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  • Black people in England and Wales six times more likely to be stopped and search by police than white people | Privacy International
    of increase for Black people 38 and Asian people 36 a 47 increase for Other minority ethnic groups and 17 for White people There was an overall 33 increase in stop and searches recorded by the Metropolitan Police Service MPS with little variation between ethnic groups in terms of the percentage rise in 2002 03 There are fifteen laws that permit stop and search by the police Most stops and searches are carried out under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 PACE Under PACE police must have reasonable reasons for suspicion based on facts information or intelligence Searches can also take place under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 based on a reasonable belief that within a certain area incidents involving serious violence may take place Under the Terrorism Act 2000 searches are based on intelligence to prevent an act of terrorism but also to look for items connected with terrorism without a reason to suspect someone is carrying this type of item Specifically under the Terrorism Act 2000 the results are A total of 21 577 searches were made under s44 1 2 compared with 8 550 in 2001 02 Searches of White people increased from 6 629 to 14 429 up 118 for Black people from 529 to 1 745 up 230 and for Asian people from 744 to 2989 up 302 61 of searches took place in the MPS and 21 in the City of London In 2002 03 16 761 searches were made under s44 1 compared with 7 604 in 2001 02 Only 11 arrests of vehicle occupants in connection with terrorism resulted from section 44 1 stops compared to 20 in the previous year 6 out of the 11 arrests were classified as Other ethnic appearance Arrests for other reasons under

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/node/322 (2016-04-27)
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  • Open letter to UN Agency on dangers of biometric passport standard | Privacy International
    higher still Implementation of facial recognition on a global scale is likely to increase these errors and will lead to delays duress and confusion Facial recognition technologies may reveal racial or ethnic origin 14 The U S General Accounting Office warns that facial recognition is the only biometric that can be used for other surveillance applications such as pinpointing individuals filmed on video cameras 15 We are very concerned that the New Orleans resolution permits individual countries to use multiple biometrics such as iris scans and fingerprints in addition to facial recognition These additional physical measures increase the likelihood that biometric databases will be used for other purposes The New Orleans resolution is contrary to your stated goal of interoperability and allows countries to pursue invasive solutions using the ICAO standards as their excuse We have already seen the EU propose a central fingerprint registry others may follow The current plans to store the biometrics on contact less integrated circuits also raises a number of concerns This is likely to involve the use of radio frequency identification RFID chips RFID tagged passports could be secretly read right through a wallet pocket backpack or purse by anyone with the appropriate reader device including marketers identity thieves pickpockets oppressive governments and others The ICAO is promoting the adoption of this technology even as RFID chips are stirring deep concerns and controversy around the world It would be premature to finalize a choice of technology without consideration of these issues Use of these chips must be re considered assessed and compared with alternative technologies that are less invasive National biometric databases and the retention of biometrics by third parties can be avoided The ICAO could have been wiser in its selection of technology and more specific in its implementation Biometrics can be implemented in such ways that they are prevented from being used for surreptitious surveillance or tracking Biometrics can be stored locally on travel documents and border checks can simply verify the link between the individual s live biometric and the biometric template stored on the actual document Such two way checks have been considered by the ICAO 16 but unfortunately are not part of the ICAO requirements In addition as EU privacy officials have written biometric systems related to physical characteristics which do not leave traces e g shape of the hand but not fingerprints or biometrics systems related to physical characteristics which leave traces but do not rely on the memorisation of the data in the possession of someone other than the individual concerned in other words the data is not memorised in the control access device or in a central data base create less risks for the protection for fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals 17 Such care in the creation of the standards has not been demonstrated by ICAO so far The ICAO must go back and reconsider its choices and conduct a review of all available technologies and their likely effects on privacy and civil liberties Biometrics

