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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses the National Conference on Social Welfare
    We started first with government officials And there the inquiries went pretty smoothly In the 32 cities we had just made grants to we found that the salary of the anti poverty director averaged 6 000 less than the mayor or city manager 10 000 less than the Superintendent of Schools 3 000 less than the Director of Urban Renewal Then we started a check on private charities because after all they were in the business of helping people We started making those phone calls on a Saturday And after a few tries it became clear that there was no point to calling the offices of these charities on a weekend The results got better when we tried the local golf course I remember distinctly we pulled one man off the course between the 9th and 10th hole And this is how the conversation went in city after city Could you give us some idea of the salary paid to the Director of the United Givers Fund Well I don t ordinarily divulge that information Wouldn t it be in your annual report No We don t publish that in our annual report Can you give us some estimate of the range it will fall in Well I just don t see why the Director s salary should be of any interest to anyone That s like comparing apples and oranges Just give us some rough idea Well eh some years ago it was publicly announced that he would get 18 000 a year I see privately what will he make this year Just between you and me it might run around 24 or 25 thousand but of course that includes all the fringe benefits Of the 32 cities we tried all we could get was 15 answers Most of them were rough estimates and some were obtained under a promise of strict confidentiality So we haven t used them But what we found generally was that the head of the community chest or whatever it was called averaged about 4 800 more than that paid the local antipoverty director And then toward the end of March another extraordinary thing happened There came a report from Detroit by Greenleigh Associates a confidential report which the newspapers somehow got hold of This is what the authors of that report said There are many voluntary agencies in the group services and recreation field in Detroit but with a few exceptions they serve relatively few from low income families And it went on those few agencies that did actually reach the poor are limited in size and in spite of some very commendable efforts their total impact is still negligible with respect to the total needs of the poor And in the same report was this even more precise and more damning assertion One outstanding characteristic of the use of agencies by these households was that the public or tax supported agencies were the chief resources used by the poor Excluding hospitals there

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-national-conference-on-social-welfare (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to the Association of Diplomatic Press
    which was opened up only recently by the accord between Ling Temeo Vought and Dassault Sud Aviation Whether it be between the US Britain and the countries of the Common Market or among western European countries or even between western and eastern Europe and the USSR this industrial inter action is playing a vital role I believe in promoting closer relations and greater understanding among states Because this is not always immediately visible there is sometimes a tendency to lose sight of it altogether falling back into narrow nationalism and condemning industrial cooperation on the fallacious assumption that it is a one way street However I think if one stops only long enough to consider how the Soviet Union has altered its traditional market system and some of their Marxist opinions because of competition with the capitalist system one realizes what an effective and positive force even in the political realm can be the force of industrial cooperation We must not however forget that this same industrial advance has created what may come to rank with the preservation of peace as one of the most important problems of international relations namely how can we reconcile the apparently conflicting forces of the development of modern industrial society with the preservation of traditional human values This problem faces us in the U S and it faces many other countries Henri Bergson wrote about it a long time ago in Head Start book The Two Sources of Morality and Religion He said Mankind lies groaning half crushed beneath the weight of its own progress Men do not sufficiently realize that their future is in their own hands Mass consumption mass media big business big government big populations pose problems as serious perhaps for the future of mankind as the hydrogen bomb But fortunately we are being awakened by the youth of the world They are shaking us up quite a bit They are pointing out some dangers and if we act upon them perhaps we will avoid some problems before it is too late They appear to see at least in some cases what some of us have either ignored or neglected namely the necessity for man to diamant science and technology so that they will serve his purposes as a human being rather than the reverse This phenomenon is not restricted to any one country Your President commented on it in his speech of June the 7th when he said Cette explosion a été provoqué par quelques groupes quelques groupes qui se révoltent contre la société moderne contre la société de consommation contre la société mécanique qu elle soit communiste à l Est ou qu elle soit capitaliste à l Ouest The contestation which emerged in France during the month of May is being matched maybe over matched in terms of general objectives not in magnitude in the U S in some of our universities although certainly not in all of them and the difficulties in the urban centers of some of

