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  • February « 2007 « RealClimate
    carbonaceous aerosol and sulphates which originate in part from fossil fuel burning While a relatively minor part of the overall aerosol mass changes in the anthropogenic portion of aerosols since 1750 have resulted in a globally averaged net radiative forcing of roughly 1 2 W m 2 in comparison to the overall average CO 2 forcing of 1 66 W m 2 More Comments pop up 184 Save the World Earn 25 million Filed under Climate Science Geoengineering Greenhouse gases group 19 February 2007 Guest commentary from Juliane Fry UC Berkeley On February 9 The Virgin Group chairman Sir Richard Branson announced a 25 million prize for anyone who can demonstrate a commercially viable design which results in the removal of anthropogenic atmospheric greenhouse gases so as to contribute materially to the stability of Earth s climate At the press conference announcing this Virgin Earth Challenge Branson was joined by Al Gore and the panel of judges for the competition includes additional climate change celebrities James Hansen James Lovelock Tim Flannery and Sir Crispin Tickell The goal of the competition is to find a method that will remove at least 1 billion tons of carbon per year from the atmosphere It will be very interesting to see what ideas come to the fore to scrub CO 2 from the atmosphere 25m should encourage some creativity and of course once working should bring in a significant amount of carbon offset money A ruckus was caused last year when discussion of injecting SO 2 into the stratosphere to form reflective sulfate aerosols to mask global warming made scientists feel they needed to state their position on this controversial poorly understood proposal During the discussion a New York Times feature described here discussed various geo engineering alternatives to exert a cooling effect to mask global warming At least in this case we are not seeking to add something new and uncertain to the atmosphere but rather remove something that we added Comments pop up 192 What triggers ice ages Filed under Arctic and Antarctic Climate modelling Climate Science FAQ Reporting on climate rasmus 16 February 2007 by Rasmus Benestad with contributions from Caspar Eric In a recent article in Climatic Change D G Martinson and W C Pitman III discuss a new hypothesis explaining how the climate could change abruptly between ice ages and inter glacial warm periods They argue that the changes in Earth s orbit around the Sun in isolation is not sufficient to explain the estimated high rate of change and that there must be an amplifying feedback process kicking in The necessity for a feedback is not new as the Swedish Nobel Prize winner Chemistry Svante Arrhenius suggested already in 1896 that CO2 could act as an amplification mechanism In addition there is the albedo feedback where the amount of solar radiation that is reflected back into space scales with the area of the ice and snow cover And are clouds as well as other aspects playing a role

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2007/02/ (2016-02-13)
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  • January « 2007 « RealClimate
    reconstructions for example records from China and Norway have featured in Moberg s last millennium temperature reconstruction in a northern hemisphere temperature reconstruction of the last 500 years and even been debated here on RealClimate So it seems timely to review why on or even under earth should research go underground to look at surface climate More Comments pop up 30 Calling All Science Teachers Filed under Climate Science group 15 January 2007 An Inconvenient Truth the Davis Guggenheim documentary on global warming starring Al Gore s presentation on the subject provides an accurate engaging accessible thought provoking and at times even humorous introduction to one of the most important scientific issues of our time see our review of the movie In some countries viewing An Inconvenient Truth has actually become a required part of the science curriculum and with good justification we think Given that the DVD is currently selling for 19 99 through Amazon com you d think that the National Science Teachers Association NSTA would jump at the chance to quickly get 50 000 free copies quickly into the hands of their members Yet when Laurie David one of the producers of the film made this offer to NSTA last November it was summarily turned down on the grounds that the NSTA has a 2001 policy against product endorsement as if Laurie David were trying to shop some new deodorant to high school science teachers What in the world is going on here Before continuing with the history of NSTA s bizarre decision let us provide you with the most important information Up to 50 000 US science teachers can receive a free copy of the DVD by filling out a simple request form here The deadline for requesting your copy is January 18 so if you want a copy take a few minutes to put in your request right away More Comments pop up 198 Older Entries Site Google Custom Search Recent Comments What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Jim Eager What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Patrick Eriksson What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Kevin McKinney Anti scientists Carbomontanus What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Spencer Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis SteveS What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Chris Colose Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of the Gulf Stream System doiknow What is the best description of the greenhouse effect James Powell Unforced Variations Feb 2016 Jim Galasyn With Inline Responses Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis SteveS Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis steve s Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis Andrew Kerber Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of the Gulf Stream System Hank Roberts Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of the Gulf Stream System doiknow Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis MartinM Anti scientists Don McKenzie Marvel

