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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Fieldnotes | Fieldnotes
    date time location and details of the main informants This should be done in a consistent location The research question and study design should provide some theoretical criteria to decide what to record and when where and how to record field notes Field notes should be prepared so that the order of them can be rearranged and manipulated so that notes can be separated from any particular category in which the researcher has recorded observation During fieldwork the research must work out his or her relationship to the field to the members of the setting being observed and to one own s way of seeing The Process of Creating Fieldnotes Jottings or scratch notes the observer jots down a few words or short sentences that will help them recall something they observed something that someone said or something that happened Jottings or scratch notes are generally written in the field Field notes are prepared jottings are translated into field notes The jottings are used to faciliate the observer s memory of the session in the field In preparing his or her field notes the researcher provides a detailed coherent description of what he or she observed Analysis of notes occurs as notes are being prepared and while the researcher is still in the field This is important for at least two reasons This preliminary analysis fosters self reflection and self reflection is crucial for understanding and meaning making Preliminary analysis reveals emergent themes Identifying emergent themes while still in the field allows the researcher to shift his or her attention in ways that can foster a more developed investigation of emerging themes References Burgess RG 1991 Keeping field notes pp 191 194 In RG Burgess Ed Field Research A sourcebook and Field Manual London Routledge J Clifford GE Marcus Eds

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeFiel-3650.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Structured Interviews | Structured Interviews
    consistent from interview to interview The interviewer plays a neutral role and acts casual and friendly but does not insert his or her opinion in the interview Self administered questionnaires are a type of structured interview When might you use a structured interview Development of a structured interview guide or questionnaire requires a clear topical focus and well developed understanding of the topic at hand A well developed understanding of a topic allows researchers to create a highly structured interview guide or questionnaire that provides respondents with relevant meaningful and appropriate response categories to choose from for each question Structured interviews are therefore best used when the literature in a topical area is highly developed or following the use of observational and other less structured interviewing approaches that provide the researcher with adequate understanding of a topic to construct meaningful and relevant close ended questions Recording Interviews There are a range of ways to collect and record structured interview data Data collections methods include but are not limited to paper based and self report mail face to face telephone interviews where the interviewer fills in participants responses web based and self report Benefits Structured interviews can be conducted efficiently by

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeStru-3628.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Semi-structured Interviews | Semi-structured Interviews
    several interviewers out into the field to collect data The semi structured interview guide provides a clear set of instructions for interviewers and can provide reliable comparable qualitative data Semi structured interviews are often preceded by observation informal and unstructured interviewing in order to allow the researchers to develop a keen understanding of the topic of interest necessary for developing relevant and meaningful semi structured questions The inclusion of open ended questions and training of interviewers to follow relevant topics that may stray from the interview guide does however still provide the opportunity for identifying new ways of seeing and understanding the topic at hand Recording Semi Structured interviews Typically the interviewer has a paper based interview guide that he or she follows Since semi structured interviews often contain open ened questions and discussions may diverge from the interview guide it is generally best to tape record interviews and later transcript these tapes for analysis While it is possible to try to jot notes to capture respondents answers it is difficult to focus on conducting an interview and jotting notes This approach will result in poor notes and also detract for the development of rapport between interviewer and interviewee Development

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeSemi-3629.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Unstructured Interviews | Unstructured Interviews
    to use unstructured interviews Unstructured interviewing is recommended when the researcher has developed enough of an understanding of a setting and his or her topic of interest to have a clear agenda for the discussion with the informant but still remains open to having his or her understanding of the area of inquiry open to revision by respondents Because these interviews are not highly structured and because the researcher s understanding is still evolving it is helpful to anticipate the need to speak with informants on multiple occasions Recording Unstructured interviews Since unstructured interviews often contain open ended questions and discussions may develop in unanticipated directions it is generally best to tape record interviews and later transcript these tapes for analysis This allows the interviewer to focus on interacting with the participant and follow the discussion While it is possible to try to jot notes to capture respondents answers it is difficult to focus on conducting an interview and jotting notes This approach will result in poor notes and also detract from the development of rapport between interviewer and interviewee Development of rapport and dialogue is essential in unstructured interviews If tape recording an interview is out of the question

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeUnst-3630.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Informal Interviews | Informal Interviewing
    may be best used in the early stages of the development of an area of inquiry where there is little literature describing the setting experience culture or issue of interest The researcher engages in fieldwork observation and informal interviewing to develop an understanding of the setting and to build rapport Informal interviewing may also be used to uncover new topics of interest that may have been overlooked by previous research Recording Informal Interviews Since informal interviews occur on the fly it is difficult to tape record this type of interview Additionally it is likely that informal interviews will occur during the process of observing a setting The researcher should participate in the conversation As soon as possible he or she should make jottings or notes of the conversation These jottings should be developed into a more complete account of the informal interview This type of account would tend to be included in the researcher s fieldnotes Developing fieldnotes soon after an informal interview is recommended Even with good field jottings the details of an informal interview are quickly lost from memory Benefits Interviews can be done informally and on the fly and therefore do not require scheduling time with respondents

