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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks about Education Policy to the Forty-Second Annual Conference of the Illinois Association of School Boards
    to assure efficiency economy and honesty in the expenditure of the taxpayers money This we have done in Chicago to the best of our ability We have required independent audits of all our accounts by recognized Outside experts whose authority to inspect our financial operations is unlimited We have invested all public funds to earn maximum returns on idle cash Last year 463 000 was produced from this source alone We have charged tuition to Outsiders using our facilities More than 500 000 per annum is earned in this way We stepped up the speed with which we pay our bills As a result in 1955 we increased our income in discounts for prompt payments by 28 We have employed outside consultants on municipal finance who have studied our operations and reported on them in detail to the banking and investment community nationwide These are only a few of the specific steps taken to increase public confidence in our financial integrity and public approval for our business like administration This effort is I believe an integral part of putting our own house in order It is the third effort required of all school boards Fourth in our efforts to put our own house in order is the imperative need to develop sound legislative programs Our Chicago program faces up to the facts of the school situation today More children more teachers more textbooks and more buildings cannot be financed on last year s budget Therefore our legislative program requests local taxpayers to assume a heavier tax load Through bond issues it apportions part of the financial burden over twenty year periods it reasserts the fact that the primary responsibility for Common school education rests on the State of Illinois it advocates a new look at the outmoded tax assessment procedures it requests increased state aid because of growth in population inflation and higher quality in educational standards These are our methods of approaching the current problems facing both the State Legislature and ourselves You may have other and different specific proposals in this field But I hope and believe we can make all our proposals jointly and in a spirit of willing cooperation But let us assume we have all acted honestly and effectively in meeting the four objectives I have mentioned Let us assume we have all developed good teachers salaries proper buildings economical and efficient administration and let us assume in Springfield that our legislative requests have been proper and successful would we then be able to say to the world our public schools in Illinois are in first class condition I think not We should have solved the physical and financial problems at least temporarily but the basic educational problems would remain I do not mean to minimize the great achievements which would be ours They would be unparalleled in all the world Like our national commitment to universal democratic education they would be unique in the history of education But the educators keep reminding us and rightfully so that numerous important educational problems would still remain Since education is our primary business not administration construction or legislation we must concentrate on educational problems We must solve them correctly to produce the top quality products Americans demand of their public as well as private enterprises Public education can and should produce scholars and scholarship equal to the best There is no place in America for second rate automobiles or refrigerators or businesses Competition drives them out of existence So let it be with education Either we in public education match the best of the present and the past or we get out of the way and let those do the job who can do it properly I am convinced public education can equal any form of education in terms of intellectual achievement But we must work at it For example How much attention are we giving at Board of Education meetings to the question of curriculum There is ample evidence that we need to restudy our requirements and standards at all educational levels In Chicago we have found that foreign languages can be taught with excellent results in elementary school We have found too that many students can achieve extraordinary results in science and music early in their careers But are we giving enough attention to these and other possibilities of improving the intellectual tone and toughening the work load in our education Program I think not Or take our basic philosophy in America that parents are responsible for the proper education of their children Haven t we permitted parents to shove this responsibility off onto the shoulders of our schools Home has become little more than a boarding house School has always taken care of the formal teaching but today school takes care of the child s physical training health program aesthetic and cultural life as well The parent accepts even the school s evaluation of the emotional and psychological state of the Child What is left to parenthood Paying the bills and providing shelter Is that all We expect from parents Is that all they wish to give their children I think not I think therefore we should explore ways of bringing parents back into the week to week educational process Let them be encouraged to participate in the reading of their children let them be shown how home movies TV shows and reading can be integrated into their child s educational program Even summer vacations if properly coordinated with school work can supplement the geography lesson the botany classes physics and chemistry Or take the sacrosanct subject of the general high school Once upon a time there was only one type of high school a general high school Then we started vocational high schools and technical high schools But why have we stopped at this point If specialized educational opportunities are useful for students in these areas why shouldn t we offer similar opportunities to students of the humanities and social sciences Everyone agrees

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-forty-second-annual-conference-of-the-illinois-association-of-school-boards (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks about Cooperation to The Mary McDowell Settlement House
