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  • The evolution of cooperation based on direct fitness benefits | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    related individuals However recent evidence from a range of animal species revealed that group members and cooperation partners are often unrelated among each other Kinship can even reduce altruistic motivation in groups consisting of related and unrelated individuals This calls for alternative explanations of cooperative behaviour exhibited among social partners This theme issue combines work of leading evolutionary theoreticians and empiricists proposing complementary evolutionary mechanisms that can explain the frequent occurrence of cooperation among non kin Well studied examples of cooperative behaviour extending from insects to humans illustrate the necessity to invoke alternative explanatory concepts to kin selection Theoretical studies highlight the evolutionary stability of cooperation among unrelated individuals if behavioural mechanisms such as different forms of reciprocity and commodity trading are involved This can explain a broad spectrum of cooperative interactions in nature particularly also in primates including humans Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue will soon be available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease and

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/evolution-cooperation-based-direct-fitness-benefits (2016-02-09)
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  • Origin and evolution of the nervous system | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    the absence of tangible evidence there has been continued debate whether today s brains derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities amongst them are due to convergent evolution This double theme issue considers the origin of nervous systems integrating knowledge ranging from evolutionary theory and palaeontology to comparative developmental genetics and phylogenomics These issues are based on a Royal Society discussion meeting and associated satellite meeting held in March 2015 More information is available on the meeting website Read Issue 1 Origin and evolution of the nervous system This issue is now available to read online Issue 2 Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution This issue is now available to read online Register for alerts to receive the table of contents on publication Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy Issue 1 Origin and evolution of the nervous system is now available to buy in print Issue 2 Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease and epidemiology immunology

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/origin-and-evolution-nervous-system (2016-02-09)
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  • Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences: evidence from primates and humans | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    Glowacki Sergey Gavrilets and Chris von Rueden Much work on the evolution of cooperation in humans is based on laboratory studies or mathematical modelling in which inter individual differences in characteristics such as endowment motivation physical attributes and personality are ignored These differences however are always present in natural settings Furthermore inter individual differences may be instrumental to the emergence and stability of collective action through their effects on leader follower relationships coordination among group members and provisioning of punishment and reward These differences may include dominance knowledge personality material and social capital and expected gains from cooperation This theme issue brings together recent research on inter individual differences and collective action in primates and humans to shed new light on why we cooperate Read This issue is now available to online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease and epidemiology immunology microbiology molecular biology neuroscience palaeontology physiology plant science structural biology synthetic biology systems biology taxonomy and systematics

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/solving-puzzle-collective-action-through-inter-individual-differences-evidence-primates-and (2016-02-09)
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  • Measuring the difference made by protected areas | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    enhancing biological diversity and ecosystem services Has it harmed or helped the people who live in and around these areas The answers to these important questions are surprisingly elusive but absolutely essential for developing effective conservation strategies Practitioners need credible scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes and how these effects vary with context Such evidence has been lacking but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas past impacts and for predicting their future impacts Complementing these scientific advances conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base on which societies can achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare Read This issue publishes is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/measuring-difference-made-protected-areas (2016-02-09)
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  • Eukaryotic origins: progress and challenges | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    to plants algae and an enormous diversity of single celled forms The origin of eukaryotes and their relationship to other cellular lifeforms remains a fascinating and difficult problem that has inspired decades of controversy and debate This theme issue summarises recent progress in our understanding of eukaryotic origins and highlights some of the most lively ongoing debates New technologies for sampling environmental microbial biodiversity and better methods for reconstructing the evolutionary past have recently brought new clarity to some of these questions and have overturned some long standing hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes Current debate focuses on the importance of horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution and on how best to root the tree of life more data will be helpful for resolving these questions but our contributors suggest that new methods and models of genome evolution will be just as important Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/eukaryotic-origins-progress-and-challenges (2016-02-09)
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  • The dynamics of antibody repertoires | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    very quickly as a result of past infections and vaccinations The dynamics of this diversity were previously unknown but recent advances in gene sequencing technologies have enabled researchers for the first time to observe antibody receptor sequences on a large scale In this interdisciplinary issue researchers from immunology evolution ecology mathematics and computation present new methods and analyses to understand the evolution of B cell repertoires Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/dynamics-antibody-repertoires (2016-02-09)
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  • Within-host dynamics of infection: from ecological insights to evolutionary predictions | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    how they evolve in response to defences and treatments Combining reviews and original research reports this theme issue showcases the contributions of ecology to elucidating the within host dynamics of infection Four topics are highlighted covering a diverse range of pathogens and host species The first four papers borrow from the ecological toolset to measure and simulate the population dynamics of pathogens and immune cells The next four contributions investigate the genetic diversity of parasites within their hosts This is followed by a community ecology approach to the microbial ecosystems within us and in particular the interactions between pathogens and microbiota The last four papers explore how within host dynamics affect onward transmission of pathogens between hosts All the contributions challenge pre conceived ideas and demonstrate the importance of integrating ecology with other fields for maximal insight into the basic biology and the management of infectious diseases Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/within-host-dynamics-infection-ecological-insights-evolutionary-predictions (2016-02-09)
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  • Cancer across life | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    employed in understanding cancer emergence tumour growth and metastasis but there is an increasing realization that cancer defences both between tissues within the individual and between species have been influenced by natural selection This issue highlights discoveries of these deeper evolutionary phenomena in the emerging area of comparative oncology with a particular focus on Peto s paradox the intriguing observation that there is a lack of a statistical relationship between cancer incidence and body size and longevity Comparing the cancer dynamics in different tissues or species can lead to insights into how biology and ecology have led to differences in carcinogenesis and the diversity incidence and lethality of cancers This burgeoning area of research can help us understand that cancer is not only a disease but is also a driving force in biological systems and species life histories Comparative oncology will be key to understanding globally important health issues including cancer epidemiology prevention and improved therapies Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/cancer-across-life (2016-02-09)
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