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  • Proceedings of the 21st ASPA Congress, Milano, June 9-12, 2015 | Giovanni Savoini | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Indexes of volumes 1 8 Book Reviews Remembrances We fight plagiarism SNIP 0 579 IPP 0 545 SJR 0 24 Current Issue Home Vol 14 No 1s 2015 Proceedings of the 21st ASPA Congress Milano June 9 12 2015 Giovanni Savoini Proceedings of the 21st ASPA Congress Milano June 9 12 2015 Guest Editor Giovanni Savoini DOI http dx doi org 10 4081 ijas 2015 s1 Guest Editor Giovanni Savoini University of Milano Italy info pagepress org Abstract The XXI ASPA Congress Association for Animal Science and Productions will be held in Milan Italy from June 9th to June 12th 2015 The event aims to the development of the science of animal productions and 300 400 participants are expected speakers researchers technicians and specialists of the field Italian and foreign researchers will present their lectures oral presentations and posters on the following topics Genetics and genomics Livestock and environment Physiology and metabolism Animal products for human health New technologies in animal sciences Research and development R D in animal science Keywords Zoology Zootechnical methods Full Text Abstracts Loor Slides Givens Slides Submitted 2015 05 29 10 01 36 Published 2015 05 29 10 03 01 Search for citations in Google

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  • Proceedings of the 21st ASPA Congress, Milano, June 9-12, 2015 | Giovanni Savoini | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Factor 2014 0 718 Impact Factor Metrics DOAJ Web statistics Advertising Alert me Thanks to reviewers 2014 Indexes of volumes 1 8 Book Reviews Remembrances We fight plagiarism SNIP 0 579 IPP 0 545 SJR 0 24 Current Issue Home Vol 14 No 1s 2015 Proceedings of the 21st ASPA Congress Milano June 9 12 2015 Giovanni Savoini Download this PDF file Article Metrics Metrics Loading Metrics powered by PLOS

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  • The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves | Kazemi-Bonchenari | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Ali Reza Alizadeh Department of Animal Science Saveh Branch Islamic Azad University Saveh Iran Islamic Republic of masouleh7 yahoo com Ali Reza Tahriri Department of Animal Science Saveh Branch Islamic Azad University Saveh Iran Islamic Republic of Keyvan Karkoodi Department of Animal Science Saveh Branch Islamic Azad University Saveh Iran Islamic Republic of Sam Jalali Department of Animal Science Colorado State University Fort Collins CO United States Hassan Sadri Institut für Tierwissenschaften Abteilung Physiologie und Hygiene Universität Bonn Bonn Germany Department of Clinical Science Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Tabriz Tabriz Iran Islamic Republic of Abstract The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal SBM with xylose treated SBM XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance health status and selected blood metabolites Twenty one female Holstein dairy calves body weight 39 6 2 3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups n 7 each i starter concentrate with 25 SBM control CTR ii starter concentrate with 17 5 SBM 7 5 XSBM 7 5XSBM and iii starter concentrate with 12 5 SBM 12 5 XSBM 12 5XSBM Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning d 56 Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment Blood samples collected on d 4 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose total protein TP and plasma urea nitrogen PUN Starter intake 560 400 and 420 g d for CTR 7 5XSBM and 12 5XSBM respectively average daily gain 0 67 0 6 and 0 57 kg d and feed to gain ratio 0 83 0 67 and 0 74 were affected by treatments P 0 05 Hearth girth height at withers body

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  • The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves | Kazemi-Bonchenari | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    starter intake and the greatest daily gain were observed for CTR Starter intake was decreased in calves fed XSBM compared to CTR animals whereas F G ratio was improved in calves fed XSBM Figure 1 P 0 02 The growth parameters did not show any difference among different treatments P 0 05 Table 2 Respiration rate rectal temperature and faecal score values were not affected by treatments P 0 05 Blood metabolites The effects of experimental starter concentrates on plasma glucose TP and PUN are presented in Table 3 A significant treatment effect was observed for plasma glucose concentrations on d 35 which