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2007/01/ (2016-02-13)
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  • December « 2006 « RealClimate
    Boldest impractical policy idea Geo engineering Boldest practical policy idea Creation of a National Climate Service which could more effecitvely provide useful climate information to policymakers Most revealing insight into the disinformation industry fiction Thank you for smoking Most revealing insight into the disinformation industry non fiction and year s best self parody CO2 is life Feel free to suggest your own categories and winners Comments pop up 106 AGU Hangover Filed under Climate Science RC Forum gavin 24 December 2006 It turns out that there were almost 14 000 attendees at AGU last week which apparently makes it the largest Earth Science meeting ever held To be sure not all of that is climate related there was lots of seismology planetary and more theoretical small scale stuff but a lot of it was At most times there were at least half a dozen sessions that I would have been interested to attend and they were often discussing overlapping themes It used to be that one could go to a meeting like this and get a wide overview of the work being done much more efficiently and speedily than reading the journals However that is clearly no longer true And of course we can t keep up with all the relevant journal articies in the wider field either and so how do scientists manage More Comments pop up 27 Not just ice albedo Filed under Arctic and Antarctic Climate Science RC Forum rasmus 22 December 2006 A recent paper by Francis Hunter provides an interesting discussion about reasons for the recent decline in the Arctic sea ice extent based on new satellite observations One common proposition about sea ice is that it involves a positive feed back because the ice affects the planetary albedo how the planet reflects the sunlight back to space before the energy enters the climate system Yet there is more to the story as the ice acts more or less like an insulating lid on top of the sea There are subtle effects such as the planet losing more heat from the open sea than from ice covered region some of this heat is absorbed by the atmosphere but climates over ice covered regions are of more continental winter character dry and cold The oceanic heat loss depends of course on the sea surface temperature SST Open water also is a source of humidity as opposed to sea ice because its cold not because its dry but the atmospheric humidity is also influenced by the moisture transport associated with the wind moisture advection Francis Hunter found a positive correlation between lack of ice and the downward long wave radiation something they attributed primarily to cloudiness Hence clouds play a role both in terms of influencing the albedo as well as trapping out going heat Francis Hunter suggest that the changes in the long wave radiation is stronger than the clouds modulation of the direct sunlight More Comments pop up 72 Fall AGU Filed under Climate Science

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/12/ (2016-02-13)
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  • November « 2006 « RealClimate
    going through the archives of the Paris Observatory sounds like a recent bestseller only less lucrative no More Comments pop up 48 The sky IS falling Filed under Climate Science Greenhouse gases RC Forum gavin 26 November 2006 A timely perspective article in Science this week addresses the issues of upper atmosphere change Upper atmosphere here is the stratosphere up to the ionosphere 20 to 300 km Laštovička et al point out that cooling trends are exactly as predicted by increasing greenhouse gas trends and that the increase in density that this implies is causing various ionspheric layers to fall This was highlighted a few years back by Jarvis et al 1998 and in New Scientist in 1999 and I apologise for stealing their headline The changes in the figure are related to the cooling seen in the lower stratospheric MSU 4 records UAH or RSS but the changes there 15 20 km are predominantly due to ozone depletion The higher up one goes the more important the CO 2 related cooling is It s interesting to note that significant solar forcing would have exactly the opposite effect it would cause a warming yet another reason to doubt that solar forcing is a significant factor in recent decades Update The best explanation for the cooling trends can be found on ESPERE alternative site in particular figure 3 alt version Comments pop up 82 Avery and Singer Unstoppable hot air Filed under Climate Science Extras Greenhouse gases Paleoclimate Reviews david 20 November 2006 Last week I attended a talk by Dennis Avery author with Fred Singer of Unstoppable Global Warming Every 1500 Years there is a summary here The talk and tasty lunch was sponsored by the Heartland Institute and was apparently enthusiastically