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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver speaks at the Eleanor Roosevelt Memorial Dinner
    within which a city can at once remake itself and preserve its identity You have one here in Chicago the Chicago Committee on Urban Opportunity It is composed of representatives of the Mayor the Board of Education youth groups private welfare agencies organized labor and other groups This is the Board of Trustees charged with the overall management of this new corporate enterprise But you every one of you sitting here are the stockholders You each have an investment a big investment in this corporation in its success and in the future of Chicago And each of you stand to collect the dividends this new corporation will yield Are there adequate playgrounds with supervision for your children Are the first and second grades in your public schools filled with children who have already fallen behind Can you walk the streets at night safely Are your libraries and hospitals adequately staffed Is your city s tax base expanding or shrinking because of the size of your welfare rolls These are the terms in which the new corporation the corporation of the social revolution can begin to pay dividends But the return you get will depend on what you are prepared to invest And it will depend too on the imagination and inventiveness of your corporate executives the entrepreneurs of this new enterprise who must devise new methods of production and distribution We need and we will soon see emerging a Sears Roebuck for social services a supermarket for the health the welfare the legal the counseling and the educational assistance which must be made accessible to the consumer In Chicago a timetable is now being worked out to establish a network of such one stop service centers called Urban Progress Centers These will gradually blanket the entire city with a comprehensive set of programs in housing recreation education family life and youth activities We need more such innovations in distribution and merchandise We need a Yellow Pages of social services so that a family that needs help can find out quickly where to get them This applies to the Federal Government as well And we in the Office of Economic Opportunity are working now to prepare just such a book a Yellow Pages that will pinpoint for cities like Chicago what Federal programs there are and how communities can participate in them In addition we will be setting up a massive computer center so that we know at all times what is happening in each of our programs and what kind of return we are getting on our investment Revolutions though are more than just inventions and techniques Revolutions whether political or industrial or social affect people as well as institutions The Industrial Revolution replaced the cottage industry the home weaver with a new type of producer the factory worker We cannot expect less from the social revolution now underway There will be a new class of producers with new skills for new industries And as in the Industrial Revolution so

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-by-sargent-shriver-at-the-eleanor-roosevelt-memorial-dinner (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses the 88th Meeting of the American Bar Association
    these cases lawyers did step in and did prove that the law is not the enemy They are drawn from the files of the neighborhood legal service program in Washington D C a program approved by the judicial conference with the president of the District Bar sitting on the board Yet despite such programs approved in the District in St Louis Oakland Detroit and other cities programs where the Bar has played a significant and often leading role misconceptions have arisen about the activities and intentions of the Office of Economic Opportunity in the field of legal services for the poor Some of these misconceptions result from bad communication Some are the natural growing pains of a new and unprecedented cooperative relationship between the organized bar and the federal government And some it must be acknowledged are simply our own fault We have a health services unit an education unit a labor market unit and others We have been delinquent in establishing a legal services unit And we have paid a heavy price A price in misconceptions in lack of continuity and of consistency and of close cooperation with the Bar These misconceptions need to be stated bluntly and refuted bluntly Let me start with a list of what we are not trying to do We are not trying to impose a uniform federal blueprint for the rendition of legal services to the poor The programs we wish to finance should be designed locally by local people to respond to local needs And this insistence on local initiative has already yielded a variety of approaches neighborhood law firms legal advice clinics legal education by lawyers for high school teachers and guidance counselors expanded lawyer referral services decentralized legal aid agencies And we can expect even greater variety in the course of time assignment of volunteer lawyers to Indian reservations migrant camps and rural communities development by lawyers of pamphlets booklets even film strips explaining legal rights in simplified language special training programs for lawyers in newly developing fields of law affecting the poor courses for high school students in the Bill of Rights and other areas of law which are of greatest concern and relevance And you d be surprised at the enthusiastic response from families in poverty who positively thirst for some knowledge of the law I don t mean civics courses I mean law and legal reasoning from the boy whose family has just been taken off welfare from the girl who bought some defective clothing from the young adult who is seeking his first job and wants to know about minimum wages workmen s compensation and fair employment practices from a juvenile you might say was on the police black list who was detained incommunicado for half a day or more For all these the law is relevant and they must learn to use it None of these are cure alls There is no single answer to the legal problems of the poor And there will be no attempt by the federal government to impose any single approach by governmental fiat Second we are not trying to take paying customers away from the private practitioner