    fancied conflict between public and private activity lies in our genius for developing cooperative efforts between governmental agencies and private agencies to the point where their combined efforts exceed the best which either could do alone Little attention has been paid to this cooperative effort and the American genius for developing it Yet it is pervasive throughout American life integral to American culture and essential to the continuing development of our democratic way of life It might be worth while to cite a few examples of this peculiarly American system of cooperation Some states for example give public scholarship awards to students in private institutions of higher learning Such a proposal has been made in Illinois and it is supported by all I believe of the leading educators of our city and state Public money is supplied to private hospitals for medical research Public money is supplied to private universities for scientific research Religious and charitable institutions under private auspices are granted immunity from taxation Health and welfare benefits are distributed in many states through private as well as public institutions of education and health the best known of these assistances being the free lunch program tuberculosis tests and bus transportation for school pupils Many states make payments to private welfare agencies for care given to aged people to mentally retarded children and to the socially maladjusted This list of specific ways in which w in America have developed warm friendly and cooperative relationships between private and public enterprises could be continued at great length Dramatic examples in the business world include the Pure Food and Drug Administration the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation the Federal Reserve System and many others In our local Public School program there are many recent instances whereby we in public education are conducting activities which produce cooperative relationships We have instituted teaching by Television and these programs are easily available to all persons in the community We are developing increased playground facilities adjacent to many of our schools and these facilities are available to the whole community We are expanding our evening school program and our summer school program and both of these educational activities are available to the whole community These examples are in keeping with our idea of creating schools which are suited to the communities where they are located No longer do we attempt to set up rigid courses of study which must be followed in lock step fashion by every school in the city of Chicago Instead we are developing schools with flexible curricula suited to the neighborhoods in which they are located For example we are now dividing pupils according to achievement instead of by the traditional arrangement by grades and classrooms In English for example the children are grouped according to their ability in reading When they go to Arithmetic they are re classified according to their levels of achievement in that subject The same thing is true in all the studies Teachers get together on the special needs of the children For example a topic like How to Buy on a Budget can be taught in the Arithmetic class in the Language Arts class in Social Studies and in the Vocational Shops and such a course retains the interest of many of the special children There are many irregular programs too We have found them necessary as we study the individual pupils If a student needs 7 or 8 periods of Arithmetic he receives them The same is true of reading and writing You may be wondering if there is any evidence that this experimental program is successful Well last year we standardized reading tests to see what progress the pupils had made and a few interesting points stand out While 39 of this group gained a normal amount 14 gained twice the normal amount 4 gained three times the normal amount Here is another interesting result One half of our children leave school voluntarily when they reach 16 but in this new and flexible and different school last semester only one dropped out and that one at his father s request Another example comes from the truant officer who reports that truancy has definitely decreased The engineer custodian adds that there is less glass breakage Even in the month of October Halloween month there was not one broken window I think these results prove we are getting at the heart of the educational problem the basic problem of inspiring some interest in some intellectual activity We have 4 schools like this now About 5 000 are involved More will soon be reached with similar programs We have started we have miles to go But we think we may be headed in the right direction Success with these schools would be impossible without great assistance from all of the agencies public and private which work with the people of each of these communities We maintain continuing working relationships with the police with juvenile welfare authorities with private charitable agencies Through our guidance counsellors we are in Contact with private industry with health welfare and recreational leaders And through our truant officers we are attempting to be of assistance in difficult family situations which frequently produce problems seriously affecting the educational welfare of our students These problems of our Public Schools and our efforts to solve them are related I believe to the work carried on at Mary McDowell House You help us immeasurably whenever you are able to assist a family or a student We help you I hope whenever we can develop a sustained and genuine interest in intellectual or vocational pursuits on the part of students living in this neighborhood Our Public Schools are your schools and our problems are your problems Mary McDowell would understand this and believe in cooperative action by all agencies public and private She never made the error of trying to go it alone to solve social problems or educational problems in isolation Public schools cannot do the whole job of

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-mary-mcdowell-settlement-house (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks Addresses Teachers at the Livingston County Institute