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/node/337 (2016-04-27)
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  • Open letter to Members of the Eerste Kamer and Tweede Kamer regarding Dutch ID proposals | Privacy International
    is not in accordance with law because it denies citizens a foreseeable basis on which to regulate their conduct It can be argued that the proposals fundamentally reverse the presumption of innocence crucial in a free society Finally such laws are not necessary in a democratic society because the blanket ID requirement is wildly disproportionate to the law enforcement aims that it seeks to advance The proposal is also likely to create concern for visitors to the Netherlands The requirement to carry identification is in direct conflict with conventional advice given to travellers to avoid carrying ID unless absolutely necessary The existence of a substantial fine and a criminal offence will cause widespread concern and could invoke widespread criminality with a likely increase in street theft of identity documents The legal arguments against the proposal are overwhelming Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights ECHR guarantees every individual the right to respect for his or her private life subject only to narrow exceptions where government action is imperative The Donner proposals would interfere with this right by establishing an identity requirement on citizens where no suspicion exists This interference with the privacy rights of every resident and visitor cannot be justified under the limited exceptions envisaged by Article 8 because it is neither consistent with the rule of law nor necessary in a democratic society There have been numerous cases representing a wide variety of circumstances that reflect the requirement for respect for individual autonomy On the related issue of surveillance for example the ECHR protection of the individual is clearly affirmed in such cases as Klass v Germany Amann v Switzerland Rotaru v Romania Malone v United Kingdom Kruslin v France Kopp v Switzerland and Foxley v United Kingdom These decisions highlighted such issues as the menace of surveillance and the reversal of the presumption of innocence and have ruled against arbitrary and indiscriminate impositions of the State Privacy International also believes that the requirement for children to carry identification violates the UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child article 16 This requirement we believe is inexplicable unnecessary and unsafe Children currently do not hold drivers licenses nor do they necessarily hold a passport This law would force them to obtain and carry ID where traditionally there had been no such requirement Over the past thirteen years Privacy International has worked extensively to raise awareness of problems relating to identity schemes in countries such as the United States Canada Australia the United Kingdom and the Philippines We believe the proposal under consideration in the Netherlands is unnecessary and invites substantial personal cultural and economic risk The government of the United Kingdom this year proposed a national identity card scheme but because of human rights concerns the government reluctantly ruled out a requirement to carry identification in public The United Kingdom like the Netherlands already provides police with limited authority to establish the identity of suspects in the course of investigations We would support the Parliament in

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/node/323 (2016-04-27)
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  • FAQ: ID cards in the UK | Privacy International
    demand their card We are not therefore consulting on that option Therefore the government s stated definition of compulsory is not required to be carried by each individual at all times Again quoting from the launch speech Everyone would register for and be issued with such a card which would be required for the purpose of gaining access to services or employment The government has addressed the matter of issue of cards for children from the age of 5 In its consultation paper it identified 36 possible uses of cards in such circumstances as entry to pubs and sex shops What if I simply refused to use the card You will not be required to use a card unless you wish to work use the banking or health system vote buy a house drive travel or receive benefits As Mr Blunkett advised Parliament The issuing of a card does not force anyone to use it although in terms of drivers or passport users or if services whether public or private required some proof of identity before expenditure was laid out without proof of identity and therefore entitlement to do it I doubt whether non use of it would last very long Can I travel overseas without an ID card Probably not David Blunkett explained to Parliament well over 40 million people will automatically pick up the card because they will need it to show that they are able and have permission to drive a car or are free to travel abroad And referring to recent legislation in the US strengthening border controls he added A difficulty will occur with travel to the United States if we do not align what we are doing with the changes that are taking place around us Because the United States is considering new ways of accrediting identification and if we do not match them it will reintroduce visas for UK citizens visiting the US Holding other countries responsible for the government s proposals he added It is also because as part of the Schengen information system which some parties in the House support the rest of the European Union will be introducing new biometric recognition for identification If we are left behind if we do not have a debate and if over the next two years the House is not prepared to decide which way we will go not only will we be left behind but organised fraudsters across the world will know one thing we will be the weakest link The ID card would become he said a convenient travel document Can an ID card be forged Invariably yes The technology gap between governments and organised crime has now narrowed to such an extent that even the most highly secure cards are available as blanks weeks after their introduction Criminals and terrorists can in reality move more freely and more safely with several fake official identities than they ever could in a country using multiple forms of low value ID such as a

