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  • The sociality-health-fitness nexus in animal societies | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    from ants to humans The evolutionary transition to living in permanent groups generated new unavoidable social consequences that act as selective forces Some of the papers investigate these costs of group living by focusing on disease avoidance behaviours or variation in stress responses as a function of different characteristics of individuals or social groups Other papers probe recent findings that link endocrine systems immune systems and ecological mechanisms to broader fitness outcomes in a social context including the costs of social isolation in human and non human animals Living in groups also enhances the risk of social parasite transmission several contributions explore the underlying mechanisms and consequences of this cost of sociality This first explicit synthesis of these links charts a path to a more general theoretical framework for disease ecology and evolutionary medicine that acknowledges the central role of social behaviour Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/sociality-health-fitness-nexus-animal-societies (2016-02-09)
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  • The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    of processes from gene expression to ecosystem function However such light cycles at least as perceived by many organisms have been fundamentally disrupted by the introduction of artificial light into the night time environment Understanding the severity of these disruptions is both challenging and timely with the large scale and rapid introduction of new lighting technology and the use of smart illumination we now have the opportunity to adjust artificial light at night to reduce any negative environmental impacts provided that there is a good understanding of the effects of both intensity and spectral composition In this issue cutting edge research on the implications of such disruptions for a wide breadth of biological systems associated with light from individual organisms to communities and ecosystems is brought together The issue highlights many important targets for future work and identifies ways in which practical steps can be taken to reduce environmental concerns Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/biological-impacts-artificial-light-night-molecules-communities (2016-02-09)
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  • Human evolution: brain, birthweight and the immune system | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    the placenta varies to a greater extent between different mammalian species than any other organ In particular there is a spectrum of invasiveness of the fetal tissues into the wall of the uterus even amongst the apes Invasion poses unique immunological challenges as the migrating trophoblast cells expressing paternal genes intermingle with cells of the maternal immune system in the uterine wall that must be negotiated Recent advances have also revealed important insights into the genetic and epigenetic links between the regulation of placental and brain growth centred on imprinted genes that are expressed in a parent of origin manner This complex network of interactions regulating brain development is explored in this Theme Issue in the light of new concepts in placental evolution the immune system at the maternal fetal interface and genomic imprinting This theme issue is based on a Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society details about which can be found here Read This issue is available to read online The Introduction is free to access Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Listen Audio recordings of the talks from the Discussion meeting can be found here Click on the cross next to the speaker s name to access the audio file Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/human-evolution-brain-birthweight-and-immune-system (2016-02-09)
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  • Phylogeny, extinction and conservation | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    of methodologies and provides case studies that apply these methods to support conservation efforts This theme issue is based on a Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society details about which can be found here Read This issue is now available to read online Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Listen Audio recordings of the talks from the Discussion meeting can be found here Click on the cross next to the speaker s name to access the audio file Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/phylogeny-extinction-and-conservation (2016-02-09)
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  • Ancient DNA: the first three decades | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    sales royalsociety org Listen Audio recordings of the talks from the Discussion meeting can be found here Click on the cross next to the speaker s name to access the audio file Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Guest editor biographies Erika Hagelberg has a PhD in biochemistry from Cambridge University and a master in history and philosophy of science from University College London From 1987 to 1992 she worked at the Institute of Molecular Medicine University of Oxford on the analysis of DNA from ancient bone While in Oxford she pioneered the earliest applications of bone DNA typing in forensic identification and human evolutionary history After holding teaching positions at Cambridge University and the University of Otago New Zealand in 2002 she was appointed professor of evolutionary biology at the University of Oslo Norway Her main research interests are in ancient DNA the human settlement of the Pacific and the history of genetics Michael Hofreiter studied biology in Munich then moved to the Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig completing his PhD and a post doc working on various aspects of ancient DNA including population analyses of Pleistocene species DNA extraction methods and palaeogenomics From 2005 he ran an independent research group at the MPI looking at mammoth and mastodon phylogenetics functional ancient DNA analyses and adapting Next Generation Sequencing for work with ancient DNA and multiple samples From 2009 to 2014 he was Professor of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology at the University of York and is now Professor for Evolutionary Adaptive Genomics at the University of Potsdam Christine Keyser is

