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  • many examples where commercial satellites which should have been registered by the US have not been Even some Shuttle missions were missed This is simple incompetence but such sloppiness makes it easier to hide deliberate mistakes 7 Don t we want to hide our satellites from Saddam The info provided to the UN is enough to make a general statement about what kind of satellite it is It s not enough to locate the satellite in space only three of the seven classical elements are provided The ones where it matters low orbit imaging satellites are easy for Saddam to spot anyway all you need to track them is a pair of binoculars a stopwatch and simple math Amateurs do it all the time Of course you can t be sure who the satellite belongs to if you don t have a corresponding UN filing In general I argue that the loss of secrecy is balanced by the gain in international security This open skies argument is used by us to justify spy satellites looking at the Earth in the first place and it seems to me it works equally well in reverse the Earth looking at spy satellites 8 What are the specifics of the errors I identify five kinds of error made by the US Type A Failure to register civilian satellite launched in the US and owned by a US organization or company These errors are probably because the responsible officials failed to realize the US should have been the state of registry There is probably a disconnect between the FAA office that issues commercial launch licences and the UN regstration process Type B Failure to register civilian satellite launched outside the US and owned by a US entity Same as Type A except that there may be a mistaken idea that the satellite should be registered by the nation doing the launch rather than the nation owning the satellite On the other hand we don t register other nations satellites that we launch so clearly the US position is that we should be registering our own satellites when launched abroad and we have done so some of the time Type C Failure to register military satellite This is the most serious type of violation I am glad to say there are only a few of these Type D Clearly erroneous orbital information about a classified military satellite There are also only a few of these and some of them are probably inadvertent mistakes there is a higher rate of mistakes than for civilian satellites but that may be because the classified ones are or were done by hand in some sense Type E Misleading information about classified military satellite by giving parking orbit details instead of final orbit This is the most common US error and also the one that reasonable people could disagree about Let s take the example of a typical geostationary communications satellite launch The rocket second stage goes into parking orbit of 200 by 200 kilometers The third stage and attached satellite separate from the second stage and seconds later the third stage fires to enter a 200 x 35780 km transfer orbit The satellite then separates from the third stage and both coast to apogee at 35780 km The satellite then fires its engine to enter a circular 35780 x 35780 km operational orbit where it will circle the Earth once every 24 hours For civilian satellites in every case the US registers the three objects from the launch in three separate orbits stage 2 in the parking orbit stage 3 in the transfer orbit and the satellite in the operational orbit In contrast for many classified satellites the US registers the three objects all in the parking orbit This is clearly silly because in the parking orbit the three objects are still attached to each other and in general while the satellite is in the parking orbit the launch is considered to be still in progress The US will argue that the convention allows them the leeway to choose to provide such parking orbit data even if the satellite was only in that orbit for a few minutes and was still attached to the rocket I can see that from a legalistic standpoint they may have an argument but it s clearly against the spirit of UNR 1721B and the Convention and that is made a little obvious by the fact that they only do it for the classified satellites and other countries don t do it It is worth noting that other countries don t always register their rocket stages and never bother registering small debris objects space junk The US registers both of these classes of object so in that sense it is being more complete that other countries On the other hand a suspicious person might think that swamping the UN with data on hundreds of boring pieces of space junk makes it harder for people to keep track of the actual payloads especially as the US is the only country that doesn t give the names of the satellites when it registers them Japan will say we launched satellite Nozomi PLANET B international designation 1998 41A a Mars probe while the US will just say object 1998 37A without saying what it is called or what it does Type D and E errors have only been made by the USA Type C errors have been made by the USA and China although the unregistered Chinese military satellites have been described publicly including pictures of the satellites in the Chinese media while no information has been released by the US on the unregistered US military satellites 9 Let s have some details and references Paper 1 McDowell 1994 revised 2001 lists the type A B C errors failure to register for all states I ll give the details of the US errors here Appendix A If you are a citizen of some other country I encourage you

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/un/untxt.html (2016-04-29)
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  • Launch Logs
    launches and payloads SATCAT Objects in the satellite catalog LARGE GEOLOG Geosynchronous satellites My old launch logs 1991 Launch Log 1992 Launch Log 1993 Launch Log 1994 Launch Log 1995 Launch Log 1996 Launch Log 1997 Launch Log 1997 Launch

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/log/log.html (2016-04-29)
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  • Launch Vehicle Photo Archive
    able to compare the external configurations of launch vehicles to spot differences between them and similarities For instance the launch photo of Discoverer 37 reveals it to have a nose shaped like the later KH 4 vehicles and not like the KH 2 3 spy satellites all the historical lists claim it was Many of the photos of 1960s US launches presented here were previously classified and have not appeared