was increased for calves in the 7 5XSBM group compared to the other groups Mean plasma glucose concentration did not differ among treatments P 0 05 Plasma concentrations of TP were not affected by treatments P 0 05 Plasma concentrations of PUN on d 56 were affected by treatments P 0 006 Furthermore mean plasma PUN was lowest in the 12 5XSBM followed by 7 5XSBM and the highest in CTR P 0 02 Discussion It is known that not only the level of RUP sources but also their quality must be carefully considered The quality of RUP is expressed both in terms of its intestinal digestibility as well as its AA profile Calsamiglia and Stern 1995 Supplementing ruminant diets with high quality RUP sources may increase the flow of nitrogen and AAs to the small intestine Zinn et al 1981 which may consequently improve growth performance in animals Goedeken et al 1990 Treating SBM with xylose may reduce degradation of SBM protein Cleale et al 1986 Ipharraguerre et al 2005 and thereby may increase the proportion of RUP and intestinal AA supply It has been shown that post ruminal supply of AA increased nitrogen retention and thus caused increased rates of gain Richardson and Hatfield 1978 In the present study calves in the 7 5XSBM and 12 5XSBM groups had lower starter intake compared with those in the CTR group however calves in the 7 5XSBM and 12 5XSBM groups had lower F G ratio than did calves in the CTR group suggesting probably a more efficient tissue accretion in calves The greater starter intake and the higher F G ratio for calves in the 12 5XSBM group than for those in the 7 5XSBM group may show slightly impaired efficiency in tissue accretion with high replacement levels that warrant further investigation In the current study calves were generally healthy with no mortality during the study Furthermore the health status data were all in the normal ranges Soybean meal contains a number of anti nutritional compounds including trypsin inhibitors lectins flatulence producing compounds and many other allergenic proteins which may limit use of SBM in diet of young animals Kim and Baker 2003 Baker 2000 Faecal consistency in the current study did not change with the treatments Furthermore we did not observe impaired gastrointestinal tract function and calf well being with using SBM or XSBM in the starter concentrates Therefore these data may show possible replacement of XSBM as a RUP source in pre weaned calves starters Levels of TP and albumin in blood could be used as long term indicators of AA and immune states whereas blood urea nitrogen may reflect short term dietary effects on production of ammonia in rumen and liver nitrogen turnover National Research Council 2001 Kohn et al 2005 Jahani Moghadam et al 2009 In the present study plasma TP did not differ among treatments but calves in the 7 5XSBM and 12 5XSBM groups had lower PUN concentrations compared with those in the CTR group This may probably reflect a more efficient use of dietary protein in the 7 5XSBM and 12 5XSBM groups The treatments in the current study contained the same level of CP Thus the observed improvement in F G ratio and minimal reduction in PUN with replacement of SBM by XSBM can probably be explained by greater intestinal AA availability and AA delivery to the target tissues Conclusions The data indicate beneficial effects of partial replacement of SBM by XSBM in the starter concentrate to improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in calves during the preweaning period as reflected by improved F G ratio and minimal decreased PUN level Therefore supplementing pre weaned calves with high quality RUP sources may increase the flow of nitrogen and AAs to the small intestine which may consequently improve growth performance Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and better define the effects of different high quality RUP sources in the starter concentrates of pre weaned calves Acknowledgments The authors express their appreciation to the Management Board and staff of Ehyaii dairy farm Hamedan Iran for diligent animal care to Mrs Eng Cheshmeh Qassaban for her help in conducting this experiment and to Yasna Mehr Company Tehran Iran for providing soybean meal and xylose treated soybean meal References 1 I E AbdelgadirO J L Morrill J J Higgins 1996a Effect of roasted soybeans and corn on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of dairy calves J Dairy Sci 79 465 474 2 I E AbdelgadirO J L Morrill J J Higgins 1996b Ruminal availabilities of protein and starch effects on growth and ruminal and plasma metabolites of dairy calves J Dairy Sci 79 283 290 3 AOAC 2000 Official methods of analysis 13th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists Arlington VA USA 4 D H Baker 2000 Nutritional constraints to use of soy products by animal In J K Drackley ed Soy in animal nutrition Federation Animal Science Society Savory IL USA pp 1 12 5 D W Bohnert B T Larson M L Bauer A F Branco K R McLeod D L Harmon G E Mitchell Jr 1999 Nutritional evaluation of poultry by product meal as a protein source for ruminants small intestinal amino acid flow and disappearance in steers J Anim Sci 17 1000 1007 6 S Calsamiglia M D Stern 1995 A three step in vitro

