36 4 ewe was the lowest in the three groups Group 2 large scale farms This group comprised 63 farms 40 1 They are large scale farms 1 058 7 ewes and 1 755 1 ha with the lowest stocking rate 0 14 LU ha It corresponded to non family farms 39 1 family labour with low area in ownership 4 1 and agriculture activity 7 6 These farms derived most of their entrance from sheep farming 88 8 The cultivated area was given over largely to forage crops for livestock feeding The feeding was balanced according to the production stage in the half of farms The milking flock and ewes closest to the lambing were stabled and the feeding system was unifeed and concentrate 0 67 kg ewe d in the 69 8 of the cases The open group was composed of no pregnant and early pregnant ewes rams replacement ewe lambs and ewe lambs put This group makes grazing 98 4 throughout the year on large areas of natural pasture so as grassland and stubble fields Sixty two percent of externally sourced feed was concentrate and industrial by products The reproductive management was planned at 90 of farms and comprised on average 3 7 season mating it differed P 0 01 from smallholder group The lambing interval was 345 5 d Table 1 Although the milk production per lactation presented the higher level of all groups 151 6 kg ewe per lactation the mean duration of lactation was medium in comparison to the rest of groups 137 1 d P 0 01 Consequently both milk 117 1kg ha and lamb productivity 1 2 lamb ha was the lowest of all groups Table 1 To an economic level although this group presented a lower unit cost 1 9 kg of milk it obtained an intermediate benefit 50 2 ewe Group 3 mixed technified farms It corresponded to 32 farms 20 4 and consisted of large scale farms 1387 4 ewes and 955 8 ha with higher levels of technology and less use of family labour 27 0 family labour This group combined milk production with agricultural activities 55 7 crops area had the highest area in ownership 63 1 ownership area and obtained the best performance in terms of productivity 268 5 kg of milk per ha and 2 9 lambs per ha The feeding was balanced according to the productive and reproductive stage of the flock on the 56 3 of the farms The milking flock and ewes closest to the lambing were stabled and the feeding system was unifeed and concentrate 0 66 kg ewe d The feeding for the open group was also based on pastures although as a differentiation from other groups technological improvements are implemented as sub divisions in the pastures area Table 2 Forty six percent of externally sourced feed consisted of concentrate and industrial by products This group had the highest stocking rate 0 35 LU ha due to the grazing surface 412 1 ha was the lowest of all groups Table 1 The reproductive management was planned in the 87 5 of the farms and comprises on average 4 2 season mating The production per lactation 142 6 kg ewe was in between the rest of the groups although it showed a duration per lactation 126 d under the rest of the groups In the economical aspect this group presented the highest unit cost 2 6 kg of milk while it obtained the highest economical returns 112 3 ewe from the three groups Farm economic viability The typological group was not associated at a great extent with the economic viability of the farm P 0 05 Table 2 The smallholders group presented 46 viable farms 74 2 Viable farms in group 1 owned a flock of a 37 3 higher than non viable farms and were more productive Figure 2 Viable farms were also differentiated by the fact that was less dependent on external food and in the number of mating seasons Besides the labour at non viable farms was exclusively family based while viable farms employed hired labour The large scale farms comprised 50 viable farms 79 4 Viable farms in group 2 owned a flock a 35 bigger and lactations were shorter and more productive Figure 3 than in non viable farms Viable farms were also differentiated by its less dependence on external food The technified mixed farms comprised 27 viable farms 84 4 Viable farms from group 3 made a less intensive use of land and get lower degrees of production per ha although based on the offering of less external food 66 Besides the predominant labour was employed Figure 4 Discussion According to Caballero 2001 sheep production in Castilla La Mancha was a stable system from data coming from official records for the entire region from 1969 1995 After the entry of Spain in the EU in 1986 some structural changes took place in the sector that collects the typology of cereal sheep farming systems elabourated by Caballero 2001 The results of this study indicate that sheep has improved its development as productive and economic activity of importance in the mixed system Apart from this the production has been substantially improved especially the milk one On the one hand flocks are bigger in size and genetically improved due to the official programme of milk improvement in the Manchega race AGRAMA 2011 On the other hand technological improvements in the milking and reproduction management have been implemented