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/book/lv/lvpics.html (2016-04-29)
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  • of years the satellite remained functional Fine print Satellites are included if they were active payloads which at some point had an Earth orbital period between 23 and 25 hours Satellites which operated successfully in GEO even for a short time are counted as success for the purposes of this study the implication is successful launch not successful overall mission Pre privatization Intelsat satellites are counted as US SEA LAUNCH is counted as a US launch since Boeing provides launch services although rocket is Ukrainian Russian Issues of dual ownership or manufacture eg Anik D and other fuzziness in definitions were resolved using my best judgement The manufacturer with the most GEO satellites is the El Segundo factory which was formerly Hughes and is now Boeing They have 200 5 GEO satellites with 13 failed at launch the uncertainty is due to secret satellites whose manufacturers were not reliably leaked ALL GEO SATELLITES SUCCESS US MADE SATELLITES OTHER SATELLITES NON US MADE US OWNERS 343 9 OTHER OWNERS 154 340 TOTAL 497 349 WORLD TOTAL 846 TO GEO ALL GEO SATELLITES FAILED AT LAUNCH US OWNERS 33 0 OTHER OWNERS 11 32 TOTAL FAILED 44 32 WORLD TOTAL 76 FAILED

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/log/geobus.html (2016-04-29)
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  • Unregistered Satellites Hall of Shame
    Registration documents submitted to the United Nations under the provisions of UN Resolution 1721B XVI and article IV of the 1976 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space are published as two series of United Nations documents UNO 1962 UNO 1977 which are not widely available and in which the information is scattered and hard to find In the 1990s I McDowell 1994 with revisions through 2011 http planet4589 org space un un html compiled an edited version of the information in the Registration documents which corrects the above mentioned errors and arranges the information in a systematic way carefully distinguishing between information included in the registrations and information gained from other sources Since then the UN Office of Outer Space Affairs has generated a public database which addresses a similar need http www oosa unvienna org oosa en SORegister index html However I am continuing my own compilation of the UN data as an independent assessment Since 1962 most space payloads have been duly registered with the UN The USSR retrospectively registered its pre 1962 payloads while the US did not However a number have not been registered in violation of Resolution 1721B Here Table 1 linked at bottom I summarize the situation for launches for the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2013 using the data from my edited version of the Registry which covers documents published up to early 2015 at oosa un org Satellites launched in 2014 15 are tabulated separately in Table 1 since the diplomatic world has apparently not yet entered the age of instant communication and still grinds slowly we can t consider the 2014 satellites to be delinquent yet Complications But which satellites should be registered and who should register them Follow the link for a

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/un/un_paper1.html (2016-04-29)
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  • US Military Spacecraft
    2 1978 75A 697 1 315 x 39053 x 62 5 1980 100A 89 7 180 x 354 x 63 8 B 89 8 183 x 356 x 63 8 A 1981 38A 93 0 188 x 708 x 62 7 1983 78A 717 1 1028 x 39321 x 63 4 711 5 831 x 39210 x 63 5 E 1984 91A USA 4 702 6 342 x 38347 x 63 6 B 702 8 287 x 38156 x 63 6 1985 14A USA 9 710 0 356 x 39617 x 63 0 B 712 6 400 x 39700 x 63 0 1987 15A USA 21 702 6 290 x 39250 x 63 4 B 718 1 610 x 39750 x 63 4 1989 61B USA 40 90 5 296 x 307 x 57 0 B E F G H J 90 7 311 x 316 x 57 0 A 183 5 540 x 8095 x 57 1 K 183 5 532 x 8135 x 57 0 L BT 1992 86B USA 89 92 0 366 x 377 x 56 9 B C 90 7 301 x 322 x 56 9 A 102 8 890 x 891 x 57 0 F 1994 26A USA 103 95 2 518 x 537 x 55 1 A B 1996 38A USA 125 90 4 292 x 300 x 54 9 ABC Table 3 3 Other classified satellites launched since 1984 HEXAGON and CRYSTAL class satellites 1984 65A USA 2 88 9 170 x 230 x 96 1 1984 122A USA 6 93 5 300 x 650 x 97 1 1987 90A USA 27 96 5 153 x 1029 x 97 8 96 3 143 x 1018 x 97 8 B 1988 99A USA 33 96 4 156 x 1012 x 97 9 96 3 154 x 1008 x 97 9 B 1990 19B USA 53 88 6 198 x 207 x 62 0 89 3 236 x 240 x 62 0 A 1992 83A USA 86 96 4 256 x 911 x 97 7 AB 1995 66A USA 97 3 265 x 1006 x 97 8 1996 72A USA 96 6 145 x 1048 x 97 9 AB 1999 28A USA 144 89 6 205 x 306 x 63 4 NSA subsatellites 1984 65C USA 3 98 9 690 x 710 x 96 1 DSP satellites 1984 129A USA 7 1445 8 35619 x 35915 x 3 4 93 8 169 x 745 x 28 9 C 1443 2 35918 x 35922 x 3 4 B 1987 97A USA 28 1423 3 35514 x 35558 x 2 9 1422 4 35506 x 35531 x 2 9 B 1989 46A USA 39 1421 8 35699 x 35614 x 3 1 87 4 134 x 146 x 28 6 B 1421 1 35116 x 35867 x 2 8 E 622 1 171 x 35352 x 27 4 C 1422 0 35311 x 35702 x 3 1 D 1990 95A USA 65 1421 8 35614 x

