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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address at the Advertising Council Conference
    shaping their own destiny We believe that to listen to criticism and to respond to the needs of the people especially the poor and the helpless is the heart of democracy not to listen undermines democracy We won t penetrate the wall of isolation and frustration unless we are willing to listen to statements like this one from a 15 year old Boston boy from the Boston ghetto with a history of delinquency and poor language but very bright He was discovered by a Harvard student who was tutoring him Listen to this boy My father he tried and he tried My mother she tried too My father he would put his head on the kitchen table and he would cry all six foot three of him would cry And my mother would tell him to stop and say it wasn t his fault and we would stay alive somehow But my brothers and I we knew she wasn t so sure She tried to make it easy for us by lying but we knew Those are the voices we re listening to And we re hearing the poor speak out often for the first time from every part of the country Six months ago I was down at the bottom of Cataract Canyon right next to the Grand Canyon Two thousand feet down that s where the Havasupai Indians live They have lived in this deep canyon since before the white man came to America And they talk about us the people who live on the surface as the people on top When I went down to the bottom of that canyon do you know what those Indians wanted to know more than anything else Could they have their own bank account and draw checks on that account themselves All their lives they had been required to go to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and ask permission to use their own money They were treated as children by the great white father who knew best But now they have that bank account They made their first withdrawal on November 22 1965 from the first Navajo bank in Kingman Arizona And I predict that they ll soon learn to get just as much in debt as the rest of us We are involving the poor in every aspect of the program By seeing that they are represented on the boards of these programs By providing jobs for the poor in the administration of the program By educating and training for greater opportunity Some people have called this a social revolution If it is a revolution it is not a revolution in the old sense like the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution class warfare spawned by hatred bloodshed and barricades in the streets The head of a small neighborhood settlement house in Washington put it this way He said This revolution is too good to waste only on people who hate The people of good will in our country are

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-at-the-advertising-council-conference (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Remarks at Comprehensive Health Services Press Conference
    in our country have their lives whittled away by sickness Here are the statistics one half of all the women who have their babies in public hospitals have no pre natal care at all sixty percent of poor children receive no medical care and never see a dentist adults in poor families have four times more disabling heart disease 10 times more visual impairment 6 times more mental illness retardation and nervous disorders than in families that are not poor the chance of a child dying before the age of one is 50 percent higher for the poor and the chance of dying before the age of 35 is four times greater for the poor before 1920 the rate of maternal mortality was 79 higher among Negroes than among Caucasians in 1963 it was 320 higher among the poor who are employed one third have chronic illnesses that severely limit their ability to work no matter how many days others may lose from work because of sickness the figure is double for the poor and the poor do not have the benefit of salary sick leave or a work environment that will tolerate their absence sheer poverty is considered by

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/remarks-at-comprehensive-health-services-press-conference (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver discusses the Meeting of Church and State at Fordham University
    and the State has given up efforts to prescribe a belief which all men must follow on pain of punishment or disability We no longer bum witches or exile nonbelievers And under the great experiment of religious liberty both Church and State have flourished In fact the settling of these ancient divisions is the touchstone of modern political life the mark of the modem state And no one understood better than Pope John that these old disputes had been drained of their content He refused to make war on the past Nations like the Soviet Union with their officially prescribed creeds are indeed living in the past They have not yet caught up with the spirit of the age and until they do can lay little claim to being modern nations Unfortunately there are still those who view the separation of Church and State as conducive to hostility conflict and suspicion To all efforts at fruitful cooperation they return the answer They shall not pass They live with fears as outdated as the rack and inquisition which helped produce them It was an outstanding Jew Justice Felix Frankfurter who helped give the answer Religion is outside the sphere of political government he wrote but this does not mean that all matters on which religious organizations may pronounce are outside the sphere of Government Much that is the concern of temporal authority affects the spiritual interests of men And it was my deputy Bill Moyers a Southern Baptist trained as a minister of his church who suggested that I reaffirm to you today his belief as well as mine that separation of Church and State does not mean the divorce of spiritual values from secular affairs Separation of Church and State meant one thing when government and religion were at cross purposes It means something different when they have common purposes Today they have such common purpose in