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/ancient-dna-first-three-decades (2016-02-09)
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  • Marine regime shifts around the globe: theory, drivers and impacts | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    shifts are dramatic abrupt changes in ecosystem structure and function that have been reported worldwide in the marine realm Such shifts can carry significant socio economical impacts for example when they involve fisheries collapses coral reef degradation or the overgrazing of kelp beds Despite numerous studies showing the importance and actuality of these shifts major questions are still unsolved and there is still no common understanding on the drivers mechanisms and characteristics of abrupt changes in real marine ecosystems This theme issue addresses marine regime shifts from the different perspectives of theory ecosystem observations and management More than 80 authors from different disciplines across 6 continents highlight the advancements in the field as well as provide novel hypotheses Read This issue is now available online Register for alerts to receive the table of contents on publication Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Please contact our sales team for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease and epidemiology immunology microbiology molecular biology neuroscience palaeontology physiology plant science structural biology synthetic biology

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/marine-regime-shifts-around-globe-theory-drivers-and-impacts (2016-02-09)
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  • Assessing risks and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on wildlife and ecosystems | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    pharmaceuticals to vertebrate wildlife In some cases the effects can be dramatic such as the near extinction of three species of vulture in India after eating the carcasses of livestock that had been treated with the anti inflammatory diclofenac However this issue also shows that effects can be more subtle but still have potentially significant impacts Changes to behaviour of fish and birds after exposure to low concentrations of psychiatric drugs can alter foraging patterns activity levels and risk taking With thousands of pharmaceuticals in use globally this issue presents approaches for prioritising which products have the potential to cause harm to wildlife and ecosystems Given the many benefits of pharmaceuticals there is a need for science to deliver better estimates of the environmental risks posed by pharmaceuticals This issue arose from a Royal Society funded Research Fellow International Scientific Seminar held in April 2013 An open access meeting report was published in Biology Letters in August 2013 Read Read all articles from this issue online The Introduction is FREE to access Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Watch Guest editor Kathryn Arnold speaks to Ruth Milne about the issue Kathryn Arnold speaks to Ruth Milne about her paper Behavioural and physiological responses of birds to environmentally relevant concentrations of an antidepressant which talks about the effects of Prozac on starlings Buy This issue is now available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Authors of this issue can buy one copy at a discounted rate of 10 and further copies at 35 Please contact Jackie Knapp for more information

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/assessing-risks-and-impacts-pharmaceuticals-environment-wildlife-and-ecosystems (2016-02-09)
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  • Phenotypic integration and modularity in plants and animals | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    complexity are of particular concern the degree to which features are integrated or intercorrelated and the degree to which they are grouped into clusters or modules The study of phenotypic and genetic integration and modularity is the study of the architecture of genetic and phenotypic complexity as well as the evolutionary processes that have created that complexity For example we ask whether traits that function together covary phenotypically and if so by what mechanism is the covariation manifested and how did evolve The papers in this theme issue address theoretical and empirical aspects of integration and modularity in plants and animals living and fossil They display a diversity of approaches and highlight gaps in our knowledge and directions for future research Read Read all articles from this issue online The Introduction is OPEN ACCESS Don t have access If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact sales royalsociety org Buy This issue is available to buy in print We offer discounts for bulk orders of the print version of this journal issue for educational use 20 per copy for 10 or more Authors of this issue can buy one copy at a discounted rate of 10 and further copies at 35 Please contact Jackie Knapp for more information Submit a theme proposal to Philosophical Transactions B February 2016 Volume 371 Issue 1688 Alert me to new content Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences Influential themed journal issues across the life sciences Find out more Celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions Anniversary issue with free commentaries archive material videos and blogs Browse by subject behaviour biochemistry bioengineering bioinformatics biomaterials biomechanics biophysics biotechnology cellular biology cognition computational biology developmental biology ecology environmental science evolution genetics genomics health and disease

    Original URL path: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/phenotypic-integration-and-modularity-plants-and-animals (2016-02-09)
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