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  • Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor) - Amphibians of Arizona
    far from water BEHAVIOR On warm evenings they can be found at or near the water s edge but during the day or dry periods they take refuge in rock crevices or on rock faces or less commonly on or in trees near the canyon bottom In the spring or summer it is not uncommon to find several of these frogs crowded together lining a shallow rock crevice In such crevices or on granite boulders they are particularly well camouflaged At dusk they climb down from their day perch and move towards water to forage or breed They often return to the same day perch for several or many days in succession DIET Canyon treefrogs feed upon a number of small invertebrates such as beetles caddisflies and true bugs REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Breeding occurs both in the spring and during the early part of the summer monsoon The call given by the male is a loud rattling series of short trills that sound like they are coming from inside a tin can The call is surprisingly loud given the small size of this frog Calls are heard mostly after dark but some individuals will call during day particularly during or after a rainstorm One hundred or more eggs are laid in a mass that may be free floating or attached to vegetation The eggs hatch in less than two weeks and tadpoles typically metamorphose in 45 75 days Eggs deposited late in the breeding season may overwinter REMARKS Skin secretions of this frog can irritate eyes and nose Canyon treefrogs in Arizona have tested positive for the fungal disease chytridiomycosis but there is no evidence that they are adversely affected By Jim Rorabaugh Brennan T C and A T Holycross 2006 A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Arizona

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-h-arenicolor.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Arizona Treefrog (Hyla wrightorum) - Amphibians of Arizona
    pine Douglas fir and other forest types mostly above 5 000 feet The breed most commonly in temporary waters which support relatively few aquatic predators BEHAVIOR Habits outside the breeding season are poorly known however non breeding frogs can climb high into the trees or may be found on the ground in wet meadows or other damp places A wintering frog was collected from a debris pile in January near Christopher Creek REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Arizona Treefrogs breed at the beginning of the summer monsoon season Breeding choruses typically last for only 2 3 days after which most frogs leave the breeding habitats However occasional calling frogs can be heard through the summer At the beginning of the monsoons these frogs have been heard calling from the treetops The call is a metallic clink repeated 1 3 times per second Eggs are laid in small clusters attached to vegetation Tadpoles metamorphose in about 6 11 weeks DIET In Arizona Arizona Treefrogs have been found to feed on beetles spiders earthworms flies and bark beetles They likely feed on a variety of other small invertebrates as well REMARKS Populations in the Huachuca Mountains and Canelo Hills differ in morphology calls and mitochondrial DNA from both the Mogollon Rim frogs and H wrightorum from the Sierra Madre Occidental of Sonora and may represent a different subspecies or species These disjunct populations are small and threatened by catastrophic fire drought and introduced predators By Jim Rorabaugh Brennan T C and A T Holycross 2006 A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department Phoenix AZ Gergus E W A T W Reeder and B K Sullivan 2004 Geographic variation in Hyla wrightorum advertisement calls allozymes mtDNA and morphology Copeia 2004 4 758 769 Gergus E W A J

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-h-wrightorum.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Baja California Treefrog (Pseudacris hypochondriaca) - Amphibians of Arizona
    are often shallow and densely vegetated which make them largely unsuitable for bullfrogs and other potential predators that abound on the Colorado River Breeding also occurs at golf course ponds along the Colorado River and at a Mesa Nursery breeding was documented in the overflow pan of an evaporative cooler The name treefrog is a misnomer this species is typically found on the ground or in low shrubs BEHAVIOR Elsewhere within its range non breeding Baja California treefrogs often inhabit the uplands away from breeding ponds Due to the arid nature of our uplands such movements are probably limited in Arizona Territorial males have an encounter call and will engage in wrestling and butting matches with opponents REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Breeding occurs from probably November into June in Arizona Females typically lay 400 750 eggs per clutch in clusters of 9 80 usually deposited on submerged vegetation or sticks A female may produce up to 3 clutches per year Eggs hatch probably in 1 2 weeks and tadpoles take 2 3 months to metamorphose The species distinctive krek ek call is commonly heard in Hollywood movies Extensive choruses of Baja California treefrogs can be heard after dark in the upper end of Lake Havasu DIET The diet of the Baja California tree frog includes isopods spiders snails and a variety of insects REMARKS Introductions to plant nurseries likely occurred via treefrogs hitchhiking on ornamental plants imported from the Pacific coast Recuero et al 2006 propose to split the wide ranging species Pseudacris regilla into three taxa Arizona fits within the range of P hypochondriaca as defined by those authors but no frogs from Arizona were included in their analysis Given that we may have both native and introduced populations and the source s of the latter is unknown the taxonomic