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-the-association-of-diplomatic-press (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address at the University of Notre Dame in 1965
    This country got started our Constitution got written because there were 55 men who gathered in Philadelphia who were big enough to admit that things were bad The convention was originally called merely to draft some amendments to the Articles of Confederation But the true patriots men like James Madison of Virginia and James Wilson of Pennsylvania they knew the Articles of Confederation had to be scrapped and they had the courage to say so These men looked around them and said Our country is in bad shape We ve got problems and we d better do something about them Back then it was toll roads and tariffs and barriers to trade Now it is toll roads and barriers to opportunity to education to jobs But the solution the basic solution is the same We have to be big enough to take stock to admit our failures The failure of our school system to prevent drop outs The failure of public housing projects to solve the human problems of the poor The failure of urban renewal to eradicate slums The failure of an expanding economy to provide jobs for youth and growing numbers of hard core unemployed The failure of our welfare programs to break the cycle of poverty which goes on from generation to generation The failure of all our social programs taken together to stem the rising tide of delinquency crime poverty and alienation Yesterday President Johnson said to the Congress in his Poverty message From the very beginning this country the idea of America itself was the promise that all would have an equal chance to share in the fruits of our society As long as children are untrained men without work and families shut in gateless poverty that promise is unkept In Detroit in Chicago in New Haven in every city and every state patriots are rising to their feet and saying Let s face our problems Let s eliminate the tariff barriers and toll roads to opportunity The old Articles of Confederation are no good In 1787 the word was Union Today the word Coordination is more fashionable But the problems are the same our schools our hospitals our family counseling services our mental health clinics our legal service agencies all of these are as separate as divided as the 13 colonies were To get from one to the other is as difficult for the poor as it was back in 1787 to go from colony to colony We need now in each community a more perfect union a union which will work which will keep the promise To secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity The ability to admit failure to face up to it that is the first mark of the patriot The second mark of the patriot is the ability to learn from others to admit that we don t know everything that others can teach us something That s what we have done in the Peace Corps And that s what we re doing in the Poverty Program We re learning from the poor We re listening to them Listen to these words from Mrs Janice Bradshaw from Pueblo Colorado a woman who never finished grammar school She said Poverty is a personal thing Poverty is taking your children to the hospital and spending the whole day waiting there with no one even taking your name and then coming back the next day and the next day until they finally get around to you Poverty is having a landlady who is a public health nurse who turns off the heat when she leaves for work in the morning and turns it back on at 6 when she returns It s being helpless to do anything about that because by the time the officials get around to looking into it she has turned the heat back on for that day and then it will be off the next Poverty is having the welfare investigators break in at 4 o clock in the morning and cut off your welfare without an explanation and then when you go down and ask they tell you it is because they found a pair of men s house slippers in the attic where your brother left them when he visited last Christmas Poverty is having a child with glaucoma and watching that eye condition grow worse every day while the welfare officials send you to the private agencies and the private agencies send you back to the welfare officials and when you ask the welfare officials to refer you to this special hospital they say they can t And then when you say it is prejudice because you are a Negro they deny it flatly And they shout at you Name one white child who we have referred there And when you name twenty five they sit down and they shut up and they finally refer you But it is too late then because your child has permanently lost 80 percent of his vision and you are told that if only they had caught it a month earlier when you first made inquiry about that film over his eyes they could have preserved most of his vision That s the voice of the poor And being an American is learning to listen The experts also told us that poverty stricken youngsters didn t want to work because if they did there were plenty of jobs and no one ever applied for these jobs And they told us that city kids would never volunteer to go to a Job Corps Center out in the woods away from the bright lights Well during the first 50 days of Job Corps 188 000 young men and women have volunteered They write us on postcards on letters on torn pieces of paper They write to Job Core and Job Choire and Job Chore But they all say We want to go to work We want a new chance

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-at-the-university-of-notre-dame-1965 (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses the General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church
