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  • Chipping away at the secrets of ice formation
    formation of up to three different faces of ice on the same substrate We have pinpointed three circumstances where heterogeneous ice nucleation can be promoted by the crystalline surface i the formation of a water overlayer that acts as an in plane template ii the emergence of a contact layer buckled in an ice like manner and iii nucleation on compact surfaces with very high interaction strength We hope that this extensive systematic study will foster future experimental work aimed at testing the physiochemical understanding presented herein Journal reference Journal of the American Chemical Society Provided by American Chemical Society 9 shares feedback to editors Tweet Favorites Email Print PDF Featured Last comments Popular Detection of gravitational waves would open new window on universe Feb 10 2016 58 Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein s prediction Feb 11 2016 144 Scientists discover hidden galaxies behind the Milky Way Feb 09 2016 3 GPS tracking down to the centimeter Feb 11 2016 10 A metal that behaves like water Feb 11 2016 2 more Phys org on facebook Relevant PhysicsForums posts When is ΔH ΔU 5 hours ago Which group has greater steric hindrance Feb 11 2016 Comparison Calibration Method Feb 11 2016 Which compound will be extracted in organic layer Feb 10 2016 Kinetic vs thermodynamics control Feb 10 2016 Electroplating with mixed metal electrodes Feb 10 2016 More from Chemistry Related Stories Pollution coated particles bypass ice formation but influence clouds October 17 2014 Wrapped in pollution dust diverts from its usual course and steers clear of water The result found researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory closes one more gap in understanding how and when cloud ice crystals When waste water freezes it is purified January 13 2015 Freezing technology can be utilised in waste water treatment When waste water freezes it is purified through the formation of a cleaner layer of ice The clean layer of ice can be removed from the rest of the waste water How supercooled water is prevented from turning into ice May 21 2015 Water behaves in mysterious ways Especially below zero where it is dubbed supercooled water before it turns into ice Physicists have recently observed the spontaneous first steps of the ice formation process as tiny Volcanic ash proves inefficient cloud ice maker May 28 2015 When tons of ash spewed into the atmosphere from a 2010 Icelandic volcano it caused havoc for vacationers across Europe But did it also dramatically change clouds Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found Farming water on Mars October 5 2015 Mars is a different place than Earth There is water on Mars more than the Moon but lots less than on our own world But the water on Mars is the same H2O we have here and we should use it when we travel to Mars and set Greenland s ice sheet plumbing system revealed October 9 2015 Pioneering new research sheds light on the impact of climate change on subglacial lakes

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/news/2015-10-chipping-secrets-ice-formation.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Researchers provide a unified explanation of changes in volume of ice
    his team wished to expand on current understanding of ice phases and changing VIE hypothesizing that pressure would have an impact on the way the molecules interacted and therefore the volume they would encompass In both ordered and disordered hydrogen structures in ice oxygen O molecules form two strong bonds with two close H molecules and two weak bonds with two more distant H molecules Umemoto s team have shown that it is the stretching and resulting distances between these weak bonds that are key to VIE changes Methodology The team used first principles quasi harmonic calculations These are theoretical calculations which apply atomic behavior to predict what might occur under a certain set of circumstances In this case the calculations were used to determine the molecular interactions and structures of different ice phases under different pressures Their predictions were then backed up by x ray diffraction measurements of ice VIII Umemoto and his team were able to pinpoint the pressure and temperature at which the ice VIII VIE changed from normal contraction to anomalous expansion Future work This study sheds light on the behavior of ice molecules under high pressures and how weak O H bond length impacts on VIE The findings may have implications for other solid phases of H2O liquid water under high pressure and other H bonded materials Explore further Is salt the key to unlocking the interiors of Neptune and Uranus More information Nature of the Volume Isotope Effect in Ice Phys Rev Lett 115 173005 Published 22 October 2015 dx doi org 10 1103 PhysRevLett 115 173005 Journal reference Physical Review Letters Provided by Tokyo Institute of Technology 38 shares feedback to editors Tweet Favorites Email Print PDF Featured Last comments Popular Detection of gravitational waves would open new window on universe Feb 10 2016 58 Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein s prediction Feb 11 2016 144 Scientists discover hidden galaxies behind the Milky Way Feb 09 2016 3 GPS tracking down to the centimeter Feb 11 2016 10 A metal that behaves like water Feb 11 2016 2 more Phys org on facebook Relevant PhysicsForums posts Questions about covalent bond 7 hours ago Refractive index of BEC 9 hours ago Proton electron mass ratio 15 hours ago Hund s cases for diatomic molecules 17 hours ago Where are the electrons near FS spatially distributed in HTS 19 hours ago The motivation of k p method and envelope function method Feb 10 2016 More from Atomic Solid State Comp Physics Related Stories Is salt the key to unlocking the interiors of Neptune and Uranus June 22 2015 The interiors of several of our Solar System s planets and moons are icy and ice has been found on distant extrasolar planets as well But these bodies aren t filled with the regular kind of water ice that you avoid on Evidence for solid liquid critical points of water in carbon nanotubes September 24 2015 Many physicists do not accept the idea that a