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-p-hypochondriaca.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata) - Amphibians of Arizona
    or in low shrubs or grass at or near breeding ponds which include often shallow and temporary ponds cattle tanks lake margins wet meadows and roadside ditches Sites without fish are preferred for breeding The species sometimes breeds in permanent water This frog is rarely encountered outside of the breeding season BEHAVIOR Migrations of adults from overwintering sites to breeding locations and of metamorphs from breeding sites to nearby uplands have been documented but not in Arizona The location and habitats of this frog outside of the breeding season are unknown in Arizona REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Breeding begins in the spring often when ice and snow are still present Probably breeds primarily from March to early June in Arizona The male has a surprisingly loud call that sounds like pprreeep or someone running a finger down the teeth of a comb During peak breeding periods males call during the day as well as at night Each female lays up to 1 500 eggs which are deposited in small packets of 20 100 and are attached to submerged sticks leaves or grass Tadpoles hatch in a few days to a week or more and metamorphosis occurs in 6 13 weeks DIET The Western Chorus Frog feeds upon a number of small invertebrates such as flies springtails spiders snails and ants REMARKS This frog was recently recognized as a species separate from the boreal chorus frog Pseudacris maculata however P triseriata is a complex of diverse taxa that extends across 2 3rds of the United States Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify taxonomic associations Declines of this species have been noted in the northeastern U S and adjacent portions of Canada By Jim Rorabaugh Bezy K B R L Bezy K Bolles and E F Enderson 2004 Breeding behavior of the

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-p-triseriata.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens) - Amphibians of Arizona
    were unknown from Arizona and the United States until 1957 HABITAT In Arizona this frog inhabits valleys within Sonoran Desertscrub often where mesquite is common To the south it also occurs in thornscrub tropical deciduous forest and other xeric habitats BEHAVIOR Similar to spadefoots this species spends the majority of the year underground and emerges with the first substantial summer rains While dormant underground it forms a cocoon of multiple layers of stratum corneum the outermost layer of the epidermis that is perforated only at the nostrils This cocoon prevents desiccation Firschein 1951 described the unken reflex in this species which consists of flexing the head downward and elevating the limbs so as to rest on the belly The purpose of this behavior may be to close burrows in the ground Lowland burrowing treefrogs are typically found on the ground but they can climb short distances into trees and shrubs REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Breeding occurs explosively during the summer rains from late June into September After the first substantial storm Lowland burrowing treefrogs gather around temporary pools that form in washes cattle tanks or other impoundments The advertisement calls given at night by males are low pitched notes resembling the quack of a duck Males also give what may be a territorial call similar to the advertisement call of the Western chorus frog Males call from secluded places often out of water but near breeding pools Clutch size and larval developmental times are unknown DIET Unknown but presumably Lowland burrowing treefrogs eat a variety of arthropods REMARKS Until recently this species was considered in the genus Pternohyla The Lowland burrowing treefrog is a tropical or subtropical species that reaches its northern limit in southern Arizona By Ernest Nigro and Jim Rorabaugh Brennan T C Holycross A T 2006 A Field