social progress The great social questions war and peace civil rights education the elimination of poverty at home and abroad are all at bottom moral questions They reflect spiritual values They are the concern of religion and government they are the concern of millions who perceive no difference in this regard between their beliefs and their social obligations This principle the identity of private morality and public conscience is as deeply rooted in our tradition and Constitution as the principle of legal separation Washington in his First Inaugural said that the roots of national policy lay in private morality De Tocqueville observed that American democracy was uniquely founded on morality Lincoln proclaimed as a national faith that right makes might Those who would read the Constitution as erecting a wall of hostility and distrust between Church and State neglect this aspect of our tradition They are blind to the spiritual mainstream of American life Legal separation is an important principle Equally important is the need for cooperation and common effort in attacking social problems For the State to deprive itself of the support

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/the-meeting-of-church-and-state-fordham-commencement-address (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver addresses the National Farmers Union
    interfering in their politics but to work within their system to help fill their needs for a better life America s farm men and women will make her best grassroots ambassadors The American farmer at home or abroad is not one to spend the better part of the day lounging at the country club or seeking solutions in a cocktail glass From dawn till dusk he is at immediate grips with the basic problems of production doing his share to contribute to a healthier family a healthier farm a healthier economy and a healthier country In the Peace Corps he will extend this direct application of his skill to the world Every country asking the Peace Corps for Volunteers depends on agriculture for its economy From the beginning of the Peace Corps we have known that agriculture and its component skills such as home economics would play a major role in its success We knew also that the newly developing countries would need teachers nurses engineers and technicians of all kinds but some of the early publicity and enthusiasm engendered by college students on liberal arts campuses gave many the impression that the Peace Corps was less interested in the farm people of rural areas of the country Last year one of the national officers of the Future Farmers of America said to me You mean the Peace Corps has a place for young farmers I thought you only wanted Phi Beta Kappas from Ivy League Colleges The whole nation now knows that there is a very important place in the Peace Corps for young farmers and not so young farmers True there is a place for the Phi Beta Kappas but there is also a place for the high school graduate and those with comparable vocational training and agricultural experience Of the Volunteers now in training or overseas a third are women Though the average age is 24 for men and 25 for women we have 42 Volunteers under 20 and six over 60 En route to Brazil now is a Texas farm widow who is 65 She will teach the women of her remote Brazilian community how to can their vegetables and make the most of their garden produce In the high mountains of Chile we have a 19 year old farmer whose immediate concern is for the impoverished agricultural town of Curacavi He is doctor lawyer tinker tailor farmer teacher everything to these grateful people but rich man In a letter from this young American describing his typical day he mentions half a dozen first aid emergencies he encounters and attends to en route to his classes in agriculture In the brief months since his arrival the people of Guracavi thanks to their Peace Corps neighbor have benefited accordingly All children aged 3 months to 7 years are vaccinated against polio A petition to study the water problem is being considered CARE kits have been distributed and explained A 16 hour health course is completed A course in crop rotation and irrigation has been instigated The use and preparation of powdered milk has been demonstrated A Christmas program was organized the community s first Now some of the things I have yet to do continues this intrepid and resourceful teenage farmer Build a model latrine teach a course in Mechanica start an anti erosion and anti rodent campaign Set up a first aid post initiate grazing control measures teach English and start a course in furniture making using the local bamboo The letter closes with an apology for the stationery on which it was written It s the only thing I had out here said the Volunteer This young Peace Corps Volunteer need not apologize for anything The good he is doing speaks for itself and deserves only praise Frank O Hearn typifies this generation of Americans raised on the land who do not say Let George do it or even Let Frank do it but Let me do it It s the finest sound since the peal of the Liberty bell We have come a long way since last year when the young farmer expressed surprise that the Peace Corps was interested in him We have received thousands of applications from farmers who are qualified for Peace Corps service They have come from young farmers old farmers retired farmers farmers wives and farmers daughters There are in fact many Peace Corps projects in which home economists rural homemakers and 4 H girls would be particularly suitable There are opportunities in the Peace Corps for college trained specialists and from those who have acquired their knowledge farming their own land Many in all of these categories are now overseas in countries of Latin America Africa and Asia More are being considered which will swell the ranks of the Peace Corps to 4800 by the end of this August to 10 000 by the end of 1963 Response like this would not have been possible without the support of Jim Patton his staff and the state officers of the National Farm Union Your organization has backed the Peace Corps from the beginning It takes a good farmer to recognize a good crop and your early support has been a decisive factor in our successful growth Many of you here today have served as unofficial Peace Corps representatives in your community telling your friends and neighbors of the need for skilled farmers and homemakers in less fortunate countries We hope to count on you for continued support in the future as opportunities abroad for farmers continue to mount I want to emphasize the word OPPORTUNITY I understand only one third of the young men who take vocational agriculture in high school stay in agriculture Many of them have the knowledge and training so desperately needed by countries overseas To many of them the Peace Corps offers the opportunity to stay in agriculture to find in it a new challenge while gaining unique experience On their return they will be