received by its audience Still whoozy from a bit of contention during the question period a perplexed member of the audience told me privately that he thought a Point CounterPoint discussion might be useful he didn t know I wrote for realclimate it was just a hypothetical thought But here s my attempt to accommodate More Comments pop up 209 Older Entries Site Google Custom Search Recent Comments What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Jim Eager What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Patrick Eriksson What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Kevin McKinney Anti scientists Carbomontanus What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Spencer Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis SteveS What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Chris Colose Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of the Gulf Stream System doiknow What is the best description of the greenhouse effect James Powell Unforced Variations Feb 2016 Jim Galasyn With Inline Responses Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis SteveS Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis steve s Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis Andrew Kerber Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/11/ (2016-02-13)
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  • October « 2006 « RealClimate
    not yet have found or have overlooked will of course be welcome Eventually we hope to have a service that could be an essential resource for the interested public journalists and possibly even scientists that would give a higher quality level of information than is possible now Let us know if this ends up being useful to you and if you have any suggestions for improving the service Comments pop up 78 Taking Cosmic Rays for a spin Filed under Aerosols Climate Science Sun earth connections gavin 16 October 2006 In 1859 John Tyndall s laboratory experiments showed that water vapour and carbon dioxide absorb infra red radiation and that they could therefore affect the climate of the Earth As soon as his paper was published 1861 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society he put out a press release for the London newspapers explaining that this result implied that all past climate changes were now understood and all future climate changes could be predicted simply from a knowledge of the concentrations of these greenhouse gases Fast forward to 2006 Svensmark and colleagues laboratory experiments show that highly ionizing radiation can create ultra small aerosol particles As soon as the paper is published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society they put out a press release for the world s newspapers explaining that this result implied that all past climate changes were now understood and all future climate changes could be predicted simply from a knowledge of the intensity of these cosmic rays History repeating itself Well not exactly Tyndall actually restricted himself to describing his experiments and simply linking it to the work of Fourier a few decades earlier It took more than another century before the credible quantitative estimates of these effects and their influence on past and possibly future climate were made along with good enough observations of the gases to know that they have and continue to change significantly However Svensmark and colleagues not wanting to wait for the credible quantitative results to come in instead short circuited all of that tedious follow up work scaling up to realistic conditions theoretical and modelling studies demonstrating that their effect was indeed viable and simply declared in their press materials that the team had discovered that cosmic rays play a big part in the everyday weather and brings to a climax a scientific quest that has lasted two centuries Nobel prizes all round then Alas if only it were that simple More Comments pop up 121 Older Entries Site Google Custom Search Recent Comments What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Jim Eager What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Patrick Eriksson What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Kevin McKinney Anti scientists Carbomontanus What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Spencer Marvel et al 2015 Part III Response to Nic Lewis SteveS What is the best description of the greenhouse effect Chris Colose Blizzard Jonas and the slowdown of

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/10/ (2016-02-13)
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  • September « 2006 « RealClimate
    illiteracy or of ideologically induced stupidity His point appears to be that the science of climate change doesn t specifically imply any particular actions in response which is true what action to take if any is a political ethical and economic decision However his conclusion that ignoring climate change is sensible postition to take is indeed pretty dim Ignorance is never the answer And on a lighter note the Union of Concerned Scientists has a cartoon competition Comments pop up 52 Tropical SSTs Natural variations or Global warming Filed under Climate modelling Climate Science Greenhouse gases Hurricanes IPCC group 11 September 2006 by Michael Mann and Gavin Schmidt Roughly a year ago we summarized the state of play in the ongoing scientific debate over the role of anthropogenic climate change in the observed trends in hurricane activity This debate as carefully outlined by Curry et al recently revolves around a number