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  • Effects of different levels of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) and dextran oligosaccharide on growth performance and antibody titer response of broiler chickens | Mahmoudi | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    and dextran oligosaccharide on growth performance and antibody titer response of broiler chickens Mohammad Mahmoudi Parviz Farhoomand Rouhollah Nourmohammadi DOI http dx doi org 10 4081 ijas 2015 3473 Mohammad Mahmoudi Department of Animal Science Urmia University Iran Islamic Republic of aidin mahmoudi yahoo com Parviz Farhoomand Department of Animal Science Urmia University Iran Islamic Republic of Rouhollah Nourmohammadi Young Researchers and Elites Club Birjand Branch Islamic Azad University Birjand Iran Islamic Republic of Abstract A total of 384 Ross 308 male broilers were used in a randomised complete design for a period of six weeks The experiment was conducted as a 4 2 factorial arrangement with 4 levels of hemp seed HS 0 25 50 and 75 g kg and 2 levels of dextran oligossacharide DOS 0 and 1 g kg Each of the 8 dietary treatments was fed to 4 replicate pens 12 birds pen from 1 to 42 d of age The results indicated that diets containing 25 g kg HS caused significant decrease in average daily feed intake and average daily gain ADG whereas total serum cholesterol low and very low density lipoprotein and TG levels was minimised at 75 g kg of HS but serum high density lipoprotein HDL was increased with increasing HS levels P 0 01 Addition of 1 g kg DOS diets compared with control diet significantly increased ADG and HDL and improved feed conversion ratio P 0 05 Dietary DOS and HS had no significant effect on complete blood count antibody production and relative weight of bursa and spleen in broilers P 0 05 In conclusion dietary HS and DOS can be used at their highest levels tested in the present study 75 g kg of HS 1 g kg of DOS to decrease lipid levels of blood serum in broilers

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  • Effects of different levels of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) and dextran oligosaccharide on growth performance and antibody titer response of broiler chickens | Mahmoudi | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    DOS Meito Healthy Friend MHF Y Meito Sangyo Co Ltd Tokyo Japan was substituted for equivalent amounts of corn in the basal diet Diets were isoenergitic and isonitrogeneous and provided in mash form The treatments were as follow T 1 basal diet T 2 basal diet 25 g kg of HS T 3 basal diet 50 g kg of HS T 4 basal diet 75 g kg of HS T 5 basal diet 1 g kg of DOS T 6 basal diet 25 g kg of HS 1 g kg of DOS T 7 basal diet 50 g kg of HS 1 g kg of DOS and T 8 basal diet 75 g kg of HS 1 g kg of DOS The experiment lasted six wk Birds had ad libitum access to feed and water during the experimental period and light was on continuously during the first day and 23 h d afterward Vaccine programme The following schedule describes the age and vaccine given 1 old day IBV Razi Inc Karaj Iran attenuated live vaccine by eye drop 8 old day NDV Veterina Inc Rakov Potok Croatia attenuated live vaccine by eye drop 14 old day IBV Intervet Inc Summit NJ USA attenuated live vaccine by eye drop Collection of samples and measurements Chicken BW and feed intake FI by pen were recorded weekly Average daily gain ADFI and FCR were calculated for each phase Dead birds were weighed and recorded daily When calculating feed efficiency the BW of the dead birds was taken into consideration At day 42 two randomly chosen birds per replicate 8 birds per treatment representative of the mean body weight were killed by cervical dislocation and processed manually The lymphoid organs bursa and spleen of the killed birds were removed and measured Serum samples were separated from the clot by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min using bench top centrifuge MSE Minor London UK Serum samples were separated into sterile plain tubes and stored in a refrigerator for