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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Jacob | Common Research Traditions - Jacob
    Qualitative Research Traditions A Review Review of Educational Research 57 1 1 50 We found Jacob referenced in Miles MB and Huberman AM 1994 Qualitative Data Analysis pp 6 Thousand Oaks Sage Publications Click here to return to Common Research

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeJaco-3584.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Tesch | Tesch's Overview of Qualitative Research Types
    Ethnoscience Structural Ethnography Symbolic Interactionism Ethnomethodology Phenomenology Action research Qualitative evaluation Collaborative Research Critical emancipatory research Holistic ethnography Case Study Life history Hermeneutics Educational Conoisseurship Reflective Phenomenology Heuristic research Transcendental realism Event structure analysis Grounded Theory Ethnographic content analysis Ecological psychology Tesch R 1990 Qualitative research Analysis Types and Software Tools New York Falmer Click here to return to Common Research Traditions RWJF 2008 P O Box 2316 College Road

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeTesc-3586.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Denzin and Lincoln | Common Research Traditions - Denzin and Lincoln
    research Clinical research Denzin NK Lincoln YS 1994 Introduction Entering the field of qualitative research In NK Denzin and YS Lincoln Eds Handbook of Qualitative Research pp 1 17 Thousand Oaks Sage Publications Click here to return to Common Research

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeDenz-3585.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Creswell | Common Research Traditions - Creswell
    Ethnography Case Study Creswell JW 1998 Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions Thousand Oaks Sage Publications Click here to return to Common Research Traditions RWJF 2008 P O Box 2316 College Road East and Route 1 Princeton

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeCres-3587.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Ethnography | Ethnography
    process involves prolonged observation of a group nurses physician surgeons Atkinson Hammersley 1994 p 248 Ethnography ususally refers to forms of social research having a substantial number of the following features a strong emphasis on exploring the nature of particular social phenomena rather than setting out to test hypotheses about them a tendency to work primarily with unstructured data that is data that have not been coded at the point of data collection in terms of a closed set of analytic categories investigation of a small number of cases perhaps just one case in detail analysis of data that involves explicit interpretation of the meanings and functions of human actions the product of which mainly takes the form of verbal descriptions and explanations with quantification and statistical analysis playing a subordinate role at most Atkinson Hammersley 1994 p 248 Common Methods used in Ethnography Participant Observation This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being studied This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied This is called fieldwork Interviewing Enthnographers also learn about a culture or group by speaking with informants or members of the culture or group Talking with informants is called interviewing The types of interviews conducted by ethnographers vary in degree of formality informal interviews to semi structured to structured interviews Collection of Artifacts and Texts Ethnographers may also learn about a group or culture by collecting and studying artifacts e g written protocols charts flowsheets educational handouts materials used by members of the culture in their daily lives A Key Paradox With the rhetorical turn in the social sciences the debate between rhetoric versus science highlighted a key paradox faced by ethnographers On the one hand the ethnographer is in the field for a long period

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeEthn-3588.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Grounded Theory | Grounded Theory
    informants is called interviewing The types of interviews conducted by researchers using this approach vary in degree of formality informal interview to semi structured to structured interviews Collection of Artifacts and Texts Researchers using a grounded theory approach may also learn about a group or culture by collecting and studying artifacts e g written protocols charts flowsheets educational handouts materials used by members of the culture in their daily lives The Grounded Theory Approach The Grounded Theory Approach involves constant comparative analysis or what has come to be called the Constant Comparative Method This involves the researcher moving in and out of the data collection and analysis process This back and forth movement between data collection and analysis is sometimes called an iteration Grounded theory research involves multiple iterations The process begins with the researcher asking a question or series of questions designed to lead to the development or generation of a theory regarding some aspect of social life e g how do nurses see their role in the care delivery process in primary care settings This generative question leads to the first iteration of theoretical sampling Identifying an initial sample of people to observe or talk to e g Registered Nurses After collecting some data the researcher analyzes it The process of analysis allows the researcher to begin to develop a theory with regard to his or her question Based on this initial theory the researcher decides how next to sample e g speak to nurses with varying educational backgrounds This is called Theoretical Sampling This process of continually collecting and analyzing data and engaging in a theoretial sampling process are critical features of the constant comparative analysis that Glaser and Strauss describe The comparative process continues until the researcher reaches saturation the point at which there are no

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGrou-3589.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Phenomenology/Ethnomethodolgy | Phenomenology/Ethnomethodology
    social facts as accomplished or co created through peoples interpretive work Garfinkel posited that social reality and social facts are constructed produced and organized through the mundane actions and circumstances of everyday life Garfinkel set out to empirically explore how people accomplish establish produce and reproduce a sense of social structure Conversation Analysis is often linked to Ethnomethodology by a common interest in understanding the methodical construction of social action Conversation analysis takes communication or talk in interaction as one of the fundamental ways that people co construct or collaboratively produce social action and social lives Conversation analysts have developed an empirical approach to study talk in interaction Common Methods used Phenomenological and Ethnomethodological Studies Participant Observation This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being studied This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied This is called fieldwork The observer adopts a phenomenological stance while doing observation This is a position that questions the objectivity of lived experience in order to explain how the people being observed construct this experience together Observing some aspect of social life and the communication between actors that construct that lived experience may also be accomplished by video recording the interaction between actors This is a common data collection method used in Conversation Analysis Interviewing Phenomenologists and Ethnomethodologists may also learn about how a particular aspect of social life is constructed or perceived by people by speaking with informants or members of a particular social group Talking with informants is called interviewing Interviews vary in degree of formality informal interviews to semi structured to structured interviews Collection of Artifacts and Texts Phenomenologist and Ethnomethodologist may learn how social experience is organized and accomplished by examing how artifacts e g written protocols charts flowsheets educational

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomePhen-3590.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Case Study | Case Study
    case studies researchers study cases in depth individually as well as look across cases for similarities and differences Common Methods used in Case Study Research The goal of case study research is to understand the complexity of a case in the most complete way possible For this reason case study research often involves the use of multiple methods for collecting data By using multiple sources of data and both qualitative and quantitative data researchers may attain the richest possible understanding of a case The qualitative methods described below are all likely to be used in case study research Participant Observation This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being studied This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied This is called fieldwork Observation provides insight into the behavior patterns and social organizations that operate and constitute a particular bounded system or case Interviewing Researchers will learn about the person or persons that are part of the case by speaking with these people Talking with informants is called interviewing The types of interviews conducted by researchers vary in degree of formality informal interview to semi structured to structured interviews Collection of Artifacts and Texts Researchers may also learn about a bounded system by collecting and studying artifacts e g written protocols charts flowsheets educational handouts materials used by members of the system or case being studied Stake 1994 identifies three types of case studies Intrinsic aimed at understanding a particular case because the case itself is of interest e g how one person managed a stroke A case may be of interest because it has particular features or because it is ordinary Instrumental aimed at providing insight into an issue or problem or to refine a theory In this instance understanding

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeCase-3591.html (2016-05-02)
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