    to 40 the age to which we must look for new teachers new scientists new political leaders new businessmen lawyers doctors etc etc The Ford Foundation reports that the numbers to be educated in our country will continue to grow The quantity and quality of the educational program must expand too And yet as life itself becomes more complicated and the amount of knowledge increases the teachers shortage reaches serious proportions Nearly 350 000 more teachers will be needed by 1965 and there are no signs anywhere that such an increase in teachers will be met by all training programs throughout the nation It is likely that the shortage of fully qualified teachers will approximate a quarter of a million by 1965 if present conditions continue Substantial increases in salaries now on the way somewhat relieve the situation But salaries are now the highest they have been in years and the teacher shortage is the most acute it has ever been It is not likely that in the foreseeable future the schools and colleges can compete favorably with salaries being paid by business and industry It is more probable that the shortage will be met principally in some other manner by lowering standards for certification and teaching by increasing pupil teacher ratios by tapping and training some unusual sources of teacher supply by taking some steps to reduce the number of teachers needed increasing the effectiveness of the teachers available or by some combination or variation of the preceding solutions As far as I am concerned however one important avenue of teacher supply has not been sufficiently explored Today too many qualified teachers are not teaching They have left the teaching profession to get more pay in other professions to find increased prestige in some other walk of life to get married and for many other reasons But the fact remains that thousands of qualified teachers are not teaching in the classrooms of America today It is a problem which the teachers and the public must face together We must determine how the teaching profession can meet the challenges offered by other careers and we cannot conclude in my judgment that salary increases are the sole answer Today I should like to suggest for your consideration several points which might be helpful in retaining more of our qualified teachers First our teacher recruitment and training program should be reexamined Teacher candidates should be more carefully screened and those without distinct promise and strong career motivation should be eliminated It is much better in my judgment to accept fewer candidates than accept lower standards I think we should eliminate insofar as possible any easy way to get a teaching certificate The position of teacher should be hard to reach and the teacher should feel that he or she has achieved something valuable and enviable when finally the teaching certificate is handed to him In Chicago for example we have changed the admission policies of the Teachers College and the curriculum too Until 1956 any graduate of a recognized high school could enter teachers college The mortality rates were high and much valuable time was list trying to make teachers out of unlikely candidates In 1956 entrance requirements at the Teachers College were changed so that applicants are now denied entrance unless they have a reasonable chance of completing the professional curriculum Back in 1948 any student who graduated from the Teachers College automatically received a Certificate to teach in Chicago Public Schools Moreover graduates from Teachers Colleges in other parts of the State of Illinois and the United States were not permitted to take the examination for teacher in Chicago s public schools These two requirements dated from a previous era and in 1948 they were woefully out of date Beginning at that time therefore our teacher examinations of Chicago have been open to those from out of state as well as from Chicago At the most recent examination candidates represented 36 states and more than 200 colleges That s one example of an improved method of recruitment Also we have changed the time of year in which our teacher examinations are given Now a student planning to graduate in June can take our examination in February and thus learn well in advance of graduation whether he or she will be qualified to teach in Chicago s public schools In previous years our examinations were held only in June and many potential teachers in Chicago s public schools were lost to other school systems by that time Right now we are exploring the possibility of giving our Chicago teacher examinations in points as far distant as New York Detroit St Louis Los Angeles and Milwaukee Our theory is simple Why should a teacher be required to come all the way to Chicago at a time of our choosing solely to take our teacher examination If we want to open doors of opportunity to teachers from other colleges it seems to me we should make it easy for them to take our examinations We have started personalized placement based on personal interviews of all new teachers giving them for the first time an opportunity to select schools in various parts of the city rather than be subject to an arbitrary placement by our personnel department While these charges in our recruitment policies have been underway we have matched them with changes in the curriculum of our Teachers College In 1926 Chicago Teachers College was only a two year course 66 hours were required and of these 66 hours 44 were devoted to professional courses which heavily emphasized pedagogical techniques Today Chicago Teachers College is a four year course 130 hours are required for graduation Of these only 39 are required in professional subjects The remaining 91 are all devoted to general education and free electives Even the 39 required hours in professional teacher training courses are by no means exclusively pedagogical in nature Than include strong courses in child development children s

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-before-the-livingston-county-institute (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks about Public Relations and Public Schools at Illinois State Normal University
    present sources of ideas in order to plan educational programs and procedures suitable for the revolutionary problems we face today when each September our schools open their doors to 16 000 additional students We have instituted a Master Teacher program utilizing our present teachers to train our newest and to help out in schools where our student population is weakest We have taken over buildings deserted by others but now used by us to provide new and different educational opportunities unprecedented in our city s history and unique in the lives of most of the children now studying in these new schools We have said to our existing principals Study your community and the children in your school Discover their individual levels of education Then devise courses of instruction for each of them as individual human beings courses where the weak English student can study twice as much English as his next door neighbor who in turn may be taking twice as much Arithmetic Yes we have read the books on the Comprehensive High School versus the Double Purpose High School Yes we would like to have all students in all classrooms progressing easily from grade to grade according to biological age but that idealization reminds me of a static Currier and Ives print where one moment