Currently the mixed cereal sheep system in Castilla La Mancha is immersed in a dynamic change process where the trend to reduce the number of exploitations and remaining farms are becoming larger and more specialized in dairy livestock This article allows to nuance this approach by showing that changes are forcing a farmer to adapt a more competitive situation with less viability of the farms and that reveal a new diversification in dairy farming models with new types of organization in terms of production practices work management and partnership of family farms Bernard de Raymond 2013 The interrelationship amongst natural agricultural and farming resources that are established in the mix systems are flexible and dynamic and conditioned by the political and economic context of the moment Argilés Bosch 2007 This makes diversity one of the main attributes of any mix system Robinson et al 2011 Peyraud et al 2014 Diversity must be reduced by defining groups of farms with common characteristics based on the search for the largest difference between groups and the smallest difference within groups Riveiro et al 2013 where the multi variate statistical techniques provide a means of creating the required typologies particularly when an exhaustive database is available Köbrich et al 2003 Factor analysis Table 3 showed that the diversity in the mixed system in Castilla La Mancha is mainly linked to land use the degree of dependence on external inputs technology and productive structure These results fit with Milán et al 2003 Gaspar et al 2008 Castel et al 2011 and Toro Mújica et al 2012 The subsequent cluster analysis allowed to identify three groups of farms Table 1 smallholders large scale farms and mixed technified farms Caballero 2001 built a typology of farms based on the same cereal sheep mixed system in Castilla La Mancha where he described three productive sub systems with no land farms small farms and big farms Although the Caballero typology 2001 was focused in structural aspects it is a referent to analyze and understand the evolution of the system The with no land farm would maintain small size flocks 233 ewes that were located next to the place or in hired lands It was a system of family subsistence and double productive aptitude The small size farms with 40 ha as a mean in agricultural surface were mainly dedicated to the growing of cereals and maintained 322 ewes in mean They were family farms oriented to mild production Both groups were concentrated in big areas of pastures named parceled polygons ruled under the current regional Pasture and Stubble Act regulating by the Castilla La Mancha government Caballero 2009 The smallholders and large scale groups identified in this study probably constitute the evolution of the farms that belong to the farms with no land and small farms identified by Caballero 2001 The main causes for this evolution are the progressive organization around the parceled polygons and the European funds that facilitate the access to land and the increase or the flock size Ryschawy et al 2012 Caballero 2001 also described big farms ass the ones composed by segregated polygons These ones own their own land for agriculture 31 and maintain flocks of 420 sheep in mean with an orientation to the production of milk and meat The ownership of the land and the structure of farms made it easy the access to the mixed technified system identified in this research On the other hand Toro Mújica et al 2012 constructed a typology of organic sheep dairy farms in the same mixed system The research distinguished three different groups with some parallelisms with group smallholders The smallholder group corresponds to small family that could be classified as traditional improved according to the FAO classification Robinson et al 2011 This group is similar to Semi intensive low investment farms described by Gelasakis et al 2012 in Chios dairy farms even if it has a higher average size The large scale and mixed technified groups correspond to large sized farms 1222 ewes per farm an average and comprise 60 5 of the farms These large sized farms are similar to Large traditional farm reported by Riveiro et al 2013 in Assaf sheep farms Most part of the mixed technified farms have done heavy investments Table 1 even higher than the reported by Riveiro et al 2013 with a view to maximizing overall farm performance and to taking advantage of technological synergies involving both strands of activity Milán et al 2011 Riveiro et al 2013 This way some farms include a specialized way similar a dairy cow systems with a low proportion of grazing the surface high intensification and full stabling indicating that the trend towards specialization runs counter to more traditional management practices grazing which drives to an environmental unsustainable model and questionable economic viability Nahed Toral et al 2013 Similarly farms with high levels of intensification are more sensitive to the current market uncertainty Ripoll Bosch et al 2012 de Rancourt et al 2006 Apart from this the increase in