analyses Total antibody production specific for NDV vaccine or IBV vaccine was determined in serum by means of an ELISA using commercial ELISA test kits IDEXX Laboratories Inc Westbrook ME USA Jeffery et al 1996 One microliter of serum was diluted 1 500 in 3 3 5 5 tetramethylbenzidine TMB diluents Then 100 L of diluted sample was dispensed into each well of a 96 well plate coated with NDV IBV or IBDV antigen After incubation for 30 min at room temperature plates were washed three to five times with distilled water to remove non adherent antibodies One hundred microliters of goat antichicken horseradish peroxidase conjugate was added to each well and incubated for 30 min at room temperature and then plates were washed again three to five times with distilled water One hundred microliters of TMB substrate solution was then added to each well and after an incubation of 15 min at room temperature one µL of stop solution 0 125 hydrofluoric acid was added to each well to stop the reaction Antibody titers were measured as absorbance units at 650 nm by a microtiter plate reader using Xcheck software version 1 0 Serum was used for TG total cholesterol high density lipoprotein HDL low density lipoprotein LDL and very low density lipoprotein VLDL concentrations Determinations were performed using an automated biochemical analyzer Multianalyser Technicon RA XT Bayer do Bresil with colorimetric methods following the instructions of the manufacturer of the corresponding reagent kit Zhongsheng Biochemical Co Ltd Beijing China and complete blood counts were counted manually Statistical analysis Statistical analysis of results was performed by using the GLM procedure of SAS SAS 2006 according to the following general model Y ijk μ H i D j HD ij e ijk where μ is the overall mean H is the effect of hemp seed D is the effect of DOS HD is the interaction effect of dietary hemp seed by DOS and e is the residue error Significant differences between means were compared by Duncan s Multiple Range Test When interaction effects were found to be significant with the F test P 0 05 the treatment means were separated by the least squares means function of SAS SAS 2006 with a confidence level of P 0 05 Results and discussion The results indicated that interaction effects between HS and DOS for ADG were significant P 0 05 during the growth period of 1 to 21 but were not significant on ADFI ADG and FCR during 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 d periods Table 3 The inclusion of HS at 25 g kg significantly decreased P 0 01 ADFI and ADG whereas ADG was maximised at 75 g kg of HS According to the current results addition of DOS at 1 g kg increased ADG during 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 d periods All two way interactions were non significant except in the case of ADG during 1 to 21 d period P 0 05 Throughout the experiment there was only one case of mortality and it was in the control treatment Because of this limited number of death cases no statistical analysis was performed These effects may be due to orexigenic effects of tetrahydrocanabinol exist in HS Mechoulam and Hanu 2001 It is predicted that increasing in THC dosage increased FI by increasing appetite at 50 and 75 g kg HS in spite of the fact that dietary fibre increased It is very well documented cannabinoids such as THC is involved in appetite eating behaviour and body weight regulation It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids as well as exocannabinoids acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals Karimi and Hayatghaibi 2006 showed that feeding HS to rats leads to increased body weight and serum protein They reported that THC was an orexigenic compound and increases appetite as it is an antioxidant These results are similar to our results In agreement with our results it is shown that supplementing diets with DOS had no significant effect on feed intake in broilers Gibson and Roberfroid 2008 Dietary inclusion of DOS 1 g kg increased WG at 22 to 42 d 1 to 42 d and improved FC which was mainly due to beneficial effects of DOS on intestinal improvement and its microflora Yalcinkaya et al 2008 Yalcinkaya et al 2008 reported that prebiotics could increase nutrient absorption by increasing intestine length and microvillus compaction Cannabis sativa has been shown to alleviate stress improve immunity suppress tumerous cells having antimicrobial and antiviral activities Novak et al 2001 Moreover it has also been reported for antiinflammatory antipyretic antiparasitic and insecticidal effects Bishnupada et al 1997 Combinations of these beneficial effects might have resulted