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeInfo-3631.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Focus Groups | Focus Groups
    surveys and interview guides clarify research findings from another method Recording focus group data One of the challenges in recording focus group data is knowing who is speaking at any particular time since often multiple people speak in overlap Consider audio or video recording focus group sessions or even both Video will be helpful for identifying who is speaking Recordings also provide access to nuances of the discussion and the abilility to replay sessions during analysis Transcribe focus group discussions Have a least 2 3 researchers in addition to the moderator attend the focus group and take notes The focus of each researcher s note taking efforts might be different e g nonverbal behavior group dynamics emergent themes Note taking is important to capture nonverbal data Even if one is video recording a group some nonverbal behavior will be lost that might be recorded by a note taker Benefits Ability to produce a large amount of data on a topic in a short time Access to topics that might be otherwise unobservable Can insure that data directly targets researcher s topic Provide access to comparisons that focus group participants make between their experiences This can be very valuable and provide access to consensus diversity of experiences on a topic References Asbury J 1995 Overview of focus group research Qualitative Health Research 5 4 414 420 Barbour RS 2005 Making sense of focus groups Medical Education 39 7 742 750 Carey MA 1994 The group effect in focus groups Planning implementing and interpreting focus group research In Critical Issues in Qualitative Research Methods J Morse Ed pp 225 251 Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications Kevern J Webb C 2001 Focus groups as a tool for critical social research in nursing education Nurse Education Today 21 4 323 333 Kitzinger J 1995

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeFocu-3647.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Content Analysis | Content Analysis
    programming See for example Berelson 1952 and Krippendorff 1980 More recently content analysis has emerged as a qualitative method As Graneheim Lundman 2003 explain qualitative content analytical approaches focus on analyzing both the explicit or manifest content of a text as well as interpretations of the latent content of texts that which can be interpreted or interpolated from the text but is not explicitly stated in it In healthcare research texts appropriate for content analysis are not limited to messages communicated to the masess via newspapers magazines radio television and the internet Text such as grant proposals published manuscripts minutes from meetings transcripts of conversations e g medical encounters interviews focus groups can all be subject to content analysis Content analysis is strongly focused on data coding One important limitation of this approach is its inability to portray a rich understanding of the context within which particular meanings emerge from texts References Berelson B 1952 Content Analysis in Communication Research Glencoe IL The Free Press Graneheim UH Lundman B 2004 Qualitative content analysis in nursing research Concepts procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness Nurse Education Today 24 pp 105 112 Krippendorff K 1980 Content Analysis An Introduction to its Methodology

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeCont-3822.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Narrative Analysis | Narrative Analysis
    and analyze stories or narratives In health care research scholars have investigated the experience of health care and illness from patients perspectives e g Kleinman Mishler and the meaning of disease e g Stevens Tighe Doerr using a variety of narrative methods There are several extended reviews of the narrative and storytelling literature including Riessman Chase Goodwin Langellier and Robinson See below for references References Bruner J 1991 The narrative construction of reality Critical Inquiry 18 1 1 21 Chase SE 2005 Narrative Inquiry Multiple lenses approaches and voices In NK Denzin YS Lincoln Eds The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd Edition pp 651 679 Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications Genette G 1980 Narrative Discourse An essay in Method Ithaca NY Cornell University Press Gergen KJ 1994 Realities and Relationships Soundings in Social Construction Cambridge Harvard University Press Goodwin C 1984 Notes of story structure and the organization of participation In JM Atkinson and JC Heritage Eds Structures of Social Action Studies in Conversation Analysis pp 225 247 Cambridge Cambridge University Press Jameson F 1981 The Political Unconscious Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act Ithaca NY Cornell University Press Jefferson G 1978 Sequential aspects of storytelling in conversation In J Schenkein Ed Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction pp 219 248 New York Academic Press Kleinman A 1988 The Illness Narratives Suffering and Health and The Human Condition USA Basic Books Labov W Waletzky J 1967 1997 Narrative analysis Oral versions of personal experience Reprinted in The Journal of Narrative and Life History 7 3 39 Langellier KM 1999 Personal narrative performance performativity Two or three things that I know for sure Text and Performance Quarterly 19 125 144 Langellier KM 1989 Personal narratives Perspectives on theory and research Text and Performance Quarterly 9 243 276 Mandelbaum J

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeNarr-3823.html (2016-05-02)
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