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/un/un_paper2.html (2016-04-29)
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  • Centaur
    Centaur 3 1 Centaur 3 1 1 Centaur for Atlas 3 1 2 Centaur G G 3 1 3 Centaur stage listing 3 1 4 Centaur orbital data

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/book/lv/lv1/centaur.html (2016-04-29)
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  • Zvezda Orlan spacesuits
    29 DMA 12 DMA 10 02 45 Manakov Strekalov DOS 7 EO 8 EVA 1 1991 Jan 7 DMA 6 DMA 10 05 18 Afanas ev Manarov DOS 7 EO 8 EVA 2 1991 Jan 23 DMA 6 DMA 10 05 33 Afanas ev Manarov DOS 7 EO 8 EVA 3 1991 Jan 26 DMA 6 DMA 10 06 20 Afanas ev Manarov DOS 7 EO 8 EVA 4 1991 Apr 25 DMA 6 DMA 10 03 34 Afanas ev Manarov DOS 7 1991 May 30 DMA 14 DMA 15 Delivered aboard Progress M 8 DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 1 1991 Jun 24 DMA 6 DMA 14 04 48 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 2 1991 Jun 28 DMA 6 DMA 14 03 24 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 3 1991 Jul 15 DMA 6 DMA 8 05 45 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 4 1991 Jul 19 DMA 6 DMA 8 05 28 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EVA 4 1991 Jul 19 DMA 10 Jettisoned during EVA DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 5 1991 Jul 23 DMA 6 DMA 8 05 34 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EO 9 EVA 6 1991 Jul 27 DMA 6 DMA 8 06 49 Artsebarski Krikalyov DOS 7 EO 10 EVA 1 1992 Feb 20 DMA 12 DMA 8 04 12 Volkov Krikalyov DOS 7 1992 DMA 6 Jettisoned Disposal unknown DOS 7 EO 11 EVA 1 1992 Jul 8 DMA 15 DMA 14 02 03 Viktorenko Kaleri DOS 7 EO 12 EVA 1 1992 Sep 3 DMA 15 DMA 14 03 56 Solov yov A Avdeev DOS 7 EO 12 EVA 2 1992 Sep 7 DMA 15 DMA 14 05 08 Solov yov A Avdeev DOS 7 EO 12 EVA 3 1992 Sep 11 DMA 15 DMA 14 05 44 Solov yov A Avdeev DOS 7 EO 12 EVA 4 1992 Sep 15 DMA 15 DMA 14 03 33 Solov yov A Avdeev DOS 7 1992 Oct 27 DMA 18 Delivered aboard Progress M 15 DOS 7 EO 13 EVA 1 1993 Apr 19 DMA 15 DMA 14 05 25 Manakov Poleshchuk DOS 7 EO 13 EVA 2 1993 Jun 18 DMA 15 DMA 14 04 33 Manakov Poleshchuk DOS 7 1993 Mar 31 DMA 25 Delivered aboard Progress M 17 DOS 7 1993 Aug 11 DMA 12 DMA 8 Disposed aboard Progress M 17 Two suits discarded on PM 17 probably No 12 and No 8 DOS 7 EO 14 EVA 1 1993 Sep 16 DMA 25 DMA 14 04 18 Tsibliev Serebrov DOS 7 EO 14 EVA 2 1993 Sep 20 DMA 25 DMA 14 03 13 Tsibliev Serebrov DOS 7 EO 14 EVA 3 1993 Sep 28 DMA 25 DMA 14 01 55 Tsibliev Serebrov DOS 7 EO 14 EVA 4 1993 Oct 22 DMA 25 DMA 14 00 38 Tsibliev Serebrov DOS 7 EO 14 EVA 5 1993 Oct 29 DMA 25 DMA 18 04 12 Tsibliev Serebrov At 1994 Sep No

    Original URL path: http://planet4589.org/space/book/astronauts/suits/orlan.html (2016-04-29)
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