in better performance of chicks given feed supplemented with 75 g kg HS Effects of different levels of HS and DOS on broiler serum cholesterol are shown in Table 4 Serum HDL very significantly increased with dietary HS and increased with increasing HS levels P 0 01 Concentration of LDL P 0 01 VLDL P 0 05 total cholesterol P 0 01 and TG P 0 05 of serum significantly decreased with increasing HS levels McKenney and Sica 2007 reported that VLDL and TG level of blood serum will decrease with increasing unsaturated fatty acids especially ALA concentration in diets of humans The results of the present study are similar to previous studies More and more consumers are strongly demanding safe and healthy by products which is the main reason why low fat chickens are popular products in national markets However Zambón et al 2000 reported that ALA enriched diets can increase HDL levels of human serum Li et al 2007 reported that supplementing diets with chito oligosaccharide significantly increases HDL and LDL levels and decreases total cholesterol and TG levels of a broiler s serum Feeding diets supplemented with prebiotic decreases serum TG without any effect on lipid metabolism in a rat s liver Decreasing production of VLDL by liver leads to serum TG reduction in rats Gibson and Roberfroid 2008 Gibson and Roberfroid 2008 reported that prebiotics can reduce serum total cholesterol to one third due to decreasing production of lipoproteins including high levels of TG Thus the results of the present study are similar to previous studies Effects of different levels of HS and DOS on CBC of broiler chicks are shown in Table 5 Dietary HS and DOS had no significant effect on CBC of broilers although Hgb levels were increased numerically in DOS treated broilers These results may be due to beneficial effects of DOS as prebiotic on iron digestion and absorption that is accepted by different researchers in different species Delzenne et al 1995 Yasuda et al 2006 The results of the current study showed that relative weight of lymphoid organs bursa and spleen and antibody production against IBV and NDV vaccines were not affected by dietary treatments Due to high levels of ALA in HS we predicted that HS could increase antibody production in chicks Puthpongsiriporn and Scheideler 2005 showed that in chicks fed diets containing 1 2 and 1 4 proportion of ALA LA antibody production of NDV were increased however other studies disagreed with their reports Fritsche and Cassity 1992 Sijben et al 2001 In the present study contrary to these reports dietary HS did not significantly affect antibody production against IBV and NDV vaccines Moreover supplementing diets with DOS had no significant effect on IBV and NDV antibody responsiveness in broilers Raju and Devegowda 2002 reported that prebiotics could increase antibody production in broilers and layers respectively These contradictory results might be due to negative or side effects of THC on broilers immune responsiveness Cannabinoides had two receptors CB1 and CB2 that have been found in all mammals birds fish and reptiles Begg et al 2005 CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain and in both male and female reproductive systems And CB2 receptors are found in the immune system with the greatest density in the spleen which appears to be responsible for the antiinflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis Núñez et al 2004 Conclusions In this study we found that dietary supplementation of HS can lower blood lipids in broilers Dietary HS and DOS can be used at their highest levels tested in the present study 75 g kg of HS 1 g kg of DOS to decrease lipid levels of blood serum in broilers However the broiler growth performance was negatively affected by dietary treatments at lower levels To the best of our knowledge no similar work was found in literature therefore there is still a need to conduct more research in order to establish the suitability of such combinations to enhance satisfactory feed utilisation results that could be reflected on broiler growth performance Acknowledgments this work was financially supported by the Urmia University Iran The authors wish to thank Dr Arash Azarfar for his excellent technical assistance References 1 I B Adams B R Martin 1996 Cannabis pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans Addiction 91 1585 1614 2 Aviagen 2014 Ross 308 broiler management handbook Available from http en aviagen com ross 308 3 M Begg P Pacher S Bátkai D Osei Hyiaman L Offertáler F M Mo J Liu G Kunos 2005 Evidence for novel cannabinoid receptors Pharmacol Therapeut 106 133 145 4 R Bishnupada V Tandon