    and subserviency as the price of assistance And the poor will read that message loud and clear But there is another way a way we have tried in the peace corps but it involves risk and danger and discomfort and disclosure of our own weaknesses Listen to these words by one social revolutionary peace corps volunteer Tom Carter who served in Chimbote Peru My job is to get these people my neighbors organized to make them better able to compete in the city for their rights and to try and get them to raise their standard of living back to the human race I teach in the local school during the days and I teach carpentry to adults at night Both are important jobs but I consider them only a tool Teaching kids while fun for me and hilarious for the rough housing students is only an excuse for being in the barriada For example our school has no roof It would be a 10 project and about one day s labor for two or three peace corps men to build that roof Yet we don t do it If we gave my school a roof it would always be that a gift the Gringos roof When it needed fixing no one could fix it If it takes me a year to talk my neighbors into putting on that roof it will be worth it Because it will then be their roof on their school It would be a small start but in the right direction Maybe then we would take on a little harder project and step by step build up a powerful organization interested in progress and strong enough to do something about it It has to be an organization that does not need me otherwise it would collapse when I leave Tom Carter s story is a typical one Peace corps volunteers do not go to Latin America or anywhere else bearing gifts Even for a 10 roof repair job But the P C approach involves a surrender of some of our control some of our power to define what is important to dictate the solution to set priorities It may involve the revelation that not all the problems of the poor are due to their laziness their inferiority their culture style or attitude It may even involve exposure of the fact that we are engaged in a kind of social featherbedding that our methods are outmoded that our professionalism is a kind of guild protectionism that some of our approaches even create poverty and impose an inferior status We do that sometimes in our public schools Edgar Friedenbeig epitomizes what we do in these words The most tragic thing that happens to lower status youngsters in school is that they learn to accept the prevailing judgment of their worth And what Friedenberg notes about the schools is just as true of all those institutions which appear to be helping the poor which look as if they are doing good charitable deeds but which all too often exact humiliation and dependency at the cost of assistance Listen to these words of Mrs Janice Bradshaw a Negro from Pueblo Colorado who never finished high school Poverty is a Personal thing Poverty is taking your children to the hospital and spending the whole day waiting with no one even taking your name and then coming back the next day and the next until they finally get around to you Poverty is having a landlady who is a public health nurse who turns off the heat when she leaves for work in the morning and turns it hack on at six when she returns It s being helpless to do anything about it because by the time the officials get around to it she has turned the heat back on for that day and then it will be off the next Poverty is having the welfare investigators break in at four o clock in the morning and cut off your welfare check without an explanation and then when you go down and ask they tell you it is because they found a pair of men s houseslippers in the attic where your brother left them when he visited a month ago Poverty is having a child with glaucoma and watching that eye condition grow worse every day while the welfare officials send you to the private agencies and the private agencies send you back to the welfare and when you ask the welfare officials to refer you to this special hospital they say they can t and then when you say it is prejudice because you are a Negro they deny it flatly and they shout at you Name one white child we have referred there and when you name twenty five they sit down and they shut up and they finally refer you but it is too late then because your child has permanently lost 80 percent of his vision and you are told that if only they had caught it a month earlier when you first made inquiry about the film over his eyes they could have preserved his vision Does this sound as if we are helping the poor Judging from the annual report of your missions the same difficulties some of the same implied rejections are built into the organization and location and structure of the church One of these rejections is in style You know about the work of Chaplain Burke in the Erie County Detention Home He found that the boys had no comprehension of Biblical stories and that religion as such had no relevance to them And so he said You rewrite them in your own words And this is what he got back For them Jesus was not born in Bethlehem but in Buffalo during a convention when every hotel room was taken His stable was a hot dog stand in Delaware Park They rewrote the 23rd Psalm The Lord is like

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-before-the-general-assembly-of-the-united-presbyterian-church (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Special Convocation of George Peabody College