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-national-farmers-union (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver speaks at the annual Roosevelt memorial service, giving a speech titled, "Inheritors of an Age"
    have been profoundly influenced by his life and his work I come here today not as a participant in the age of Roosevelt but as an inheritor of that age He was the principal architect of our America It is said that Roosevelt s task was easier because he took office at a time of great national crisis The normal processes of political debate were suspended opposition had been submerged by the flood of national misery and everyone turned to him expectantly for leadership This created a great opportunity but it also magnified the dangers of failure The Preamble to the Constitution lists among the objectives of the American people to establish justice insure domestic tranquillity provide for the common defense promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity In our entire history no leader was truer to that mandate than Franklin Roosevelt Roosevelt laid the foundations of today s affluent society and established the principle that the nation was responsible for the general welfare of all its citizens Although poverty and injustice remain we have today for the first time the legal and material resources to end them In our dealings with the world he thrust America almost against its will into the center of the world arena He strengthened us to defeat our most brutal and powerful enemies and destroyed the isolationism and parochial outlook which had kept the United States from assuming its responsibilities as part of a greater world community Because of him for the first time in our history the issue is not whether we will have the strength to deal with our problems but whether we have the courage and determination to use that strength not whether we have the resources but whether we choose to use those resources for the world s welfare not whether we can but whether we will Today s central issue is a moral issue the issue of commitment Largely because of Roosevelt we are the first nation in history with the strength to solve its own problems If we fail it will be a failure of commitment We can eliminate unemployment and poverty in this country We can ensure some measure of security against the ravages of disease and old age We can enable the Negro to become simply and fully an American We can harness and use science for the welfare of our people We can work for a world in which almost three billion underprivileged people will be our colleagues in progress This is not said lightly These are not easy problems I have seen the face of poverty and idleness in the mines of West Virginia I have come face to face with racial hatred on the South Side of Chicago Catholics stoning fellow Catholics on the steps of a church because they were black In the last few years I have traveled five hundred thousand miles around the world seeing at first hand the deep barriers of

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/inheritors-of-an-age (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver speaks before the Textile Workers Convention
    s work will not be finished until the war on poverty is won And let us serve notice on Senator Goldwater who criticizes no win policies This war against poverty at home is a war we can win and intend to win And we can do it without dropping atomic bombs We can do it without bombing the leaves off trees We can do it by mobilizing the good will and constructive energy of the American people One reason we are going to win is that you are in the front lines with us You have been fighting this war a long time You were fighting it when you fought to raise textile workers wages from 10 to 15 and 20 cents an hour You were fighting it when you fought to end child labor in the mills when you fought to do away with spinning frames deliberately designed to keep the spindles within reach of children s hands You were fighting it in Lowell and Lawrence in Manchester and Passaic in New Bedford and Marion Yet before you formed this union though you may have won a battle here and there you were losing the war By creating the union you took the step needed to put you on your way to victory That is the lesson we have in mind in declaring national war on poverty We have won many a battle in the New Deal and the Fair Deal and on the New Frontier Great progress has been made But we now need to unite the separate efforts we need to mobilize our full resources we need to develop a general strategy we need a union of interests and talents to give us victory You know about the greater union we need for the war against poverty because you have practiced Great Unionism Great Unionism fights along the whole front It sees the general interests of all workers of all those without work and all the people It has the vision of the Great Society which it will lead in creating for itself and for all Americans In the labor movement there is a question today of Great Unionism versus Little Unionism I don t mean great or little in terms of membership I mean it in terms of the spirit in terms of the ideas you stand and fight for Little Unionism looks to one industry or one contract It seeks higher wages for itself It is concerned only with its own members and their jobs Great Unionism is what you have done You have not just been concerned with your own contracts and your own industry In every drive to increase the Federal minimum wage and extend its coverage you have been in the forefront You have done this even after the success of your own collective bargaining has raised textile wages with few exceptions substantially above the Federal minimum to an average of 1 75 an hour In the drive for hospitalization and health