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/news/2015-11-explanation-volume-ice.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Earth-like planets have Earth-like interiors
    systems would follow the same formula Now astronomers have found evidence that Distant planet s interior chemistry may differ from our own September 1 2015 As astronomers continue finding new rocky planets around distant stars high pressure physicists are considering what the interiors of those planets might be like and how their chemistry could differ from that found on Earth Stellar atmosphere can be used to predict the composition of rocky exoplanets September 18 2015 In two recently published articles researchers from Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço IA show that the ratio of some heavy elements in a star like Magnesium Mg Silicon Si and Iron Fe have a crucial What kinds of stars form rocky planets December 3 2015 As astronomers continue to find more and more planets around stars beyond our own Sun they are trying to discover patterns and features that indicate what types of planets are likely to form around different kinds of stars Nearby star hosts closest alien planet in the habitable zone December 16 2015 UNSW Australia astronomers have discovered the closest potentially habitable planet found outside our solar system so far orbiting a star just 14 light years away Forbidden substances on super Earths December 28 2015 Using mathematical models scientists have simulated the interiors of super Earths and discovered that they may contain compounds that are forbidden by the classical rules of chemistry these substances may increase the Recommended for you When black holes meet inside the cataclysms that cause gravitational waves February 12 2016 It has long been predicted that when two black holes merge they ought to give out a staggering amount of energy in the form of gravitational waves Caught in the act Astronomers find a rare supernova impostor in a nearby galaxy February 12 2016 Breanna Binder a University of Washington postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Astronomy and lecturer in the School of STEM at UW Bothell spends her days pondering X rays Farewell Philae Earth says goodbye to comet probe Update 2 February 12 2016 Scientists gave up Friday trying to contact robot lab Philae stubbornly silent on the surface of a comet streaking through space closing a captivating chapter in an historic quest Saturn and Enceladus produce the same amount of plasma February 12 2016 The first evidence that Saturn s upper atmosphere may when buffeted by the solar wind emit the same total amount of mass per second into its magnetosphere as its moon Enceladus has been found by UCL scientists working Gravitational waves found black hole models led the way February 11 2016 Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein s theory of general relativity in 1916 and now almost exactly 100 years later the faint ripples across space time have been found The advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational wave The glitching of the Vela pulsar February 9 2016 Phys org A team of Australian astronomers has conducted an intensive observation of a curious young pulsar to investigate changes in its rotation frequency