    vaccination program that is necessary Measles vaccines ought to be administered to every infant from nine months of age on Urgently need are cytogenetic and biochemical laboratories or facilities for the practicing physician for the early diagnosis of treatable metabolic or viral conditions which if left untreated may result in mental retardation For example PKU and a half dozen other metabolic conditions certain forms of Hydrocephalus and RH incompatibility between parents and their offspring Laboratory tests for these conditions should be as common to ordinary medical practice as blood and urine analysis Such testing is not just a matter of going through the Motions Present treatment of many treatable conditions consists of secondary or reparative measures dietary alterations or blood transfusions As we learn more about the nature of these conditions direct chemical intervention resulting in basic biochemical alteration will be possible It will be vital however for these measures to be instituted early maybe even before birth if they are to be effective It will be too late once the child has grown to a stage where physical or behavioral abnormalities become apparent In the past 18 months 14 states have enacted some sort of legislation calling for analysis of infants for PKU a 50 cent test All 50 states should require PKU testing in the first days of an infant s life But medical prevention and treatment is only part of the story It took the combined efforts of hundreds of scientists engineers and technicians in the physical sciences to put together the atom bomb in the Manhattan Project Thousands are at work on the outer space program Those problems developing a bomb putting a man on the moon were fairly clear cut problems staggeringly difficult to implement and bring to completion yet comparatively Simple once the underlying principles were understood Human development and human welfare on the other hand are a thousand times more difficult to achieve because the underlying principals the mechanics of life and death of growth and decline are only dimly understood We are just at the frontier of a scientific understanding of the nature of man But we are at the frontier A generation or less ago the frontier was only indicated by a road sign pointing no one knew exactly where One reason for our progress is the development of the team approach among all the disciplines of learning A task as gigantic as human development and human welfare demands the ideas and imaginations of us all Human development and welfare may start with the sperm and the egg But full development comprehensive welfare require total care from conception on No matter what the physical potentials may be that a child brings with him from the womb both the degree and quality of his development physical and mental depend on his experiences The specific characteristics of those experiences of the total environment as it is sometimes called is the province of the social and behavioral sciences Only as the social and behavioral

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/special-convocation-of-george-peabody-college (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Speech to French Student Groups
    physical plant nor the number and quality of teachers has caught up with demand and this inadequacy is a partial contributing factor to university unrest in the U S Discrimination We are not proud of our record with respect to our Negro minority but we have in the recent past been facing up to the question decisions by Supreme Court legislative action leadership by administration We sometimes forget how far we have come in the past 20 years in our efforts to provide real equality of opportunity Need for a Positive Rather than Negative Focus to Future We admit the underlying causes for discontent but destructive protest is the choice only of a small minority whether in your country or in mine Reference to the astronauts need for discipline the self satisfaction that can come when people both as individuals and as team members make a significant contribution to society In the space age cooperative activity is needed whether it be in business or in reaching the moon QUESTION The United States maintains good relations with the USSR and even directs all their efforts to improve them On the other hand it persists in not recognizing Peking China and opposes that country s admission to the United Nations However China has not annexed any independent countries like the Baltic States it has not given North Vietnam aid greater actually the contrary than that which that country has received from the USSR It has not intervened militarily in neighboring countries which are independent as in Hungary and Czechoslovakia Is it therefore that the attitude of the United States towards China remains based on the memory of the Korean war or are there other reasons ANSWER We have been talking to the mainland Chinese for over ten years in Warsaw What stands in the way of improving relations is what Secretary Rusk called on January 3 Peking s insistence that there is nothing to discuss with the U S unless the Republic of China Formosa is surrendered to Communist China This therefore remains the central issue and as Secretary Rusk said last week he was not aware of any change in the attitude of the authorities of Peking on this subject QUESTION Do you think that France or another European country can for the moment play a positive role in settling the Vietnam situation ANSWER France has already played a positive role by being host to the Vietnam talks and by providing an atmosphere conducive to serious negotiations However at the present time the two sides at the Paris talks are in constant contact with each other and there is no absence of direct channels of communication between the parties QUESTION Do you think Mr Ambassador that there are fundamentally irresolvable problems between the U S and France or only serious differences of opinion on how to approach the problems ANSWER I wouldn t be an American if I thought there were any fundamentally irresolvable problems There are differences of opinion between

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/speech-to-french-student-groups (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses a Joint Session of the West Virginia Legislature
