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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Action Research | Action Research
    are seen as equals and findings are fed back to participants for validation democracy The focus is on generating solutions to practical problems People in the organization e g practitioners are engaged in the research process and empowered to develop and implement improvements contributes to both social science and social change Solutions emerge from the process of doing research To influence practice positively while simultaneously gathering data to share with a wider audience Meyer 2000 p 179 Common Methods used in Case Study Research All three methods described below are used in action research although greatest emphasis may be placed on interviewing or speaking with people in the organization Participant Observation This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being studied This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied This is called fieldwork Interviewing Researchers will learn about the person or persons that are part of organization they hope to change Talking with informants is called interviewing The types of interviews conducted by researchers may vary in degree of formality informal interview to semi structured to structured interviews Collection of Artifacts and Texts Researchers may also learn about an organizaton by collecting and studying artifacts e g written protocols charts flowsheets educational handouts materials used by members of the system or case being studied References Brown CL 2001 Action Research The Method In Nursing Research A Qualitative Perspective PL Munhall Ed pp 503 522 Boston MA Jones and Bartlett Publishers Carr W and Kemmis S 1986 Becoming Critical Education Knowledge and Action Research Lewes Falmer Press Greenwood DJ Levin M 1998 Introduction to Action Research Social Research for Social Change Thousand Oaks Sage Publications Hart E Bond M 1995 Action Research for Health and Social Care A Guide to Practice

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeActi-3592.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Observation | Observation
    used in conjunction with other quantitative data collection techniques Observational data can help researchers evaluate the fidelity of an intervention across settings and identify when stasis has been achieved Non Participant Observation Non participant observation is observation with limited interaction with the people one observes For example some observational data can be collected unobtrusively e g worn out carpet as indicators of high use areas in a physical setting Researchers who study how people communicate often want to examine the details of how people talk and behave together Non participant observation involving the use of recording devices might be a good choice This data collection approach results in a detailed recording of the communication and provides the researcher with access to the contours of talk e g intonation as well as body behavior e g facial expression eye gaze Even a great observer cannot record these aspects in detail Non participant observation may provide limited insight into the meaning of the social context studied If this contextual understanding is important participant observation might be needed These two data collection techniques can complement each other and be used together Observing by video or audio recording If people are to be observed in a closed setting the researcher is not a participant observer and tape or video recording is permissable then this data recording approach may be appropriate e g physician patient encounters Choosing to tape record of video record a setting will depend in large part on what is permissable in that setting There are however a few things to keep in mind Decisions regarding how to record observational data depend largely on the focus of the research question and the analytical approach proposed If the researcher is trying to understand how people behave together and the people in question can see each other then the use of video may be recommended This is because of the important role that bodily based behavior plays in our social processes Without this visual information the researcher may not fully understand what transpires e g physician patient encounters Additionally capturing the details of this behavior in fieldnotes will be difficult Audio recording a telephone counseling session makes sense because the two interactants and the researcher only have access to verbal communication Audio and video recordings afford the researcher the opportunity to transcribe what occurs in a setting and play it over and over This can be very useful in the analysis process Fieldnotes Participant observers may use multiple methods to gather data One primary approach involves writing fieldnotes There are several guides for learning how to prepare fieldnotes Researchers may be interested in creating or using a template to guide a researchers observations Templates or observational coding sheets can be useful when data is collected by inexperienced observers Templates or observational coding sheets should only be developed after observation in the field that is not inhibited by such a template Theories and concepts can be driven by templates and result in focused data collection