B Roy V Tandon 1997 In vitro fluckicidal effect of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa on the trematode of Fasciola buska Indian J Exp Biol 35 80 82 5 M Bozkurt K Küçükyilmaz A U Çatli M Çinar 2008 Growth performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens fed with antibiotic mannan oligosaccharide and dextran oligosaccharide supplemented diets Int J Poult Sci 7 969 977 6 J C Callaway 2004 Hemp seed as a nutritional resource an overview Euphytica 140 65 72 7 N Delzenne J Aertssens H Verplaetse M Roccaro M Roberfroid 1995 Effect of fermentable fructo oligosaccharides on mineral nitrogen and energy digestive balance in the rat Life Sci 57 1579 1587 8 M Eriksson H Wall 2012 Hemp seed cake in organic broiler diets Anim Feed Sci Tech 171 205 213 9 T R Fortenbery M Bennett 2004 Opportunities for commercial hemp production Rev Agric Econ 26 97 117 10 K L Fritsche N A Cassity 1992 Dietary n 3 fatty acids reduce antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity and alter eicosanoid release by chicken immune cells Poultry Sci 71 1646 1657 11 M Fukuta Y Kobayashi K Uchimura K Kimata O Habuchi 1998 Molecular cloning and expression of human chondroitin 6 sulfotransferase Biochim Biophys Acta 1399 57 61 12 G R Gibson M B Roberfroid 2008 Handbook of prebiotic CRC Press Boca Raton FL USA pp 84 300 13 I Hullar I Meleg S Fekete R Romvari 1999 Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content Poultry Sci 78 1757 1762 14 K Jakobsen J E Hermansen 2001 Organic farming a challenge to nutritionists J Anim Feed Sci Tech 10 29 42 15 N M Jeffery P Sanderson E J Sherrington E A Newsholme P C Calder 1996 The ratio of n 3 to n 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat diet alters serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions Lipids 31 737 745 16 I Karimi H Hayatghaibi 2006 Effect of Cannabis sativa L hemp seed on serum lipid and protein profiles of rat Pak J Nutr 5 585 588 17 A Kocher 2005 AGP alternatives part IV Poultry production without AGPs challenges and solutions World Poultry Sci J 21 32 33 18 X J Li X S Piao S W Kim P Liu L Wang Y B Shen S C Jung H S Lee 2007 Effects of chito oligosaccharide supplementation on performance nutrient digestibility and serum composition in broiler chickens Poultry Sci 86 1107 1114 19 J M McKenney D Sica 2007 Prescription omega 3 fatty acids for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia Am J Health Syst Ph 64 595 605 20 R Mechoulam L Hanu 2001 The cannabinoids an overview Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy in appetite promotion in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection Pain Res Manag 6 67 73 21 J Novak Z Eglseer K Deans S Franz 2001 Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L and their antimicrobial activity Flavour Fragr J 16 259 262 22 E Núñez C Benito M R Pazos 2004 Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are expressed by perivascular microglial cells in the human brain an immunohistochemical study Synapse 53 208 213 23 U Puthpongsiriporn S E Scheideler 2005 Effects of dietary ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid on performance antibody production and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in two strains of leghorn pullet chicks Poultry Sci 84 846 857 24 M V L N Raju G Devegowda 2002 Esterified glucomannan in broiler chicken diets contaminated with aflatoxin ochratoxin and T 2 toxin evaluation of its binding ability in vitro and efficacy as immunomodulator Asian Austral J Anim 15 1051 1056 25 SAS 2006 Statistical analysis systems user s guide version 9 1 SAS Inst Inc Cary NC USA 26 T M Shafey A S Mufarej M I Shalaby A J Jarelnabi 2001 Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on antibody response to infectious bronchitis infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease in chickens J Appl Anim Res 19 117 127 27 R G Shashidhara G Devegowda 2003 Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity Poultry Sci 82 1319 1325 28 J W C Sijben M G Nieuwland B B Kemp H K Parmentier J W Schrama 2001 Interactions and antigen dependence of dietary n 3 and n 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody responsiveness in growing layer hens Poultry Sci 80 885 893 29 E Small D Marcus 2003 Tetrahydrocannabinol levels in hemp Cannabis sativa germplasm resources Econ Botany 57 545 558 30 D Yalcinkaya T Gungor M Basalan E Erdem 2008 Mannan oligosaccharides mos from saccharomyces cerevisiae in broilers effects on performance and blood biochemistry Turk J Vet Anim Sci 32 43 48 31 K Yasuda K R Roneker D D Miller R M Welch X G Lei 2006 Supplemental dietary