    dozen locations They are on the job now The vanguard of thousands of Americans aged 18 to 80 who soon will be fanning out all over the United States to help the poor A neighborhood Youth Corps has been established This organization gives jobs local jobs to high school youngsters who stay at home but need money to finance their education Thousands of boys and girls are already in this program And so are their college aged counterparts who are covered by another program in the war against poverty What does all this prove First it shows the poor want to work they do have ambition They will volunteer if given a chance for work job training and education Second this program has not led to the creation of a vast new Washington bureaucracy Less than 500 people have been hired on our permanent payroll and in five months they have processed approved and financed more than 700 local projects in every state in the Union The cynics and skeptics were wrong again Third the overwhelming public response proves that America wants and needs these programs These are not tired old idea a rehash of previous suggestions On the contrary they are in tune with the times Fourth everyone of these new programs has been approved by the Governors of the several states Not one Governor has vetoed a project Republican and Democratic alike they have said Yes Once again the cynics and skeptics were wrong This program has not proved to be a political gimmick I could go on citing specific examples but the point is clear We must reject all those with little courage and vision and even less faith in Americans who happen to be poor We must agree that new ideas and programs are needed We must be willing to experiment with new weapons in this new war Ten days ago in Washington we announced another new program called Project Head Start This one is aimed to help the most innocent victims of poverty the five and six year old children of the poor These children are destined to be poor all their lives unless we do something now Unless we act most of these children will end up on public welfare or in state hospitals and institutions principally because their homes their health and their education are grossly substandard There s no guess work about this The children are alive about a million of them They will enter school for the first time this September They are poor Educators tell us these children will start first grade already six months to a year behind children from normal homes and families By third grade they will be one year to 18 months behind by eighth grade they will be two years behind At tenth grade if they get that far they will drop out of school and into hopeless poverty forever Doctors tell us that these children require medical care desperately Out of every 100 000

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-a-joint-session-of-the-west-virginia-legislature-1965 (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver Addresses St. Xavier College in Chicago, IL
    and her six children who had been taken off of welfare She went directly to the mother She looked around and she asked questions She found out that the roof over those six children s heads had burned down because of faulty wiring And the welfare people had cutoff their check their bread and water heat and electricity because without a roof this family was living in illegal housing That young woman couldn t stomach that Like Esther in the Bible she went down on her own initiative with that woman to the high authorities and demanded justices She found out what it was like to be poor to be shunted around from person to person But she didn t give up And that modern day Esther pleaded her case with these somewhat unbiblical words What legal basis do you have for withholding the check She pleaded the case and she prevailed The family was put back on the welfare rolls And then there was a man a man 61 years old from Brownsville Texas totally blind But he couldn t prove he was blind The Social Security administrators wouldn t believe him and he couldn t convince the doctors that he was totally disabled even though he was blind arthritic and tubercular For four years his case dragged on For four years until a courageous woman a volunteer took that blind old man by the hand And together they went down to the courthouse to seek justice But they found what the poor often find that their case is not important enough for a court or a judge or a lawyer It had been remanded to a hearing examiner Finally after three days of hospital testing by a battery of doctors out came the conclusion that there was no work that this man could do and that he was entitled to total disability pay dating back over four years Yet before he got a cent of that money a vocational rehabilitation expert ran through a list of 1 500 jobs trying to find some place for the man But he couldn t and finally four years later the man got his money And it took a woman s persistence to get the results Those women did not betray their femininity They acted as advocates for the poor As interceders for the helpless and the downtrodden Those were women who did credit to their sex and to this country The work of such volunteers is not limited to one individual woman working with one individual poor person On December 19 the Washington Post published this story Washington grade school principals who were told Thursday to make sure every needy child gets a free lunch added nearly 400 children to the program yesterday The fact that some needy children were not receiving free lunches was brought to light by school volunteers They found hungry children in some schools getting in line to receive the lunches of those who were in the

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/address-to-st-xavier-college (2015-03-27)
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