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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | What is qualitative research | What is qualitative research?
    qualitative research studies social phenomena in their natural settings Qualitative research Developed in the social and human sciences hermenutics phenomenoloy sociology Involves the use and study of a variety of empirical materials case study personal experience introspective life story interview observational historical interactional and visual texts Typically involves gathering empirical materials using some form of observation or interviewing method Some definitions Qualitative research is a form of social inquiry that focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences and the world in which they live A number of different approaches exist within the wider framework of this type of research but most of these have the same aim to understand the social reality of individuals groups and cultures Researchers use qualitative approaches to explore the behavior perspectives and experiences of the people they study The basis of qualitative research lies in the interpretive approach to social reality Holloway 1997 p 2 Qualitative research also called naturalistic inquiry developed within the social and human sciences and refers to theories on interpretation hermeneutics and human experience phenomenology They include various strategies for systematic collection organization and interpretation of textual material obtained while talking with people or through observation The aim of such research is to investigate the meaning of social phenomena as experiened by the people themselves Malterud 2001 p 398 Qualitative research is multimethod in focus involving an interpretive naturalistic approach to its subject matter This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials case study personal experience introspective life story interview observational historical interactional and visual texts that describe routine and problematic moments

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeWhat-3513.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Philosophical Tension | Common Paradigms
    1984 p 9 Five Common Paradigms Most qualitative research emerges from the interpretivist paradigm While we describe the epistemological ontological and methodological underpinnings of a variety of paradigms one need not identify with a paradigm when doing qualitative research As Bryman 2004 articulates see chapter 1 the tension between interpretivist and positivist approaches in a political debate about the nature importance and capacity of different research methods Up until the 1960s the scientific method was the predominant approach to social inquiry with little attention given to qualitative approaches such as participant observation In response to this a number of scholars across disciplines began to argue against the centrality of the scientific method They argued that quantitiative approaches might be appropriate for studying the physical and natural world they were not appropriate when the object of study was people Qualitative approaches were better suited to social inquiry To understand the tension between paradigms one must understand that this tension the either or approach that emerged in the context of a debate about the capacity and importance of qualitative methods Byrman and others most recently Morgan 2007 argue for a more pragmatic approach one that is disentrangled from the entrapments of this

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomePhil-3514.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Common Research Traditions | Common Research Traditions
    defined the array of qualitative approaches Wolcott 1982 Jacob 1987 Tesch 1990 Denzin and Lincoln 1994 and Creswell 1998 Click on each author s name to see the list of qualitative approaches the author identifies In the healthcare literature we reviewed we found the following traditions and approaches commonly discussed and used Ethnography Grounded Theory Phenomenology Ethnomethodology Case Study Action Research We describe each of these traditions briefly providing citations

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeComm-3582.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Common Methods | Common Methods and Analytical Approaches
    collection and methods of analysis are linked and shaped by the researcher s committment to a particular tradition or approach to social inquiry For example conversation analysts have a particular committment to studying naturally occuring conversation To do this effectively requires the use of certain types of data collection methods typically verbatim audio or video recordings and a particular type of analytical approach that involve special transcription and data analysis

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeComm-3597.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Common Pitfalls | Common Pitfalls in Qualitative Research
    rejected manuscripts were evaluated in this manner until saturation was reached Our notes regarding the reasons for rejection were reviewed and synthesized into a list of common pitfalls At this stage reviewers comments were examined again this time with the aim of identifying excerpts that described the pitfall identified These were used to create the table below Format of the table The first column of the table identifies the common problem The second column contains links to excerpts from Reviewers comments about the identified problem The third column of the table provides links to information on this website that contains information relevant to the common problem and avoiding it Common Pitfall Examples from Reviewers Comments Link to relevant topic on qualres Lacks focus Unclear focus Guidelines for Conducting Analyzing and Reporting Qualitative Data Too jargony Use of unfamiliar terminology without providing adequate definition Guidelines for Conducting Analyzing and Reporting Qualitative Data Sample insufficient Lack of iterative sampling process saturation Inadequate description of the sample Sampling Issues Iterative Sampling Common Research Methods Analysis lacks depth Superficial Analysis Data don t support the results Analytical Categories are unclear Coding decisions are not clear Common Analytic Approaches See also Miles and Huberman Qualitative