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeObse-3594.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Interviewing | Interviewing
    to open up conversation about the topic Often this includes a series of follow up questions or probes prepared in advance in order to elicit certain types of information from the informant It is important however to recognize that the interviewer must be a good listener and that the best probing is that which is responsive in the moment to what the interviewee is saying Silence on the part of the interviewer is golden and can give the interviewee time to think and speak It is good design to have analysis and collection of interview data iterate such that an interview is conducted and examined prior to additional interviewing in order to Look at what kind of talk or discussion emerges when questions are asked identifying questions that might need to be refined Identify new experiences shared by the interviewee that need to probed in subsequent interviews Identify who else one may want to interview remaining open to the possibility that interviewees may identify informants the researcher will want to interview Reflect on the interviewer s role preconceptions and behavior during the interview in order to make any needed adjustments A number of resources below provide excellent guidance on the development of research questions Resources The following resources were used and can be reviewed by those interested in more information of the topic of interviewing Bauman LJ Greenberg E 1992 The use of ethnographic interviewing to inform questionnaire construction Health Education Quarterly 19 1 9 23 Bernard HR 1988 Research methods in cultural anthropology Sage Publications Briggs CL 1986 Learning how to ask A sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research Cambridge University Press Britten N 1995 Qualitative Research Qualitative interviews in medical research BMJ 311 251 253 Chirban JT 1996 Interviewing in depth The

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeInte-3595.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Analystis of Text and Artifacts | Collecting Texts and Artifacts
    whom the artifact is created what is included and not included in the document and how the document is used Documents or artifacts should be analyzed in tandem with other data collected An example One artifact that might be collected from a healthcare settings is a blank chart Charts are almost like finger prints They are organized in particular ways include different kinds of problem medication and flow sheets intake forms etc Charts are personalized to a clinical setting and sometimes to a clinician and can be taken to reflect and represent that clinical setting or person Analyzing what a flow sheet emphasizes for example can provide important insight into the type of care provided and valued by members of a clinic For example a flow sheet can be designed to gather only problem information Alternatively a flow sheet can include a table to track informaton about preventive care These differences taken in concert with findings from other data collected in a clinic can be very telling Observing an artifact in use is also very important How are charts used do patients clinicians clinical staff use chart if so when Who writes in the chart When and how are charts

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeAnal-3596.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Common Analytical Approaches | Common Analytical Approaches
    are converged For example interventions might be enhanced if the researchers concurrently conduct an interpretive study to examine the process of implementing the intervention or improvement Nested design qualitative and quantitative methods can be integrated into a single research study For example qualitative studies can be used to understand and operationalize key variables at the same time outcomes are evaluated Sequential design the result of one method informs the results of another study For example using field methods to develop key variables before developing measurement instruments Combination design case study design that combines multiple methods in order to understand the complexity of a setting For example a researcher may combine field methods sequentially with survey techniques interviewing and record or chart review A good rule of thumb is that the multimethod design developed for a study should be such that it addresses the research questions posed Some authors have noted that study designs that link qualitative and quantitative methods for purposes of confirmation or convergence of methods can be problematic The differences in results that each method will produce may be difficult to reconcile Note that the concurrent design described by Miller and Crabtree above does not seek convergence among qualitative and quantitative data sources but complementarity When analyzing qualitative and quantitative data consider approaches for translating qualitative data into a quantitative form e g coding themes numerically and translating quantitative data into a qualitative form e g developing narrative summaries of quantitative data This will allow analysts to look across datasets and may foster more creative analyses Resources Creswell JW 2003 Research Design Qualitative and Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications Greene JC Caracelli VJ Graham WF 1989 Toward a conceptual framework for mixed method evaluation designs Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 11 255 274

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeComm-3821.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Unclear focus | Unclear Focus
    and focus of the manuscript At one point it is mentioned that the substantive topic of interest is patient evaluations and preferences yet these are not included in the Results The manuscript lacks focus It is never clear what exactly the authors were attempting to study At some points the study seems to be about factors that include MDs decisions about medications they prescribe At other points the study seems

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeUncl-3870.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Too jargony | Too Jargony
    Readers may be unfamiliar with them One example is the use of the terms immersion crystallization to describe what was done analytically Although the authors provide a citation for this the reader might not know what this means or what this kind of analysis this entails Even more troubling is that these terms stand as a gloss for what was actually done In other words the author use this term

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeTooj-3871.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | sampling - lack of iterative process | Iterative Sampling and Saturation
    the research team know when they reached saturation Given that the study was limited to 19 participants what steps were taken to ensure that the full range of responses were generated The current manuscript is written as a results paper reporting on a study of three focus groups of female physicians with limited diversity One can easily question whether these three focus groups are sufficient to reach saturation I do

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeSamp-3873.html (2016-05-02)
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