either by establishing new standards of indigency or by taking revenue producing cases And that is why we have made provision for grievance procedures referral procedures and for a right of first refusal running to a chosen representative of the local bar Third we are not trying to subvert the canons of ethics dealing with solicitation barratry or use of lay intermediaries After the Brotherhood case we are more than content to leave these questions to the Supreme Court Fourth we are not trying to replace lawyers with social workers or laymen But rights should be honored by all citizens even without the intervention of a lawyer It should not require a lawyer to get welfare emergency aid Fifth we are not trying to turn legal aid into a political patronage system The poor need and deserve the same quality of service that the profession owes to all its clients Sixth we are not trying to use federal money to destroy the independence of the Bar We believe in and we support that tradition of independence we have so many lawyers amongst the top staff of the Office of Economic Opportunity that I hesitate to reveal their number The educators doctors social workers would rise up in indignation But I can tell you that three out of five of the positions requiring presidential appointment are filled by lawyers You have plenty of allies on this issue But let us not delude ourselves that a legal system which has trouble in producing a lawyer to defend a civil rights worker white or Negro such a Bar is independent in name only In many cases it is in danger of trading its independence for conformity and dependency ethical financial and professional dependency Seventh we are not trying to socialize the provision of legal services for the poor But social justice is not socialism Nor are we trying to reduce or kill off private and charitable sources of funds by providing government support for the extension of legal services for the poor This was the fear expressed in the early days of the Peace Corps by the YMCA by CARE by Church Missions and they found that far from decreasing their base of private support the work of Peace Corps Volunteers spotlighted the importance of what they had been doing for years and brought them more volunteers and more money than ever before There is no indication that voluntary financial support for legal aid will diminish as a result of the availability of federal funds In fact the evidence is to the contrary Greater public support follows greater public awareness Your own experience in administering programs financed in part by Ford Foundation demonstrates that In fact in Congress among businessmen and among other professional groups your own reputation has never been better your reputation for

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-at-the-88th-meeting-of-the-american-bar-association (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address at the American Chamber of Commerce
    Mayor in the United States at any rate speaking to newspapermen in his city hall said that anybody who would ask the poor or would invite the poor to participate in a poverty program was like the city editor asking the janitor to edit the newspaper The extraordinary thing today however is that back home in the United States the idea of the poor participating in a program has not only become better understood but it is becoming extremely popular Now its not popular only in governmental circles About six months ago the Executive Director of the Jacksonville Florida Chamber of Commerce walked into my office He said Mr Shriver when this program got started everybody in business in Jacksonville knew that it was a boondoggle that it was another one of those bureaucratic efforts to take tax money and waste it by dispensing it in the form of hand outs to begin with If these poor people would just go out and get a regular job and go to work there is plenty of opportunity we wouldn t need any War Against Poverty He said have come up here to tell you some news He said About six months ago we made a study in Jacksonville We analyzed how many poor people there were in Jacksonville and we figured out that if we could increase their salary by 10 a week we would add 30 million to the purchasing power of the people in Jacksonville So we decided on our own initiative we businessmen to start a job program and the last nine months six to nine months we had created 600 new jobs and job holders in Jacksonville And he said I ve got news for you have just started In five years we ll have every man in Jacksonville working And we haven t been required to ask the Federal Government for a dime to do it And I said Well that is the best news that I ve heard in years What are you going to do about it other than in Jacksonville And he said Well I ve just been elected head of the Chambers of Commerce for the Southern states 12 of them and we re going to make that program in Jacksonville the example for all the Southern states Well not only did it become an example for Southern states but in Chicago in Cleveland in San Francisco and many other places Chambers of Commerce just like this one went to work They invited poor people to meetings like this one and some of them were extraordinary meetings that have occurred contemporary American public life have been meetings like this one where the speaker addressing the audience had no tie had no coat had a torn shirt and he smelled And the language he used was not good English and the words he used were uncouth But the message he delivered got through Now some of you may have read in Time and Newsweek just a few weeks ago about a meeting like this in Detroit where Mr Ford and Mr J L Hudson and Mr Lynn Townsend and so on sat at a table like this and they were really cursed out I say that literally cursed out by the poor people of Detroit despite all the things that these industrialists had already done in Detroit They were getting message from the poor that they could never have gotten from me or let me suggestion from many of you And some of them didn t like it I didn t like it myself when I first started getting it It isn t very pleasant to be spoken to in that way I said to them when they started to get it I said Why don t you look upon the poor people the way you look on your customers In America we have the old cliché that the customer always right Well you know the customer isn