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/news/2016-02-earth-like-planets-interiors.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Cotton candy machines may hold key for making artificial organs
    hydrogel on it the sugar dissolves away because the hydrogel is mostly water This illustrates what Bellan describes as the Catch 22 in creating such sacrificial structures First the material has to be insoluble in water when you make the mold so it doesn t dissolve when you pour the gel Then it must dissolve in water to create the microchannels because cells will only grow in aqueous environments he explained The researchers experimented with a number of different materials before they discovered one that worked The key material is PNIPAM Poly N isopropylacrylamide a polymer with the unusual property of being insoluble at temperatures above 32 degrees Celsius and soluble below that temperature In addition the material has been used in other medical applications and has proven to be rather cell friendly The researchers first spin out a network of PNIPAM threads using a machine closely resembling a cotton candy machine Then they mix up a solution of gelatin in water a liquid at 37 degrees and add human cells like adding grapes to jello Adding an enzyme commonly used in the food industry transglutaminase nicknamed meat glue causes the gelatin to irreversibly gel This warm mixture is poured over the PNIPAM structure and allowed to gel in an incubator at 37 degrees Finally the gel containing cells and fibers is removed from the incubator and allowed to cool to room temperature at which point the embedded fibers dissolve leaving behind an intricate network of microscale channels The researchers then attach pumps to the network and begin perfusing them with cell culture media containing necessary chemicals and oxygen Our experiments show that after seven days 90 percent of the cells in a scaffold with perfused microchannels remained alive and functional compared to only 60 to 70 percent in scaffolds that were not perfused or did not have microchannels Bellan reported Now that Bellan and his team have shown that this technique works they will be fine tuning it to match the characteristics of the small vessel networks in different types of tissues and exploring a variety of cell types Our goal is to create a basic toolbox that will allow other researchers to use this simple low cost approach to create the artificial vasculature needed to sustain artificial livers kidneys bone and other organs Bellan said Historical note The cotton candy machine was invented by a Nashville dentist in 1897 and made its debut at the 1904 World s Fair in St Louis Explore further Using cotton candy to create bloodflow routes More information Jung Bok Lee et al Development of 3D Microvascular Networks Within Gelatin Hydrogels Using Thermoresponsive Sacrificial Microfibers Advanced Healthcare Materials 2016 DOI 10 1002 adhm 201500792 Journal reference Advanced Healthcare Materials Provided by Vanderbilt University 3129 shares feedback to editors Tweet Favorites Email Print PDF Featured Last comments Popular Detection of gravitational waves would open new window on universe Feb 10 2016 58 Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein s prediction Feb 11 2016

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/news/2016-02-cotton-candy-machines-key-artificial.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Materials Science News - Chemistry News
    scientists designed a new method to create crystals using a combination of shear flow and controlled temperature 15 hours ago in Materials Science 7 0 Researchers discover new glass technology Imagine if the picture window in your living room could double as a giant thermostat or big screen TV A discovery by researchers at the University of British Columbia has brought us one step closer to this becoming a reality Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 33 3 Single step process transforms carbon dioxide into building blocks for polymeric materials The power of carbon dioxide has been harnessed by A STAR researchers to make two symmetrical star shaped molecules in a single step These molecules could be used to build complex functional polymeric materials useful for Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 12 0 Scientists gain insights into forbidden chemistry Gabriele Saleh a research fellow at MIPT and Prof Artem Oganov a Laboratory Supervisor at MIPT and Professor at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology Skoltech have discovered what causes the stability of Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 10 0 Electric car battery materials could harm key soil bacteria The growing popularity of battery powered cars could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions but they are not entirely Earth friendly Problems can creep in when these batteries are disposed of Scientists in a new study in Feb 10 2016 in Materials Science 20 0 Australian native spinifex grass could be key to super thin condoms Fibres from the Australian native spinifex grass are being used to improve latex that could be used to make condoms as thin as a human hair without any loss in strength Feb 09 2016 in Materials Science 493 1 Engineers develop hybrid technology to create biorenewable nylon Engineers at Iowa State University have found