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/node/434 (2016-04-27)
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  • CCTV Frequently Asked Questions | Privacy International
    reduce crime Glowing reports of the effectiveness of CCTV are announced regularly Strathclyde police in Scotland recently claimed a 75 per cent drop in crime following the installation of a 130 000 closed circuit TV system in Airdrie Not only are people delighted because they are no longer afraid to go out shopping say local police but even criminals welcome the chance to prove their innocence by calling on evidence from the cameras In King s Lynn burglary and vandalism in the industrial estate has dropped to a tiny fraction of its original level Crime in car parks has dropped by ninety per cent People say they feel safer Indeed they should Assaults and other violent crimes appear also to have been decimated in the center of town The government believes this is because CCTV deters opportunistic crime where people take advantage of a situation on the spur of the moment Phillip Edwards from the Home Office Crime Prevention Unit says the government is using CCTV as part of a long term plan to reduce overall crime Today s opportunist is tomorrow s professional criminal If we decrease the number of opportunities for easy crime we can reduce the number of people becoming professional criminals The logic and the statistics are superficially impressive but some analysts are not convinced In a report to the Scottish Office on the impact of CCTV Jason Ditton Director of the Scottish Centre for Criminology argued that many claims of crime reduction are little more than fantasy All evaluations and statistics we have seen so far are wholly unreliable The British Journal of Criminology went further by describing the statistics as post hoc shoestring efforts by the untrained and self interested practitioner The crime reduction claims being made by CCTV proponents are not convincing Three recent criminological reports Home Office Scottish Office and Southbank University have discredited the conventional wisdom about the cameras effectiveness In a report to the Scottish Office on the impact of CCTV Jason Ditton Director of the Scottish Centre for Criminology argued that the claims of crime reduction are little more than fantasy All evaluations and statistics we have seen so far are wholly unreliable The British Journal of Criminology described the statistics as post hoc shoestring efforts by the untrained and self interested practitioner In short the crime statistics are without credibility The crime statistics rarely if ever reflect the hypothesis that CCTV merely displaces criminal activity to areas outside the range of the cameras One of the features of current surveillance practice is that the cameras are often installed in high rent commercial areas Crime may be merely pushed from high value commercial areas into low rent residential areas Councils often find that it is impossible to resist demands for such systems There is an additional element of displacement that should be of particularly concern to all communities Since the growth of CCTV as the primary means of crime prevention more traditional community based measures have been discarded A

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/node/212 (2016-04-27)
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  • Analysis | Page 30 | Privacy International
    of the EU proposes exporting British surveillance policies to Europe PI and EDRi urge restraint in extraordinary European Council meeting on retention UK introduces E Borders programme proposing more surveillance and profiling of all French report highly critical of new French ID Card project GAO reports that border registration of addresses unnecessary Europe proposes central fingerprint database of immigrants Open letter to the European Parliament on biometric registration of all

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/blog?page=29 (2016-04-27)
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  • Analysis | Page 23 | Privacy International
    opaque government Consultation on Draft Anonymisation Code of Practice our response to the regulator Will the government fail the crucial privacy test for the National Pupil Database Our response to Australia s proposed reforms of national security legislation Our responses to the Joint Committee on the Communications Data Bill How disclosive is traffic data A Wikipedia example Rwandan government expands stranglehold on privacy and free expression This is not surveillance

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/blog?page=22 (2016-04-27)
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  • Analysis | Page 24 | Privacy International
    UK Watch this airspace Has Hacking Team s government trojan been used against journalists Surveillance companies real responsibility goes beyond the letter of the law Mass surveillance and classified patents Foreign companies complicit in Bahrain s human rights violations French Minister states opposition to surveillance technology exports Skype please act like the responsible global citizen you claim to be British spyware used to target Bahraini activists Privacy in constitutions The

    Original URL path: https://privacyinternational.org/blog?page=23 (2016-04-27)
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