t always right But nevertheless we treat the customer as if the customer were right We have never done that with the recipient of government services We have a 20 billion or 40 billion dollar welfare program in the United States It s a little bit like a patient going to the doctor So you have a headache If you go to the doctor and you say I have a headache and I would like a little medicine So he gives you the medicine You come back a week later and you say You know I still got that headache He says Well here s some more medicine And you go on taking the medicine and you still got the headache But there is only one doctor when it s the government And if he won t change the medicine you get that medicine whether it s doing you any good or not Participation of the poor to us came to mean only this that the poor participated in the design of the program so that we would know whether our money your money the taxpayers money and our efforts were getting the medicine where the pain is Because if the medicine doesn t get where the pain is the medicine is wasted In this case the medicine happens to be your money So in the War Against Poverty We turn the thing upside down and said No matter what some smart bureaucrat thinks let s say Shriver no matter what I think is a good program for poor people if poor people don t like it it s a bad program If it does not motivate them so that they get out of poverty it s no good No matter what the Harvard Business School says or the economists say or the politicians say it s no good practically it s not good Well now I talk about participation here today not to be critical of what you do but because I have already

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-at-the-american-chamber-of-commerce (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver speaks at the Community Action Assembly sponsored by the National Urban League about the next steps in civil rights
    kindergarten on up We cannot afford to waste time because the poor white or colored do not have time to waste Their lives their hopes their chance for a decent existence hang in the balance The Office of Economic Opportunity the new agency that Congress created to run the War on Poverty has been in business only 64 days In the first fifty days working around and against the clock we announced the first 119 grants establishing Job Corps Centers funding local anti poverty programs launching work training programs for families receiving public assistance initiating a neighborhood Job Corps for youth who were out of school and out of work and more We had trouble on that first news release Between the time it was run off and the time it was released we had to revise it three times to add new projects and grants Our battle against time continues applications pour in new projects must be reviewed screened redone approved and then funded But this war is not going to be fought or won in Washington even when we have successfully allocated and disbursed our funds It is going to be fought in your communities in Atlanta and New York in Detroit and New Orleans and Oakland and San Francisco And in those communities we do not have time to fight poverty by the old rules and the old methods We do not have time to train enough doctors social workers teachers and lawyers to help every poor person to research scientifically and exhaustively the problems of every poor person before we take action to conduct five year studies of what is best for the poor the enemy time will not wait to suit our convenience That is why we need you the Civil Rights leaders in this new battle for the dignity of man You are ready You are eager And you are tired of waiting First of all you can help us to listen to the voices of the poor Administrators and planners and bosses of all types political industrial labor need to listen to the poor You found one way for the Negro to speak out in demonstrations in marches in sit ins Will you now help us to seek other ways as well Ways to insure that those agencies and planners who try to help the poor will listen and be responsive to needs and concerns of the poor In yesterday s Afro American newspaper I read the headline 9 000 Put in Basic Classes Girl with 130 IQ Branded Retarded Whether that charge is true or not it points up one very important problem How are the poor to speak out to seek redress from the very officials and agencies supposed to serve them Every case will not receive newspaper attention From New York we hear of cases where families were denied welfare payments because it was decided in one case that a Puerto Rican family had come to New York for socially

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-at-the-community-action-assembly-sponsored-by-the-national-urban-league (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses the National Conference on Law and Poverty
    community leaders serve on these boards without a penny of remuneration and I am sure that some of you in this audience are among them We have organized and launched a significant project to give 560 000 American children a head start this summer for the formal education they will begin this fall Their number is virtually matched by more than half a million part and full time volunteers who will give them health care dental care nutritious food and above all that discovery of learning that may be found in as small an object as a picture book The Neighborhood Youth Corps by June 30 will have provided employment and job training for 265 000 young men and women Work Experience Programs are giving new hope and new skills to 88 000 unemployed parents many of them on relief More than 35 000 adults are receiving literacy training that will open the doors to future employment More than 1 000 Americans will be in the field or in training in VISTA the domestic version of the Peace Corps Nowhere among these highlights is there a parade of checks or simply a dispensing machine of money Everyone of the programs I have enumerated is geared to service Their total represents the establishment of a new and vital service industry in a space of 8 months and 16 days a record for which no American needs to make apologies But as I say these are the highlights of our program Permit me to tell you of some of the new thrusts in this War on Poverty Sometimes significant new breakthroughs are obscured by popular subjects of