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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | External Audit | External Audits
    an outsider to challenge the process and findings of a research study This can provide an opportunity to summarize preliminary findings an opportunity to assess adequacy of data and preliminary results important feedback that can lead to additional data gathering and the development of stronger and better articulated findings The Drawbacks with External Auditing External audits share many of the same problems as member checking External auditing relies on the assumption that there is a fixed truth or reality that can be accounted for by a researcher and confirmed by an outside auditor From an interpretive perspective understanding is co created and there is no objective truth or reality to which the results of a study can be compared This process may lead to confusion rather than confirmation An external auditor cannot know the data as well as researchers immersed in the study and may not share the same point of view This may lead to different understandings of the data How to manage these different ways of seeing can be problematic An external auditor may disagree with researchers interpretations Then the question of whose interpretation should stand becomes an issue References Creswell JW 1998 Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeExte-3704.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Reflexivity | Reflexivity
    As Malterud 2001 writes Preconceptions are not the same as bias unless the researcher fails to mention them p 484 Different researchers will approach a study situation from different positions or perspectives This might lead to the development of different although equally valid understandings of a particular situation under study While some may see these different ways of knowing as a reliability problem others feel that these different ways of seeing provide a richer more developed understanding of complex phenomena Understanding something about the position perspective beliefs and values of the researcher is an issue in all research but particularly in qualitative research where the researcher is often constructed as the human research instrument Steps to foster reflexivity and reflexive research design Designing research that includes multiple investigators This can foster dialogue lead to the development of complementary as well as divergent understandings of a study situation and provide a context in which researchers often hidden beliefs values perspectives and assumptions can be revealed and contested It is worth noting that the idea of involving multiple investigators in a study and fostering a reflexive dialogue is most often not to reach consensus and foster reliability Develop a reflexive journal c f Lincoln and Guba This is a type of diary where a researcher makes regular entries during the research process In these entries the researcher records methodological decisions and the reasons for them the logistics of the study and reflection upon what is happening in terms of one s own values and interests Diary keeping of this type is often very private and cathartic Report research perspectives positions values and beliefs in manuscripts and other publications Many believe that it is valuable and essential to briefly report in manuscripts as best as possible how one s preconceptions beliefs values assumptions

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeRefl-3703.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Negative Case Analysis | Negative or Deviant Case Analysis
    cases Analysis of deviant cases may revise broaden and confirm the patterns emerging from data analysis References Creswell JW 1998 Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications Lincoln YS Guba EG 1985 Naturalistic Inquiry Newbury Park CA Sage Publications Mays N Pope C 2000 Qualtative research in health care Assessing quality in qualitative research BMJ 320 7226 50 52 Patton MQ 1999 Enhancing

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeNega-3694.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Examination of Rival Explanations | Examination of Rival Explanations
    find evidence to support a number of plausible rival explanations during the analysis process enhances the credibility of the research findings Sometimes readers will question research findings by suggesting that the findings may be shaped by researchers predispositions or biases To counter such a critique before it is made researchers can make predispositions explicit in a research report for more on bias see reflexivity acknowledge one s orientation and show

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeExam-3705.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Methodology | About ISI Web of Science
    5 900 of the world s leading scholarly science and technical journals covering more than 150 disciplines The Social Science Citation Index provides access to current and retrospective bibliographic information author abstracts and cited references found in over 1 700 of the world s leading scholarly social sciences journals covering more than 50 disciplines They also cover individually selected relevant items from approximately 3 300 of the world s leading

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeMeth-3446.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Gold's Typology of Participant Observer Roles | Gold's Typology of Partipant Observer Roles
    of the group being studied This approach may be common in health care settings where members of the health care team are interested in observing operations in order to understand and improve care processes The observer as participant In this role the researcher or observer has only minimal involvement in the social setting being studied There is some connection to the setting but the observer is not naturally and normally

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGold-3648.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Membership Roles (Adler and Adler) | Adler and Adler - Membership Roles
    an observational role This facilitates trust and acceptance of the researcher but increases the identification of the researcher with members of the setting Self reflexivity role awareness and periodic withdrawal from the setting are needed to maintaining the research role Complete member fully immersed in the research setting One may study a setting in which he or she is already actively a member or become the phenomenon of interest Adler

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeMemb-3649.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Skills of a Participant Observer | Skills of a Participant Observer
    for granted details of life Building Memory building one s ability to remember things that happen or are observed in the field Practice as well as developing a method for jotting notes can help with this Maintaining Naivete trying to maintain a position of inexperienced member of a social setting or culture Developing this position of novice is particularly difficult when one studies a familiar culture Building writing skills developing

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeSkil-3651.html (2016-05-02)
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