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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Audit Trail | Audit Trail
    including connections to existing literatures and an integration of concepts relationships and interpretations Process notes including methodological notes procedures designs strategies rationales trustworthiness notes relating to credibility dependability and confirmability and audit trail notes Materials relating to intentions and dispositions including inquiry proposal personal notes reflexive notes and motivations and expectations predictions and intentions Instrument development information including pilot forms preliminary schedules observation formats Importance of creating and reporting one s audit trail There are a range of approaches that can be utilized in qualitative analysis It is important to have a clear description of the research path This should include research design and data collection decisions and the steps taken to manage analyze and report data This should include information about sampling clarification of the role of different research team members as well as the role of different data sources Reporting should also include a rationale for these decisions With regard to data analysis Malterud 2001 underscores the need for one to provide a detailed report of the analytical steps taken in a study when she write Declaring that qualitative analysis was done or stating that categories emerged when the material had been read by one or more persons

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeAudi-3700.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | data quality - impose categories on respondents | Imposes Categories on Respondents
    the term was not meaningful to men If the latter is true I return to the importance of clarifying the methodology in which the men were asked to define terms that were found to be relevant to women I also felt that the authors might have limited their thinking to the categories of codes already established for women They started with the categories and then tried to see if they

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeData-3878.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | wrong method used | Method Used wrong
    A primary reason for choosing focus groups is that the resulting data will be enriched based on the participants interaction It is not clear how that applies here Reports of self perception are always subject to observation and reporting inaccuracies More in depth qualitative methods long interviews focus groups observation approaches could have overcome the self reporting bias in this study Relying on quick jotted answers reflect the common assumptions

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeWron-3879.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | right method, poorly implemented | Poor Implementation of the Method
    questions within 20 minutes There are too many questions and sub questions in the interview guide Many of these could have been grand tour questions Rather than having 29 questions 5 6 would be a more reasonable number Additionally given the personal nature of the questions I don t think telephone interviews was an appropriate data collection method Therefore I question the quality and depth of the information obtained I

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeRigh-3880.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Constant Comparative Method | Constant Comparative Method - Grounded Theory
    or process features of the experience or phenomenon of interest Making decisions regarding initial collection of data based one s initial understanding of the phenomenon Further data collection cannot be planned in advance of analysis and the emergence of theory Engaging in theoretical sampling the key question is what group or subgroups does the researcher turn to next to collect data Subsequent sampling decisions should be purposeful and relevant The rationale for selecting comparision groups is their theoretical relevance for fostering the development of emergent categories Coding procedures in Grounded Theory Approaches Strauss and Corbin 1990 describe some flexible guidelines for coding data when engaging in a Grounded Theory analysis Open Coding The process of breaking down examining comparing conceptualizing and categorizing data p 61 Axial Coding A set of procedures whereby data are put back together in new ways after open coding by making connections between categories This is done by utilizing a coding paradigm involving conditions context action interactional strategies and consequences p 96 Selective Coding The process of selecting the core category systematically relating it to other categories validating those relationships and filling in categories that need further refinement and development p 116 During the analysis process

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeCons-3824.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Coding text | Coding Data
    chapters 4 9 Resources Crabtree BF and Miller WL 1999 Using Codes and code manuals A template organizing style of interpretation In BF Crabtree and WL Miller Eds Doing Qualitative Research 2nd Edition pp 163 178 Dey I 1993 Qualitative Data Analysis A User Friendly Guide for Social Scientists London Routledge Kegan Paul pp 95 151 MacQueen KM McLellan E Kay K and Milstein B 1998 Codebook development for team

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeCodi-3828.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Guide for authors and reviewers C&M | A Worksheet for Assessing Qualitative Articles
    that truly matters to patients Yes go on No stop Is the problem common to your practice and is the intervention feasible Yes go no No stop Will this information if true require you to change your current practice Yes go on No stop 2 Determine Validity If the answer to all three questions above is yes then continued assessment is mandatory Study design flaws are common fatal flaws are arresting Was the appropriate method used to answer the question Yes No stop Interviews should be used to study perception Observational methods are required to evaluate behavior Was appropriate and adequate sampling used to answer the question Yes No stop Participants events and so on are selected to maximize appropriate information the richest information relevant to the research question Random sampling is rarely used Assurance that enough people were studied to provide sufficient information should be found in the description Negative or disconfirming evidence should be sought Was an interative process of collecting and analyzing data used and data saturation achieved Yes No Stop In qualitative research the investigative team learns about the topic as the research progresses The study design should consist of data collection and analysis followed by

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGuid-3934.html (2016-05-02)
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  • RWJF - Qualitative Research Guidelines Project | Guide for authors and reviewers KM | Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of Qualitativ
    collection and sampling Is the strategy for data collection clearly stated usually purposive or theoretical usually not random or representative Are the reasons for this choice stated Has the best approach been chosen in view of the research question Are the consequences of the chosen strategy discussed and compared with other options Are the characteristics of the sample presented in enough depth to understand the study site and context Theoretical Framework Are the perspectives and ideas used for data interpretation presented Is the framework adequate in view of the aim of the study Does the author account for the role given to the theoretical framework during analysis Analysis Are the principles and procedures for data organization and analysis fully desribed allowing the reader to understand what happened to the raw material to arrive at the results Were the various categories identified from theory or preconceptions in advance or were they developed from the data Which principles were followed to organize the presentation of findings Are strategies used to validate results presented such as cross checks for rivalling explanations member checks or triangulation If such strategies are not described in this section they should appear as validity discussion later in the report Findings Are the findings relevant with respect to the aim of the study Do they provide new insight Is the presentation of the findings well organized and best suited to ensure that findings are drawn from systematic analysis of material rather than from preconceptions Are quotes used adequately to support and enrich the researcher s synopsis of the patterns identified by systematic analysis Discussion Are questions about internal validity what the study is actually about external validity to what other settings the findings or notions can be applied and reflexivity the effects of the researcher on processes interpretations findings

    Original URL path: http://www.qualres.org/HomeGuid-3935.html (2016-05-02)
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