of elements whether the hurricane or tropical cyclone data show any significant variations what those variations are linked to and whether our understanding of the physics of tropical storms is sufficient to explain those links Several recent studies such as Emanuel 2005 previously discussed here and Hoyos et al 2006 previously discussed here have emphasized the role of increasing tropical sea surface temperatures SSTs on recent increases in hurricane intensities both globally and for the Atlantic The publication this week of a comprehensive paper by Santer et al provides an opportunity to assess the key middle question to what can we attribute the relevant changes in tropical SSTs And in particular what can we say about Atlantic SSTs where we have the best data More Comments pop up 57 Why greenhouse gases heat the ocean Filed under Climate Science Greenhouse gases Oceans group 5 September 2006 Guest commentary by Peter Minnett RSMAS Observations of ocean temperatures have revealed that the ocean heat content has been increasing significantly over recent decades Willis et al 2004 Levitus et al 2005 Lyman et al 2006 This is something that has been predicted by climate models and confirmed notably by Hansen et al 2005 and has therefore been described as a smoking gun for human caused greenhouse gases However some have insisted that there is a paradox here how can a forcing driven by longwave absorption and emission impact the ocean below since the infrared radiation does not penetrate more than a few micrometers into the ocean Resolution of this conundrum is to be found in the recognition that the skin layer temperature gradient not only exists as a result of the ocean atmosphere temperature difference but also helps to control the ocean atmosphere heat flux The skin layer is the very thin up to 1 mm layer at the top of ocean that is in direct contact with the atmosphere Reducing the size of the temperature gradient through the skin layer reduces the flux Thus if the absorption of the infrared emission from atmospheric greenhouse gases reduces the gradient through the skin

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/09/ (2016-02-13)
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  • August « 2006 « RealClimate
    and given our extraordinary ability to see patterns in noisy data we often end up associating the theme with our own experiences Other examples surely abound in medical or political contexts Given that pattern it is probably overly optimistic to expect scientists who continually stress that single weather events can t in general be attributed to climate change but that changes in statistics might be to have much success in conveying these finer points to the public directly Instead their skills are probably best used in clarifying these points to those e g journalists policy makers that set the dominant themes in the first place Comments pop up 102 Fact Fiction and Friction in the Hurricane Debate Filed under Climate Science Hurricanes RC Forum group 18 August 2006 Michael Mann and Gavin Schmidt Judith Curry and colleagues have an interesting and possibly provocative article Mixing Politics and Science in Testing the Hypothesis That Greenhouse Warming Is Causing a Global Increase in Hurricane Intensity in the latest issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society BAMS The article provides a solid review of the recent developments in the science focusing on potential climate change impacts on tropical cyclones However the article is more novel in its approach than the typical scientific review article For instance it attempts to deal with the issue of how one should test hypotheses that reflect a complex causal chain of individual hypotheses This is of course relevant to investigations of climate change influences on tropical cyclone activity where one is attempting to connect a phenomenon climate change that is global in spatial scale and multidecadal in timescale to a phenomena that is intrinsically mesoscale that is spans at most hundreds of kilometers in space and lasts only a few days More unusually the article also takes an introspective look at the role of scientists in communicating societally relevant science to the public and provides a critical review of how the science dealing with climate change impacts on tropical cyclones and hurricanes has been reported in the media and how that reporting has occasionally deepened the polarisation on the issue In doing so the article revisits some of the false objectivity problems we have talked about before see here and here They also assess fairly the quality of the arguments that have been made in response to the Emanuel 2005 and Webster et al 2005 papers in the hope of focussing discussion on the more valid points rather than some of the more fallacious arguments The article is unapologetic in advancing their particular point of view and while we generally share it we imagine that some readers may disagree We hope as we suspect the authors do as well that it will in any case generate a productive discussion Comments pop up 243 Ocean heat content latest numbers Filed under Climate Science El Nino Oceans gavin 16 August 2006 Net ocean heat content changes are very closely tied to the net radiative imbalance of the planet

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/08/ (2016-02-13)
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  • July « 2006 « RealClimate