of a 19th Century Christmas scene has been captured never to be the same again Ours is a dynamic changing society Only new answers using all our old resources buildings teachers and old school Board Members too can produce a cooperative solution to our many problems Once again it seems to me that responsible journalism can give invaluable service to public education by helping to explain why new programs of education are necessary how these programs are being conducted what results are being obtained from them why they may cost more than traditional methods of instruction etc It is said that in Chicago we shall need 350 000 additional skilled laborers to fill industrial jobs between now and 1960 Our biggest businesses and businessmen seek this labor nationwide Much of it comes to Chicago unskilled and we in public education must try to train these newcomers for urban and industrial life This is not cheap but the full development of America s industrial potential requires it Journalism can help to explain these facts of modern life Newspaper stories on subjects like these might not sell as many newspapers as front page streamers on dope addiction which in the Chicago area incidentally has declined tremendously but such journalism will serve the cause of public education well The third quality necessary for leadership has been called a sense of style This particular quality is one which should be of special interest to everyone connected with public relations and with the communications media of modern America because by a sense of style I mean that the dignity of deeds requires an equal dignity of words It isn t enough for public schools to do an excellent

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/public-relations-and-public-schools (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks about Citizenship at the 16th Annual Vocational Conference
    in the 28 shop at Marshall Field s Frankly I wish there were at least a mention of a few things like the White Sox in first place or a regular golf game in the low seventies Because let s not kid ourselves all of us each one of you and me would like to have our cake and eat it But the good book is silent about eating cake it talks only about giving it away I frequently think of a sad but true incident which illustrates my thought In 1923 a very important meeting was held at the Edgewater Beach Hotel here in Chicago Attending the meeting were 10 of the world s most successful men They were 1 The President of the largest steel company in the United States 2 The President of the largest bank in the country at that time 3 The President of the largest utility company 4 The President of the largest gas company 5 The greatest wheat speculator 6 The President of the New York Stock Exchange 7 A member of President Coolidge s Cabinet 8 The greatest Wall Street speculator 9 The head of the world s greatest monopoly 10 The President of the World Bank for International Settlements Certainly most people would agree that this was a gathering of some of the world s most successful men 25 years later in 1946 let s see what had happened to these men 1 The President of the largest steel company had died bankrupt For five years before his death he had lived on borrowed money 2 The President of the largest utility company had died penniless A fugitive from justice in a foreign land 4 The President of the largest gas company was insane 5 The greatest wheat speculator died abroad insolvent 6 The President of the New York Stock Exchange was in Sing Sing penitentiary convicted of embezzlement 7 The member of President Coolidge s Cabinet was pardoned from prison so he could die at home 8 The greatest Bear in Wall Street died a suicide 9 The head of the greatest monopoly died a suicide 10 The President of the Bank of International Settlements died a suicide All of these men had learned the art of making money Each of them as the saying goes had everything in the world new Cadillac convertibles beautiful homes money in the bank good jobs security oceangoing yachts whatever they wanted They had all learned how to make a living but none of them had learned how to live As one of them said in a suicide note to his son I m leaving you well fixed financially but that s all I m leaving you What of more recent cases of frustration and self deception Klaus Fuchs the world s greatest spy and traitor the man who gave away the secret of the atom bomb He was not greedy for money He was a poor man and content to be one Nor

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/citizenship (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Dedicates Dunbar Vocational School
    are shackled to their jobs with no hope of liberation Two great forces have worked for two thousand years to change this ancient pattern religion and education especially liberal education so named because it liberated man opened his mind to a full view of society and gave him hope and light to guide his children into a full participation in the life of mankind Dunbar Vocational School provides every student with a firm foundation in these liberal arts the arts skills and interests of free men Here men and women learn to work at vocations and trades but they are taught too that there is a legitimate connection between the fine arts and the useful arts In this auditorium where we are gathered this evening your minds are opened to the excitement of the drama In the library upstairs and in their English courses they have a front row seat for the greatest pageant in the world a spectacle far surpassing any parade for the coronation of a king or inauguration of a president English literature with its galaxy of stars and immemorial moments passes before their eyes and hopefully into their hearts For the first time in their lives many students here at Dunbar will meet some of the most exciting people and things in the world Hamlet speaking to his father s ghost Shelley s Skylark who At Heaven s Gate Does Sing Keats Grecian vase which promises us that Truth is Beauty and Beauty is Truth The great lovers Romeo and Juliet and those lovers in the real world Elizabeth and Robert Browning How do I Love Thee Let Me Count the Ways think of the laughter of Mark Twain the adventures of Treasure Island the almost clairvoyant logic of Sherlock Holmes the tenderness of Emily Dickinson s poetry the poignant simplicity of the Shropshire Lad sighing When I was one and twenty I heard a wise man say give crowns and pounds and guineas but not your heart away In music classes students here at Dunbar learn the Art of Listening whether to jazz or symphony in art their eyes feast on the colors of Matisse and the depths of Rembrandt Yes Dunbar s students are having their ears eyes and minds opened while their hands are trained to create the useful products of contemporary industrial society This state of affairs is exactly as it should be It is no accident that many of the most beautiful things in America are also the most useful The Golden Gate bridge the jet aeroplane the skyscraper office building It is no accident either that Chicago was the scene in the United States of the wedding of the artistic with the useful In Chicago Louis Sullivan first gave artistic expression to the utilitarian skyscraper Here in our city he and David Adler first explored the skyscraper s true nature in buildings constructed to adorn our boulevards Mies Van Der Rohe who lives here is now revolutionizing the skyline of