inulin affects the bioavailability of iron in corn and soybean meal to young pigs J Nutr 136 3033 3038 32 D Zambón J Sabaté S Muñoz B Campero E Casals M Merlos J C Laguna E Ros 2000 Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women a randomized crossover trial Ann Intern Med 132 538 546 Table 1 Chemical composition and fatty acid profile of hemp seed Nutrient composition ME kcal kg 4300 CP g kg 248 CF g kg 276 EE g kg 355 Ca g kg 1 5 P g kg 11 6 Lys g kg 10 3 Met g kg 5 8 Cys g kg 4 1 Arg g kg 31 0 Trp g kg 2 0 Typical fatty acid profiles Palmitic acid 5 Stearic acid 2 Oleic acid 9 LA 56 ALA 22 GLA 4 PUFA 84 n6 n3 ratio 2 5 i ME metabolisable energy CP crude protein CF crude fibre EE ether extract Ca calcium P phosphorus Lys lysine Met methionine Cys cysteine Arg arginine Trp tryptophan LA linolenic acid ALA α linolenic acid GLA γ linolenic acid PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid Table 2 Feed ingredients and nutrient composition of basal diets for experimental broiler chicks Starter days 0 to 14 Grower days 15 to 28 Finisher days 29 to 42 Ingredient g kg Corn 556 562 599 Soybean meal 43 CP 356 337 310 Fish meal 20 20 0 Plant oil 29 48 54 Oyster shell 14 12 12 Na bicarbonate 1 1 2 DCP 12 10 13 Salt 2 2 2 Met 2 2 2 Lys 3 1 1 Premix 5 5 5 Calculated composition ME MJ kg 12 66 13 19 13 40

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  • The efficacy of air spray chilling and its impact on microbial quality of broiler carcasses | Nagyová | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    Alena Nagyova uvlf sk Peter Korim Katedra životného prostredia veterinárskej legislatívy a ekonomiky Univerzita veterinárskeho lekárstva a armácie Košice Slovakia Martin Mellen Hydina Slovensko Lieskovec Slovakia Jozef Nagy Katedra hygieny a technológie potravín Univerzita veterinárskeho lekárstva a farmácie Košice Slovakia Peter Popelka Katedra hygieny a technológie potravín Univerzita veterinárskeho lekárstva a farmácie Košice Slovakia Monika Pipová Katedra hygieny a technológie potravín Univerzita veterinárskeho lekárstva a farmácie Košice Slovakia Abstract This study was focused on the evaluation of the period necessary for chilling of poultry carcasses through recording of temperature in the breast muscles and microbial associations on the surface in relation to body weight BW The temperature was measured in sixty broiler carcasses divided into six equal weight categories 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 and 1 8 kg For the temperature measurements the module ELPRO was used The module was placed in the body cavity and the probe was inserted into breast muscle The mean temperature of breast muscles immediately after slaughter ranged from 38 8 to 40 30 C The mean temperatures after chilling of carcasses with average BW1 5 kg 5 10 1 231 7 90 2 356 9 30 2 966 Average total viable count TVC on the surfaces before chilling was 3 99 0 19 log CFU 100 cm2 1 2 to 1 5 kg and 3 93 0 14 log CFU 100 cm2 1 6 to 1 8 kg A statistically significant increase P 0 05 in TVC after chilling in both weight categories n 6 was found Average TVC after chilling was 4 28 0 11 CFU 100 cm2 1 2 to 1 5 kg and 4 33 0 08 1 6 to 1 8 kg Average Enterobacteriaceae count was reduced in the lower weight group 1 3 to

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  • The efficacy of air spray chilling and its impact on microbial quality of broiler carcasses | Nagyová | Italian Journal of Animal Science
    also for Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528 ISO 2004 and the colonies were counted in a selective diagnostic medium Vioelet Red Bile Glucose Agar Oxoid Ltd Basingstoke UK after incubation at 37 C Neck skins of broiler carcasses were sampled for Salmonella determination in accordance with the standard procedures ISO 6579 ISO 2002 Statistical analysis All the data were analysed statistically using GraphPad Prism software version 5 00 2007 The results are given as means and standard error of the mean Statistically significant differences between groups were calculated using t test and one way ANOVA analysis by Tukey comparative test Differences were evaluated as statistically significant when P 0 05 Results and discussion The carcass chilling process is considered to be a critical step in poultry processing Reduction of temperature inhibits the growth of bacteria and has an influence on the physical properties of carcasses Gumhalter Karolyi et al 2003 The combined method of chilling is a hybrid between water and air chilling In air chilling the critical parameter is evaporation whereas in water chilling it is absorption of water