the flock size attempts to maintain an acceptable level of income Riveiro et al 2013 In this study farms with more ewes corresponded to higher surface 1 350 ha an average mainly hired and used to pastures Tables 1 and 2 aspect that constitutes a strength in the Manchega sheep and an advantage for these production systems Caballero 2001 2009 These farms kept a low level of family workforce 33 indicating that greater farm size relates with el mayor number of employees as a difference to the family character shown in the milk sheep farms in the Northeast of Spain by Milán et al 2011 in Greece by Gelasakis et al 2012 and in ecological sheep in Castilla La Mancha Spain by Toro Mújica et al 2012 Apart from these results a considerable proportion of with no land farms 39 1 are obtained and these ones correspond to the smallholder group Diversification is another way to achieve a reasonable level of income or a strategy to face uncertainty including agricultural crops as a complementary activity Caballero 2009 Riveiro et al 2013 This option has been observed in only 13 of large sized farms with large UAA mixed technified By the other hand the classification of farms according to viability enables the evaluation of their challenges of survival Toro Mújica et al 2011 Inside each group there is homogeneity and a high percentage of viable farms in which their improvements depend on a systemic focus of the productive process where grazing is the key element The smallholder group shows the higher percentage of non viable farms 10 and according to the decrease in the returns reported by de Rancourt et al 2006 and the social aspects that have not been considered in this analysis even under good economic conditions this type of farms is very likely to disappear when their owner s retirement Riveiro et al 2013 Opposite to what it is expected the challenges to family farming do not depend on an increase in the dimension but they required of deep changes in the managerial functions in what it should be done planning who does it organization and how it should be done managing and control Morantes et al 2014 mainly in aspects such as the workforce and the implementation of the best livestock practices housing and facilities programming of the mating season feeding etc Unless these problems are previously analyzed and the best practices according to the structural restrictions are considered Bernués et al 2011 such as fragmentation and land ownership Caballero 2009 a great level of risk could be generated in the farm For example to increase the size of the flock and implement new reproductive techniques as the artificial insemination or improved genetic males would drive to higher costs and poor reproductive performance This way the results of a poor planning organization managing and control are frequently associated to the reproductive failure with percentages of empty females in comparison with the inseminated between the el 70 and the 90 Morantes et al 2014 The viable farms in the large scale group have decided to put into practice a feeding system mainly including unified and concentration of lambing seasons The non viable firms in the large scale group show similar problems to the smallholders groups although they soften the organization deficiencies by means of their dimension however they must do an effort in the managerial functions of planning managing and control mainly in the aspects of managing the feeding and reproduction This last one together with the managing of information are considered to have minor consequences for the farmers point of view Morantes et al 2014 Mixed technified farms have sufficient arable land to produce their own livestock feed although in doing so farms use a diversity of organizational strategies The advantage of the system is that it constitutes an integral model situated in the middle between agriculture and farmer The advantage of the system is that it constitutes an integral model between the agricultural and farming activities although limited by the capacity of the surface and the dimension that will drive to a low dependence on external inputs Rivas et al 2013 2014 An 84 of the mixed technified farms of low inputs with grazing coming from the waste of crops of these farms are viable taking the advantages of economies of scale and the technological adoption both are a key condition for development The farms that are not viable in the mixed technified system must reinforce the managerial function of planning mainly in the use of the land and the implementation of technologies that improve the practice of grazing and decrease the dependence on external inputs At the same time farms must be careful with the organization of work especially the family workforce must be put into value to increase its productivity Bernués et al 2011 Conclusions The typology constructed allowed to identify and offer a characterization of three groups of farms Smallholder group consists of small size family farms with high dependence on

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