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/chemistry-news/materials-science/sort/date/all/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Materials Science News - Chemistry News
    C N cross couplings Phys org A small team of researchers at California Institute of Technology has found a way to use visible blue light to induce copper catalyzed C N cross couplings In their paper published in the journal Science the 14 hours ago in Materials Science report 32 0 New solar powered organic compound to tackle air and water pollution Nanoscientists at the Univeristy of Alicante have modified a commonly used compound titanium dioxide turning it from white to black to boost its efficiency and making environmental applications a real possibility 15 hours ago in Materials Science 19 0 Shaping crystals with the flow OIST scientists designed a new method to create crystals using a combination of shear flow and controlled temperature 15 hours ago in Materials Science 7 0 phys org Nanotechnology All Nanotechnology Bio Medicine Nanomaterials Nanophysics Physics All Physics Condensed Matter General Physics Optics Photonics Plasma Physics Quantum Physics Soft Matter Superconductivity Earth All Earth Earth Sciences Environment Astronomy Space All Astronomy Space Astronomy Space Exploration Technology All Technology Business Computer Sciences Consumer Gadgets Energy Green Tech Engineering Hardware Hi Tech Innovation Internet Other Robotics Security Semiconductors Software Telecom Chemistry All Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/chemistry-news/materials-science/sort/date/6h/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Materials Science News - Chemistry News
    catalyzed C N cross couplings In their paper published in the journal Science the 14 hours ago in Materials Science report 32 0 New solar powered organic compound to tackle air and water pollution Nanoscientists at the Univeristy of Alicante have modified a commonly used compound titanium dioxide turning it from white to black to boost its efficiency and making environmental applications a real possibility 15 hours ago in Materials Science 19 0 Shaping crystals with the flow OIST scientists designed a new method to create crystals using a combination of shear flow and controlled temperature 15 hours ago in Materials Science 7 0 Researchers discover new glass technology Imagine if the picture window in your living room could double as a giant thermostat or big screen TV A discovery by researchers at the University of British Columbia has brought us one step closer to this becoming a reality Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 33 3 Single step process transforms carbon dioxide into building blocks for polymeric materials The power of carbon dioxide has been harnessed by A STAR researchers to make two symmetrical star shaped molecules in a single step These molecules could be used to build complex functional polymeric materials useful for Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 12 0 Scientists gain insights into forbidden chemistry Gabriele Saleh a research fellow at MIPT and Prof Artem Oganov a Laboratory Supervisor at MIPT and Professor at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology Skoltech have discovered what causes the stability of Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 10 0 phys org Nanotechnology All Nanotechnology Bio Medicine Nanomaterials Nanophysics Physics All Physics Condensed Matter General Physics Optics Photonics Plasma Physics Quantum Physics Soft Matter Superconductivity Earth All Earth Earth Sciences Environment Astronomy Space All Astronomy Space Astronomy Space Exploration

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/chemistry-news/materials-science/sort/date/1d/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Materials Science News - Chemistry News
    the flow OIST scientists designed a new method to create crystals using a combination of shear flow and controlled temperature 15 hours ago in Materials Science 7 0 Researchers discover new glass technology Imagine if the picture window in your living room could double as a giant thermostat or big screen TV A discovery by researchers at the University of British Columbia has brought us one step closer to this becoming a reality Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 33 3 Single step process transforms carbon dioxide into building blocks for polymeric materials The power of carbon dioxide has been harnessed by A STAR researchers to make two symmetrical star shaped molecules in a single step These molecules could be used to build complex functional polymeric materials useful for Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 12 0 Scientists gain insights into forbidden chemistry Gabriele Saleh a research fellow at MIPT and Prof Artem Oganov a Laboratory Supervisor at MIPT and Professor at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology Skoltech have discovered what causes the stability of Feb 11 2016 in Materials Science 10 0 Electric car battery materials could harm key soil bacteria The growing popularity of battery powered cars could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions but they are not entirely Earth friendly Problems can creep in when these batteries are disposed of Scientists in a new study in Feb 10 2016 in Materials Science 20 0 Australian native spinifex grass could be key to super thin condoms Fibres from the Australian native spinifex grass are being used to improve latex that could be used to make condoms as thin as a human hair without any loss in strength Feb 09 2016 in Materials Science 493 1 Engineers develop hybrid technology to create biorenewable nylon Engineers at Iowa State

    Original URL path: http://phys.org/chemistry-news/materials-science/sort/date/3d/ (2016-02-13)
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