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeComm-3869.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Guidelines 1 Grant apps | Guidelines for Reviewing Qualiatative Reports and
    to evaluate all qualitative research Reviewers should use evaluative criteria that match up with the method and analytic approach the author uses or proposes to use When evaluating a phenomenological study use the criteria of good phenomenological research to evaluate the study design and findings Granting agencies might consider asking applicants proposing to do qualitative research to provide relevant published criteria that reviewers can consider using when evaluating their proposal In addition to the guidelines we discuss below we have identified two sets of guidelines that have been created for authors and reviewers of qualitative research Click here for Crabtree and Miller s guidelines Click here for Malterud s guidelines In our review of the literature we found the following resources were highly cited by other authors and very useful The following articles can be found in an issue of Qualitative Health Research dedicated to this subject Penrod J 2003 Getting funded writing a successful small project proposal Qualitative Health Research 13 6 821 832 Sandelowski M Barroso J 2003 Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project Qualitative Health Research 13 6 781 820 Morse JM 2003 A Review Committee s Guide to Evaluating Qualitative Proposal Qualitative Health

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGuid-3867.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Guidelines 2 - doing qual | Guidelines
    the research has already been completed and the findings are being reported It is the authors job to provide a description and rationale for the research steps taken For grants the oppostie is true Qualitative research is meant to proceed inductively not deductively In other words the researcher is not proposing to test hypotheses deductive Instead the researcher is proposing an investigation from which understandings theories and findings will emerge To prepare a proposal for qualitative work one needs to develop a framework using all of the available literature that supports a qualitative study The proposal needs to maintain a tension between reviewing the literature and developing a framework and rationale for one s study while still proposing an inductive qualitative inquiry In our review of the literature we found the following resources were highly cited by other authors and very useful The following articles can be found in an issues of Qualitative Health Research dedicated to this subject Penrod J 2003 Getting funded writing a successful small project proposal Qualitative Health Research 13 6 821 832 Sandelowski M Barroso J 2003 Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project Qualitative Health Research 13 6 781 820 Morse JM 2003 A Review Committee s Guide to Evaluating Qualitative Proposal Qualitative Health Research 13 6 833 851 Developing the Methods Selecting the methods As mentioned above the methods selected for a qualitative study will follow from the research question In general Research questions designed to understand the beliefs feelings perceptions of a group of people generally require investigators to ask members of a group questions via an interview or focus group Research questions designed to understand the behaviors of a group of people generally require some type of observational method Research questions designed to understand the culture of a group may require a combination of observational and interviewing methods Researchers will also want to consider collecting material artifacts produced and used by members of a culture As you can see from this website there are variety of approaches for interviewing and observing people The goals of the project will often shape the type of interviewing and or observational method chosen There are however other important considerations budget time and access that influence methods decisions Sampling and data collection Sampling is an important consideration in qualitative studies The sample selected must be one that will allow the researcher to address the research question posed Theoretical or purposeful sampling is generally the most highly regarded sampling method in qualitative research However there are a range of methods for generating a qualitative sample For more information click here Sample size considerations in qualitative research focus on achieving saturation For more on iterative sampling and saturation click here There is fairly strong agreement among qualitative researchers in the healthcare field that good qualitative research should be evaluated in terms of its completeness adequacy and trustworthiness In other words another researcher should be able to understand and appreciate the account and feel it is trustworthy

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGuid-3868.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | altheide and Johnson | Altheide and Johnson's Evaluative Criteria
    to understand observed perspectives of social reality in the setting being investigated Since there can be many perspectives ethnographies should seek to understand and report this multivocality and indicate how the researcher s perspective fits in Research must clearly delineate the process by which the ethnography occurred and include information about the researcher methods setting participants analysis and interpretive process and observers ways of knowing There are certain unavoidable problems in ethnography which can influence observations analyses and findings e g the researcher s membership role in the setting How the researcher deals with these issues and reports on them is critical In general topics to be addressed in a report of an ethnography include the context history physical setting of the environment number of participants key individuals activities schedules temporal order division of labor hierarchies routines and variations significant events the origins and consequences of members perspectives on meanings social rules basic patterns or order The key is to show the experience as lived by the observed according to the observer s best judgment Altheide and Johnson note that the difficulty of illuminating tacit or taken fore granted knowledge makes achieving this goal difficult Accounts explaining how the researcher

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeAlth-3681.html (2016-05-02)
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