    2007 Global Warming Guru Times Argus Vermont 25 Mar 2007 Global warming hits a raw nerve for some see also Rutland Herald Huffington Post 23 Mar 2007 On Hurricanes and Much Else Gore Did Better Than his Congressional Critics New Scientist 22 Mar 2007 Al Gore rallies US Congress over climate Frankfurter Allgemaine 22 Mar 2007 Globale Erwärmung Ist der Klimawandel nicht als Schwindel Alaska Report 22 Mar 2007 More from Inconvenient Gore New York Times letters 20 Mar 2007 Al Gore and the Climate Debate New Scientist online 19 Mar 2007 Climate Change Who is swindling who New York Review of Books 15 Mar 2007 Warning on Warming The Guardian UK 14 Mar 2007 The swindle of the climate change swindle Huffington Post 13 Mar 2007 Debunking the NYT s Sloppy Hit Piece on Gore Salon com 13 Mar 2007 New York Times and Al Gore s Science The Guardian UK 13 Mar 2007 Don t let truth stand in the way of a red hot debunking of climate change Daily Telegram Michigan 11 Mar 2007 Rally to slow Global Warming Courier News New Jersey 9 Mar 2007 Free screening of An Inconvenient Truth Daily Breeze 26 Feb 2007 Somebody want to introduce Ernie the Attorney and Crazy Gene Herald Journal Utah 24 Feb 2007 Climate data misunderstood letter to editor La Presse 20 Feb 2007 Des éco sceptiques à l assaut du Web Napa Valley Register 19 Feb 2007 A lot of hot air letter to editor The Street 10 Feb 2007 Weekend Linkfest Salon com 7 Feb 2007 How the World Works Climate change the North Pole and an imaginary Chinese navy Seattle Post Intelligencer 2 Feb 2007 Climate Change Questions Answered Wallowa County Chieftan 11 Jan 2007 A change in the weather Cold facts and second looks NPR All Things Considered 10 Jan 2007 Is Warm January a Sign of Good Luck or Bad Times NBC Channel 10 Philadelphia 9 Jan 2007 Hurricane Blog A Great Climate Website Air America Radio 8 Jan 2007 Interview with Dr Joseph Romm Foriegn Policy Jan Feb 2007 Expert Sitings Vancouver Sun 31 Dec 2006 Climate issues divide colleagues at UBC also Victoria Times Colonist MSNBC 29 Dec 2006 Big Science for 2007 East Oregonian 28 Dec 2006 Man caused emissions just tiny bit of stratosphere Guardian 21 Dec 2006 The new 100 most useful sites Antarctic Sun 3 Dec 2006 Closed Case Fast Company Dec 2006 Jan 2007 An Inconvenient Business World Changing 30 Nov 2006 Overstating the obvious Wall Street Journal 27 Nov 2006 Blog Watch Weather And Legal Scholarship subscription required World Changing 27 Nov 2006 GeoEngineering in the Anthropocene Era The Guardian 14 Nov 2006 This is a dazzling debunking of climate change science It is also wildly wrong Sunday Telegraph 12 Nov 2006 Wrong problem wrong solution CNN 24 Oct 2006 Google launches personalized search engine see also BBC Washington Post San Francisco Chronicle and Los Angeles Times Online Opinion Australia 4 Oct 2006 The consequences are upon us Salon com 13 Sep 2006 How the World Works State of Imbecility Chronicle of Higher Education 8 Sept 2006 Climate Science on Trial Salon com 31 Aug 2006 How the World Works Peer review s Myspace problem Seed Magazine August 2006 The Contrarian The Independent UK 24 Aug 2006 Katrina and the waves the row over hurricanes Charlotte Observer 15 Aug 2006 Looking for facts in all the wrong places Discovery Channel on line 1 Aug 2006 July 2006 Hottest on Record Associated Press syndicated 28 Jul 2006 Utilities Paying Global Warming Skeptic Der Spiegel 22 Jul 2006 Did Al Get the Science Right Nature 12 July 2006 Should we flood the air with sulphur Contra Costa Times 12 July 2006 What to do about it letter to editor Ventura County Star 9 July 2006 Don t Chill Out on Reporting All Facts letter to editor Nature 6 July 2006 Top five science blogs Westworld 29 June 2006 The Sceptic Huffington Post blog 29 June 2006 The Poker Player s Guide to Climate Change New York Times 22 June 2006 Science Panel Backs Study on Warming Climate The New Republic 21 June 2006 Hot Topic Monterey County Weekly 15 June 2006 Global Power Al Gore speaks with Bob Edwards about politics and the end of the world Salon com 10 June 2006 Did Al get the science right Agence Sciencepress 2 Jun 2006 La science derriere Al Gore New York Times 29 May 2006 Swift Boating the Planet Washington Post Magazine 28 May 2006 The Tempest Nature 23 May 2006 Al Gore Eco matinee idol New York Times 22 May 2006 An Inconvenient Truth Al Gore s Fight Against Global Warming Chicago Maroon 9 May 2006 Gore urges us to accept An Inconvenient Truth Salon com 1 May 2006 How the World Works Grist Magazine 19 Apr 2006 Apocalypse 101 A climate change compendium New York Times 18 Apr 2006 The Big Burp Theory of the Apocalypse op ed by Nicholas Kristof Boston Globe 9 Apr 2006 In the Balance Is balanced journalism to blame for the lack of action on global warming Bio IT World 6 Apr 2006 Web 2 0 Scientists Need to Mash It Up Alberquerque Journal 2 Apr 2006 Science Politics and Press Releases New York Times 2 Apr 2006 Mulling the World From a Bench on Broadway Nature Mar 29 2006 Climate Science The son also rises Agence Sciencepress 27 Mar 2006 En manchette Vous êtes inondé Globe and Mail Canada Mar 18 2006 Baby its Warm Outside Z Magazine Feb 2006 Climate Talks in Montreal Der Spiegel Jan 20 2006 Spiegal Surfs the Web Blogging Climate Change Daily Kos blog Jan 20 2006 Science Friday RealClimate USA Today online Jan 2006 The Weather Guys see worth reading sidebar Grist Magazine Dec 29 2005 RealClimate one year in Agence Sciencepress 26 Dec 2005 En manchette La science et vous en 2005 Agence Sciencepress 23 Dec 2005 Blogue et science un retour

    Original URL path: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/07/ (2016-02-13)
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