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-textile-workers-convention (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver delivers the St. Procopius College commencement speech
    with others In the School of Work additional required subjects for leadership are being taught Fifty years ago few business people paid much attention to such topics as Human Relations Labor and Management Problems Social Security Pension and Retirement Sick Leave the Rights of Workers Annual Wages and so on Business was simply the job of making as much money as fast as possible It was a game where the smartest player gathered most of the chips and the others got what was left Today things are different For example take the Serra Clubs These Clubs are composed of leading businessmen who meet once a week for luncheon and a short talk on moral doctrine business ethics or Catholic social action In Chicago the Serra Club has 250 members Among them are the men who started the Christian Family Movement the President of the Catholic Council on Working Life the Catholic representative on the National Conference of Christians and Jews the men who raise most of the money for the retreat houses at Childerly and May s Lake men who run the Gabriel Guild for newspaper writers and publishers men who are struggling to solve the housing problems of Chicago and many other leaders in business who are also leaders in Catholic social and moral action Or take another group called the Opus Dei meaning the Work of God This group is composed solely of professional men and women doctors lawyers teachers scientists business executives engineers They have banded themselves together as a full fledged religious group The members take private vows of poverty chastity and obedience They agree to offer all their work and all the money they earn for the honor and glory of God They do not beg or take up collections They do not have to because they are all gainfully employed But like the earliest Christians in the days of Ancient Greece and Rome they are Christianizing the world by leading full Christian lives within their own field of human activity giving perfect example of how true Christianity should change a man in his day today work Let me give you a specific example of an Opus Dei member whom I met last year This young man was 23 years old He had graduated Magna Cum Laude from Yale University where he had also earned himself three major letters in athletics He was a member of the United States Olympic Team After college he took an M A in American History at Harvard University and entered our Foreign Service He was stationed first in the Middle East in Iraq then returned to headquarters in Washington D C This young man is six feet three inches tall physically healthy intellectually bright experienced beyond his years in our American diplomatic corps Nothing but a glorious future beckons to him in this world Last year however he took a leave of absence from the State Department He joined Opus Dei Now he is in Rome studying philosophy and theology to prepare himself better not for the priesthood or the convent but for the Diplomatic Service In three years he will return to the State Department and renew his career But then he will be a trained theologian and philosopher as well as an historian and athlete He will be a fully dedicated man of religion as well as a diplomat And he will be only 26 years old Take another example a young man who graduated Summa Cum Laude from Harvard University in Atomic Physics the only one in his class of 1 000 students to earn the Summa Cum Laude This boy was an outstanding public speaker and debater He won three state wide competitions in speech Upon graduation he was offered teaching positions in the Physics departments of Columbia University and at Wisconsin Where is he now He is in Opus Dei He too is in Rome studying philosophy and theology for four years not to prepare himself for the priesthood but to make himself an atomic physicist who understands the nature and destiny of man as well as of matter If all our American diplomats and scientists were trained theologians and philosophers as well as professionals in their own fields think of the glorious future which would be ours Do you think such men would give away the secrets of the atom bomb Would they be trustworthy in positions of high authority Would they be dedicated to their work giving a full day s work for a full day s pay Is there any chance they would be goof offs or fellows interested in a fast buck The young men I have mentioned are only two examples out of thousands whose careers illustrate the basic point in the School of Work there are many new opportunities and even new ways to learn from your work and in your work how to be a better man and thereby a better leader for the world of the future Laborare est orare to work is to prey This is an ancient Benedictine principle Today in the School of Work you can learn how to put that ancient saying into modern practice Similarly in the School of Public Service More and more we Americans are beginning to realize that we get the kind of government we deserve Government is corrupt and inefficient if we permit it to be Government can be morally good and financially honest if we as individuals enter the School of Public Service and dedicate all or part of our time to study and work in this field By Public Service I do not mean politics alone I include all kinds of cooperative work with and for your fellow man in voluntary associations in labor unions in clubs in fraternal organizations community groups and so on These are all institutions where dedicated men and women can learn how to work successfully with people of different races religions and political affiliations Chicago is lucky to have many