controversy like salaries involvement of the indigenous poor Head Start of course is the publicity leader of these innovative programs in the War on Poverty However there are other smaller and equally exciting efforts For the first time in our nation s history the migrant workers are receiving attention from the Federal Government There are now housing sanitation education and day care programs for 73 000 migratory agricultural workers Upward Bound is another new program We are seeking out talented youths who are denied a college education not because they don t have the brains but because middle class tests the culture of poverty and repeated personal frustrations have made them lose hope in themselves The Univ of Oregon Ripon College Columbia Univ Dillard Fiske St Mark s Colorado Academy Dartmouth Exeter Andover and Independent Private Schools are among the seventeen colleges which have been given initial grants of 2 2 million to find these promising high school students In a related program christened Operation Discovery run by the Archdiocese of Philadelphia special skills will be developed among 400 school youths to promote their leadership abilities In the drab mine scarred hills of Appalachia we have joined with the Appalachian Regional Commission the University of Kentucky the Kentucky State Health Department in a significant medical and health program We have provided 1 2 million to

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-national-conference-on-law-and-poverty (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Speech to the American Club of the Riviera Hotel
    providing free legal assistance to anyone who is so impoverished that he cannot hire a lawyer of his own In this case once again we went to the young people of America and said Will you help Will you volunteer some of your time And once again the inspiring thing occurred that last year last summer there were 1 200 young lawyers working for nothing for the poor And these are not the weakest students or the poorest lawyers They are the best men who are on the Harvard Law Review or the Columbia Law Review the University of Chicago Law Review the brightest young men in our country with nothing than a glorious future financially in front of them taking time out for the summer and some of them for one or two years of their life just to work with the poor That s what young lawyers are doing at home And of course you all read about the Yippies and the Hippies and the rest of it you ve seen on the TV You heard about how the Convention in Chicago was almost broken up with this kind of activity Put you don t read at least I haven t read one word since I ve been in France about 15 000 young Americans who are working in the Peace Corps right now in 50 different countries around the world 15 000 of them More than 100 000 have been in the Peace Corps working for nothing Again 2 years of their life for nothing just to be of assistance to somebody About two years ago we started a program in the United States similar to the Peace Corps abroad called VISTA That s an acronym name which stands for Volunteers in Service to America Today while we are enjoying this wonderful lunch here there are 5 000 young Americans working in the slums out on the reservations again with the poor People of America for nothing and they are bright dedicated able energetic Young Americans that you would be proud to know and proud to see I ll never forget not this 4th of July but last 4th of July I went to Alaska to see our VISTA volunteers working in Alaska We have 300 there working with Eskimos right up against the Russian border out in the Bering Sea in small islands in tiny villages the like of which you ve never seen at least I hope you ve never seen where there is no street not a Paved street nor electricity nothing And in one of these towns I went to a hut where a Peace Corps volunteer had been living The whole house he lived in was not as big as two times the size of that round table It was made completely out of paperboard add galvanized tin It had one small bed one wooden chair and a little wooden stove No windows I talked to this young man and I said

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/speech-to-the-american-club-of-the-riviera-hotel (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to the Council of Protestant Colleges and Universities
    a training or a work experience program Above all it is a catalytic force And the effectiveness of such a catalytic agent is measured not by its own magnitude but by the effects it produces by the interaction it initiates or intensifies And we in the poverty program and the Peace Corps have begun to learn that the processes we set in motion are at least as important as the direct results we achieve that the energies we release are at least as important as the specific production goals we attain that the attitudes we affect and the concerns we generate are at least as important as the number of salaries we pay directly or indirectly and that the channels of communication we open the relationships of confidence and mutual respect we create the sense of dignity we instill and the spirit of dedication which we engender all of these are at least as important as the economic wealth we augment Let me be even more specific because this applies on every level There are four year olds who don t even know how to hold a book or how to listen to a sentence with more than two or three words When we teach him those things we aren t making him employable But we will have supplied that missing ingredient the catalyst so that our regular school system won t lose that child along the way With that child that four year old we will have set in motion a process a possibility a chance which in our time in our generation can spell the end of poverty The same is true when we train a teenager in one of our Job Corps Centers Suppose we teach him how to repair a car engine or operate a tool cutting machine We can t guarantee that next year s cars won t change to turbine engines or that that particular machine will always be in use But we can say that that boy will feel different about himself and about work He ll have a new sense of dignity of self confidence because for what may be the first time in his life he ll have proven that he can learn and that he can succeed That s a form of poverty proofing that won t wear off And this catalytic effect works on communities as well as individuals When we fund a local anti poverty program like the one submitted by Human Resources Development Corporation here in St Louis there may be about fifteen or twenty or thirty parts pre kindergarten classes literacy classes consumer education job training counseling placement legal services health services We don t know and they don t know if every single one of those programs will work Or if that particular assortment of programs is exactly the right combination to eliminate poverty today or tomorrow or the next day What counts what really counts is that there is an organization like that in