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-s-fodiens.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti) - Amphibians of Arizona
    where barking frogs can escape climatic extremes BEHAVIOR There is evidence that in Arizona this species may exhibit complex courtship behavior including males leading females from aestivation sites to breeding locales Females likely stay with the eggs until they hatch and may help maintain egg moisture levels by excretion REPRODUCTION AND CALLS This frog is very difficult to find most are located by their distinctive and loud Walk Walk call which is made from rock outcrops at the beginning of the monsoons Frogs call dependably for only two or three nights following the first heavy monsoon storm of the season but may be heard sporadically for another 2 4 weeks Unlike other frogs and toads in Arizona this species lacks an aquatic larval stage the young frogs hatch directly from the eggs Barking frogs lay clutches of 50 76 eggs presumably deep in moist rock crevices outcrops or caves which hatch in about 20 35 days DIET Barking frogs eat crickets grasshoppers katydids silverfish scorpions and a variety of other invertebrates In captivity they have eaten cliff chirping frogs REMARKS Unless one is in the right place at the right time this species can be nearly impossible to locate In the Pajarito and Santa Rita mountains as much as 39 and 45 years respectively have passed between finding specimens of this elusive frog This is the only Arizona representative of the family Leptodactylidae which includes over 500 species of tropical frogs The barking frog often appears in the recent literature as Eleutherodactylus or Hylactophryne augusti Barking frogs from Arizona differ in several ways from those in New Mexico and Texas and may be a different subspecies or species By Jim Rorabaugh Brennan T C A T Holycross 2006 A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Arizona Arizona Game and

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-c-augusti.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Western Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea) - Amphibians of Arizona
    green toad and Lowland burrowing treefrog However in the Pajarito Atascosa complex and near Patagonia the species occurs in oak mesquite grassland communities often in hilly or rolling terrain Also known from the Santa Cruz River BEHAVIOR This secretive toad burrows into crevices and under rocks and bark that surround ephemeral streams and flooded areas They may also be found near ant and termite nests Outside of the summer monsoon period they remain dormant in subterranean retreats REPRODUCTION AND CALLS An explosive breeder Western narrow mouthed toads breed in Arizona during the summer monsoons from June to September In the desert breeding sites are often muddy stock tanks or ephemeral sloughs surrounded by a thick growth of mesquites but in the mountains the species also breeds in ephemeral streams and springs The male s advertisement call is a high pitched nasal whine or buzz Ventral glands in the male aid in amplexus by creating a sticky surface so that they stay attached to the female Females lay from several hundred to as many as 2 100 eggs in packets of 100 200 Egg masses often appear as films on the water s surface but may become attached to vegetation Eggs hatch in 2 days and metamorphosis occurs in 28 50 days DIET Western narrow mouthed toads eat a variety of small invertebrates but the majority of prey items are ants termites and small beetles REMARKS Breeding aggregations can be located by listening for chorusing males but the call is easily confused with that of the Sonoran green toad Individual calling males can be frustrating to find because the acoustics of the call make pinpointing the call s precise location very difficult By Ernest Nigro and Jim Rorabaugh Brennan T C Holycross A T 2006 A Field Guide to Amphibians and

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-g-olivacea.html (2016-02-01)
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  • African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) - Amphibians of Arizona
    response to high population density or flooding Young frogs may use areas of sheet flooding to move among ponds Some researchers have suggested that African clawed frogs are unpalatable to predatory fishes however evidence from southern California suggest populations can be reduced or eliminated by black crappie and green sunfish predation This frog is salt tolerant and can aestivate for up to eight months when ponds dry out REPRODUCTION AND CALLS Reproduction has not been examined in Arizona however in California African clawed frogs breed from January November with a peak of calling in April and May The call is a two part trill given underwater that lasts less than a second and may be repeated up to 100 times per minute Females can lay up to thousands of eggs per clutch and can produce several clutches per year Eggs are laid singly or in small clumps Tadpoles metamorphose in about 5 12 weeks DIET African clawed frogs feed primarily on slow moving invertebrates but will also take fishes amphibians birds and carrion They capture prey with a combination of a toothed jaw and their forelimbs rather than using a tongue like other Arizona anurans Cannibalism has been documented The species is considered a threat to native fishes and frogs In southern California the African clawed frog is a predator of the threatened California red legged frog Rana aurora draytonii REMARKS This species was used as a laboratory animal in human pregnancy testing in the 1940s and 50s when it was discovered that they lay eggs after being injected with a pregnant woman s urine The species is now widely used in developmental cellular and molecular biological research The African clawed frog is on the Arizona Game and Fish Department s list of restricted live wildlife It is illegal to

    Original URL path: http://www.reptilesofaz.org/Turtle-Amphibs-Subpages/h-x-laevis.html (2016-02-01)
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