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-dunbar-vocational-school (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks to the Chicago Council on the Mentally Handicapped
    must be his favorite pupil With sudden tears in his eyes the crippled child replied I don t believe you That night the Queen sat on the edge of Clint s bed as she tucked him in She said I heard what the Prince told you today and I agree with him I believe you are a favorite pupil of Jesus For a moment two troubled eyes stared back at her Then Clint said I don t believe it I won t believe it unless my Daddy says that he believes it Later Queen Frederika told Jack Puerifoy the story The Ambassador shook his head and said I can t tell him I believe that I cannot believe that a good and just God would do that to my little boy Two thousand years ago another story was written And Jesus passing by the story begins in St John s Gospel said a man blind from his birth And His disciples asked Him Rabbi who hath sinned this man or his parents that he should be born blind Jesus answered Neither hath this man sinned nor his parents but that the works of God should be made manifest in him We have no record of the immediate reaction to these words But down the ages many have replied as Dostoevsky s Ivan Karamazov did If God s truth demands the tortured cry of even one innocent child then God s truth is not worth the price of admission Others have said that guiltless suffering for adults or children should be ended Mercy killing is the mellifluous phrase used by some improvement of the race is tl1e argument of those who believe in enforced eugenics efficiency economy productivity were the rallying cries of Hitler or Stalin whose economic and cultural theories eliminated any place for the blind crippled aged or mentally retarded But here in America thank God the overwhelming majority has not been seduced by these arguments Instead we have adopted in substance and in fact the standards the thinking and the ideals of the Rabbi of the Gospel The Christian inspiration in dealing with exceptional children an eminent American clergyman reminds us is very different from that of any other civilization It might be summed up in the proposition that the measure of the degree of a community s civilization as Christians understand civilization is what we may call the test of the least What provision does a civilization make for its least members What advantage does it offer for those who are least able to take care of themselves Jesus said For as long as you did it to one of these my least brethren you did it to me Pagans believed that their gods were pleased by the progress of the best by those who could be exceptionally independent When Jesus spoke about the least a new concept dawned as to what constitutes a civilized community With us the test of the worth of a community is

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/the-favorite-pupil (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Speaks to Chicago Council on Mentally Handicapped
    by so the story begins in St John s Gospel He saw a man blind from birth And His disciples asked Him Rabbi who has sinned this man or his parents that he should be born blind Jesus answered Neither has this man sinned nor his parents but the works of God were to be made manifest in him John 9 1 3 We have no record of the immediate public reaction to Christ s words But down the ages many have replied No No they have said If God s truth demands the tortured cry of even one innocent child then God s truth is not worth the price of admission Dostoevskys Ivan Karamazov Others have said that any guiltless suffering for adults or children is wrong and should be ended Mercy killing is the mellifluous phrase used by some improvement of the race is the argument of those who believe in eugenics efficiency economy productivity are the rallying cries of materialists like Hitler or Stalin whose economic end cultural theories eliminate any need for the blind crippled aged or mentally retarded But here in America thank God the overwhelming Majority has not been seduced by any of these pagan arguments Instead we have adopted in substance and in fact the standards the thinking and the ideals of Christ These standards have been described by an eloquent and eminent American clergyman in these words the Christian inspiration in dealing with exceptional children is very different from that of any other civilization It might be summed up in the proposition that the measure of the degree of a community s civilization as Christians understand civilization is what we may call the test of the least What provision does a civilization make for its least members What advantages does it offer for those who are least able to take care of themselves Jesus said For as much as ye have done it to the least of these my brethren ye have done it to me Pagans believed that their gods were pleased by the progress of the best by those who could be top dog and be exceptionally independent It was only when Jesus spoke about the least that a new concept dawned as to what constitutes the civilized community As a result with us the test of the worth of a community is not how well the most privileged people make out but what provision is made for the least for those who are exceptional in their need for our kindness You teachers of the mentally retarded have realized instinctively intuitively that Christ was right You have dedicated your lives to the service of the least in mental capacity the least in physical endowment the least in years the least in all things people covet for their children You are notable examples of citizens living in accord with one of the highest and most profound ideals of our civilization In this work it should be noted too you are serving

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/the-ancient-mystery-of-guiltless-suffering (2015-03-27)
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