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-council-of-protestant-colleges-and-universities (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses St. John's University
    source of income was public assistance The roof of her apartment burned off due to faulty wiring On reporting this to the welfare authorities she found that they took prompt remedial action They cut off her check The reason because she and her children were now living in unsuitable housing We talk about Appalachia It makes poverty sound more real It gives it a geographic location But have we really learned our geography lesson until we hear this story of a coal miner who up until a few weeks ago lived in a small town in Eastern Kentucky He was one of a number of miners who were let down into a hole in the ground about two feet across by a rope Each miner wears a mining hat and carries a small handpick Once down in the mine they crawl up the ends of old coal veins to pick away at the remains of coal that were too hard to get twenty years ago piling the pieces of coal in small boxes and then carrying them back to the hole to be hauled up to the surface on the same rope by which they were let down The miner who described his job had been working in that mine for five years Today he is seventeen years old The geography lesson we have to learn today starts with bare brutal facts like those that the industrial working conditions of nineteenth century England are not 140 years away They are only 100 miles away from the nation s capitol The geography lesson does not stop at the U S border And as with Stephen Dedalus we expand outward we ask ourselves what does it mean to be an American And from the streets of the Dominican Republic comes this definition In Santo Domingo a city carved up into zones by barricades the words Cuerpo de Paz will open any barrier will gain immediate entry for any Peace Corps volunteer Why One volunteer found out when he was in rebel territory and heard one of them say El maliditos Americanos those very bad Americans So he asked them What are you talking about I am an American And the answer he got was We don t mean you You re different You live with us When we re hungry you re hungry When we walk through the mud you walk through the mud That volunteer has found a new meaning for the word American that geography lesson is taking hold for the first time But beyond that what does it mean to be a citizen of the world Because your address is Stephen Dedalus Class of 65 The United States North America The World For Michael Sellon a returned Peace Corps volunteer the answer came like this It was a matter of Becoming in mind and even more in spirit those very people we had come to help Speaking for all volunteers he said that when our educative experiences became complete we felt like Dominicans reacted like Tanzanians and even often suffered like Thais Such total involvement is very hard to find in contemporary education he said yet it is undoubtedly central to learning This is the geography lesson that you must now begin In the trade it is called experiential education In reality it is a voyage of the soul You must learn to see teachers new teachers where others have seen only Foreigners Peasants Backward Natives Hillbillies Negroes Indians poor white trash and even the so called culturally deprived Those must be your mentors for this new journey But there are others in our midst who have come to this country on a similar mission to become citizens of the world who look to us to be their mentors on their journey of the soul In reading the quotation form Portrait of An Artist I left out one line He opened the geography to study the lesson but he could not learn the names of places in America Still they were all different places that had different names There are foreigners fellow citizens of the world who have come to our shore to master that geography lesson to make those strange unknowable names New York and Albuquerque and Ouachita take on new meaning to find a relationship between themselves and the world about them And you I think are aware of what happens to them all too often They came to encounter reality but too often they have found that the price of entry into this country is seclusion isolation And in university after university I have seen ghettoes arise a kind of segregation partly self imposed out of fear but partly enforced from without by our own parochialness And you too I am sure have seen those small foreign colonies that spring up in colleges and universities groups bound together not necessarily by common ties and language but by a common difference their sense of being outsiders These fellow human beings here on our invitation here to become citizens of the world are being herded into small confining experiences And for them the names that they could not learn before will only become places where they visited and felt unwanted and alien places where they were forced to choose between isolated study or tourism We have made them strangers on suffrence in a world where as Ed White knows well all of us exist on sufferance It is time for us to be more inventive in our handling of foreign students Let me suggest one institutional invention that could take place right here in the New York metropolitan area Here in the world s greatest cosmopolitan center we certainly ought to be able to create a program through which foreign students and American counterparts especially returned Peace Corps volunteers could live and work and learn together a program of experiential education that would teach both the foreign and American students to become broader and more effective citizens of

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