When combined these two effects should result in unchangeable weight of the carcasses Botka Petrak et al 2005 Monitoring of temperatures during air spray chilling of poultry carcasses indicated that the mean temperature in the breast muscle at the beginning of chilling from 38 30 to 40 30 C should decrease to a mean temperature lower than 4 C at the end of chilling 135 min The carcasses weighing less than 1 5 kg from 1 3 to 1 5 kg were chilled properly and the final mean temperature in the breast muscle was below 4 C 1 3 3 2 3 3 C Table 1 The mean duration of chilling necessary to decrease temperature to required level 4 C ranged from 99 to 122 min Table 1 Measurements in broiler carcasses with average BW higher than 1 5 kg 1 6 to 1 8 kg showed that they were not sufficiently chilled because the temperature in the breast muscle was higher than 4 C Table 1 The mean temperature 5 1 7 9 9 3 C recorded in poultry carcasses at the end of chilling 135 min Table 1 and Figure 1 was not in accordance with the temperature required by EU legislation Jeong et al 2011 conducted the study to investigate the effects of water chilling air chilling and evaporative air chilling on the moisture content processing yield surface colour and visual appearance of broiler carcasses During chilling carcass temperature was reduced most effectively by water chilling 55 min followed by evaporative air chilling 120 min and air chilling 155 min Moreover chilling conditions can have a great impact on the development of pale soft exudative in poultry meat Improper chilling slow rate of chilling can make carcass temperatures remain high for a longer period of time resulting in protein denaturation and subsequent changes in meat quality Sams and McKee 2010 The results obtained showed that the chilling of poultry carcasses is affected not only by basic microclimatic conditions in the chilling chamber but also by carcass weight initial temperature line speed etc Moreover the EU regulation may be interpreted differently mainly in terms of time requirements e g the phrase as soon as possible In practice the provision after inspection and evisceration slaughtered animals must be cleaned and chilled to no more than 4 C as soon as possible is not always correctly interpreted by food business operator According to the Code of Federal Regulations 2003 unlike the EU regulations all poultry that is slaughtered and eviscerated in the official establishment shall be chilled immediately after processing so that the internal temperature is reduced to 40 F 4 4 C or less unless such poultry is to be frozen or cooked immediately at the official establishment Major portions of poultry carcasses shall be chilled to 40 F 4 4 C or lower within 4 h carcass weight under 4 pounds 1 81 kg 6 h carcass weight 4 pounds 1 81 kg to 8 pounds 3 63 kg and 8 h carcass weight over 8 pounds 3 63 kg This time restraint is essential because according to many authors immediate chilling is very important for the safety and good quality of poultry meat Food safety and shelf life are both important microbioal concerns in relation to broiler meat production Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp But from the commercial point of view other spoilage bacteria also play a role as potential threats Voidarou et al 2011 The primary objective of chilling poultry is to reduce microbial growth to a level that will maximise both food safety and shelf life Carroll and Alvarado 2008 Table 2 shows the average values of TVC on the carcass surfaces of different weight categories before and after air spray chilling The results of average TVC on the surfaces of broiler chickens of different weight categories before chilling were not significantly different P 0 05 Average TVC was 3 99 0 19 log CFU 100 cm 2 1 3 to 1 5 kg and 3 93 0 14 log CFU 100 cm 2 1 6 to 1 8 kg On the contrary a statistically significant increase P 0 05 in TVC after chilling in both weight categories was found Average TVC after chilling was 4 28 0 11 CFU 100 cm 2 1 3 to 1 5 kg and 4 33 0 08 1 6 to 1 8 kg Allen et al 2000 concluded that the use of water sprays would not only result in cross contamination but could allow the transfer of organisms to carcasses from the floor and other parts of the processing environment including the shackles which would be contaminated particularly with Pseudomonas Likewise Ellerbroek 1997 found a lower TVC in the air of air chiller than in an evaporative spray chiller 3 28 log 10 CFU m 3

    Original URL path: http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2015.3740/2797 (2016-04-25)
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