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/st-procopius-college-commencement-speech (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to the Yale Law School Association
    Office of Education in Washington from local school boards and school superintendents are asking more for teacher aides than for teachers Competition from non professionals is proving that the services and products marketed by professionals have been over priced and unnecessarily scarce The paper back edition will serve the needs of a wider market at least as well as the hard bound copy Competition is at work in education too Job Corps is competing with the public school system One superintendent of schools harangued his principals by referring to this new competitor He said Job Corps has fewer drop outs than we do And they start with 100 percent drop outs The former Secretary of HEW Arthur Flemming President of the University of Oregon is running a Job Corps Center at Tongue Point Oregon His new counselling system teaching machines and curriculum are so successful that the Portland City School System has decided to send teachers there for a sabbatical to learn these new ways of dealing with potential and actual drop outs in the city schools Ten years ago Khrushchev came to Iowa to see Mr Garst He wanted to learn how to improve Russia s agricultural production Today our foreign competitors are not just looking at our farms and factories Five thousand visitors per month inspect the Job Corps Center at Camp Parks in California And the State Department now schedules the Job Corps Centers as regular stops for foreign visitors And they do this in response to foreign requests But our new programs are not established only to compete with programs managed by other agencies or private welfare groups Some of our own programs compete with each other Each has to justify its own costs comparatively In our own operations Job Corps the residential program for out of school youth has to compete with Neighborhood Youth Corps the live at home work program for roughly the same target population We fund both programs VISTA Volunteers members of the domestic Peace Corps as it s often referred to have to prove that they are more effective than workers paid by Community Action Programs We fund both Head Start competes with the work of the famed child psychologist Martin Deutsch He believes it s necessary to work with even younger children two three and four year olds and that you have to work with them for two or three years to achieve results We finance Deutsch as well as Head Start Some critics look at that and call it duplication or waste We call it competition And we re for it Buick competes with Pontiac and Oldsmobile even though one company produces them all And General Motors is doing okay despite Abe Fortas What is the result of all this One result is that for the first time the poor will have a choice of where to go for services where to obtain a redress of grievance And ultimately the poor will have a choice of routes leading from poverty to opportunity That is why competition is one of our most important strategies The second strategy is confrontation By confrontation we mean that we purposely seek to enlist the American business man the professional man lawyer doctor minister or labor union leader the middle class housewife in the War on Poverty Ours is not a war to be fought by proxy simply by hiring other people to do the so called dirty work We have enlisted American Business to run Job Corps Centers G E IBM Xerox IT T RCA U S Industries Burroughs And these industrial giants are running excellent Job Corps Centers American industry is changing when the President of General Electric can be photographed proudly in a Job Corps Center in Iowa surrounded by 300 giggling teenage girls We have enlisted the middle class housewife through a new organization called Women in Community Service That organization relies principally on volunteer womanpower both in screening all applicants for Women s Job Corps Centers and for participation in tutorial programs Head Start charm courses and a variety of other local community projects Only one year old WICS has over 28 000 members and it is the first time that four national women s organizations National Council of Catholic Women United Church Women National Council of Negro Women and National Council of Jewish Women have all joined together to carry out any program And they are an effective team The results of this confrontation are becoming clear Two years ago many Congressmen and other citizens said there was no need for a War on Poverty because there were no honest poor in America They argued there are plenty of jobs no one who is willing to work needs to be poor today And they concluded that the poor are all shiftless lazy wastrels loafers dope addicts or drunks Now these same men are criticizing us for not reaching enough of the poor At least they have discovered that the poor exist And that these poor cannot pull themselves out of poverty unaided Two years ago even many of those who admitted the existence of the poor believed all the poor lived in Harlem and Appalachia if they lived on the West Coast Or that all the poor lived in migrant camps or in Watts if they lived on the East Coast Or that all the poor were on Indian Reservations if they lived someplace in between But today because of confrontation on a dozen fronts the great mass of Americans recognize that the poor are very much with us with each one of us in our own communities Yet there still remain a great many people who are afraid of the poor physically afraid of the poor as people and of the neighborhood where the poor live Goldwater struck a pressure point an open nerve ending when he talked about terror in the streets This fear stands in the way of eradicating poverty And so long as fear and

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-yale-law-school-association-1966 (2015-03-27)
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