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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Speech at the University of Notre Dame on Civil & Human Rights
    national borders and cannot be solved by national means Finally the most visible transnational issue is probably environmental pollution No nation can save itself from the effects of environmental damage only a concerted effort by all can secure clean air and water for each These problems of course are more complex than any brief mention can reveal Yet even without further analysis they highlight the transnational process at work on this planet Transnational dynamics supplemented by global communications systems and technology transfers are creating a world physically more compressed every day Yet the fact of material interdependence created either by economic relationships communications systems or technological bonds cannot and does not inevitably produce an awareness of human or moral interdependence The transition from material to moral interdependence involves the creation of a consensus in society of how we ought to organize our interdependence how we should share its benefits and distribute its burdens equitably at the national or international level The conceptual problem we foresee today is how we can draw upon the accumulated wisdom contained in the human rights tradition to provide a moral framework for our material interdependence The pressing need for such a philosophical or moral framework derives from the fact that material interdependence is by itself an ambiguous reality It can push us together in a crowd competing for limited resources or it can be a means of calling us together in a community bound by acknowledged ties of responsibility The margin of difference between those two options will be determined by whether we can establish a rationale for interdependence as a chosen way of life nationally and internationally not an imposed fate created by technology and media Yet today a moral political and psychological unity is absent Thus we find ourselves incapable politically or psychologically of solving the problems we face Energy population food money jobs trade even health defy solution We have no more than a marginal possibility of protecting human rights and distributing human resources in a just manner if we act alone In light of these two broadly drawn agenda one domestic the other international we come to the question What philosophical foundation is necessary what shared vision of society what criteria for distributing benefits and burdens what senses of personal responsibility and professional vocation are required to solve these transnational problems And what is their relationship to civil rights and human rights These questions are beyond the capacity of any one person to answer they may not admit of any final answer but we can point towards certain criteria which may open approaches to a shared vision The two criteria or test questions I propose to examine concern first the scope which our concern for these rights must encompass and second the structure or logic of the moral argument supporting civil and human rights If the rationale for interdependence is to be worthy of the human dignity which is the moral basis of our life and society then such a rationale must be rooted in the human rights conception A human rights conception both broadens the scope of the moral vision of society to a transnational range and provides a multidimensional structure of moral discourse for a diverse range of problems The scope of our sense of moral responsibility that is to say how far our sense of responsibility extends and to whom we extend it is a fundamental moral and political issue The reason for its pre eminence at this point reflects the factual situation I described earlier we are living in a world of transnational problems but we are operating on a nation state model in which national interest functions as the primary moral and political category In this framework the legitimate but limited concept of national interest assumes a position and a weight out of proportion to its value validity The national interest model or moral responsibility tends to see reality through the prism of power while an alternative model would offer a vision of how society should be rather than how it is it would seek to direct and control the defacto uses of power by the dejure norms of principle Both power and principle are part of the organization of any social structure the question which the civil and human rights tradition has always raised and which we foresee today on a scale never previously equaled is this Which has priority power or principle Do we shape principle to fit existing power realities or shall we strive to direct power through principles drawn from an adequate vision of man and society Although this is not a new question it has taken on a new significance and urgency in our age Romano Guardini in his description of the post modern age argued twenty years ago that the struggle between power and principle would be the distinguishing mark of our time As Guardini puts it the basic challenge is whether we can develop the moral capacity to control and direct the power we have created This phrasing of the challenge takes seriously the reality of power but refuses to let us live comfortably with a society formed solely by the exigencies of power political military scientific or technological The contention between power and principle is central to the theme of interdependence and to all questions of civil and human rights How shall we determine the scope of our responsibility in an interdependent world through the perceived requirements of power or the perceived demands of principle The choice becomes more critical each day as we recognize more and more a common reliance on the same resources in a world of resources which is finite and rapidly depleting The energy crisis has given Americans our first experience with shortages of a commodity we consider a basic necessity The fact of interdependence points us toward the correlative fact of limited economic and natural resources but neither fact provides a sufficient framework for reflection We must move from the material and economic order to the level of politics and finally to the level of ethics or moral reflection if we are to make sense out of the recent perhaps passing but clearly prophetic episode of energy shortfalls The transition from economics to politics requires a change in vocabulary and concepts Instead of material shortages we must speak of the politics of scarcity The politics of scarcity assumes limited resources as a fact of future existence it challenges us order our society so that it may confront scarcity as a universal fact of life not the particular fate of the poor The technical debate here is immensely complicated rather than pursuing it to a pointless extreme I would point out that simply raising the political question how do we order our life together forces us to the highest level of political discourse political philosophy where politics passes into the realm of ethics There the question of social organization demands as a precondition to any answer that we address another more fundamental question By what norm shall we judge our success or failure What is our standard of judgment It is a short trip from the long line at the local gas station to the basic moral issue for as material shortages are translated into economic facts they provoke political questions about political processes which in turn are dependent upon moral principles The choice of power or principle as an organizing precept will produce very different concepts of moral responsibility and quite different consequences for society The direct relationship between policy decisions in one part of the globe and consequences in another is the most striking moral attribute of interdependence Perhaps it is true that some such relationships always existed in the human community but today two factors distinguish Our situation from the past first the bonds of the relationship are more direct and its impact more immediate second we now know if we care to invoke listen and investigate how responsible we are for one another In the face of this knowledge we can continue to invoke inadequate concepts to base policy decisions primarily on self interest and to ignore the situation with an attitude of malevolent neglect but then we cannot deny our guilt To understand the consequences of our action wipes away the last shield which guards our innocence We cannot know the results of our actions and remain without responsibility Nothing puts more vividly the choice between power and principle than the question of food hunger and consumption which has acquired surprising force and immediacy in the past two years Food is a typically transnational problem for our nationally organized global system food raises a fundamental moral problem starvation and affluence food also is a prismatic example of the resource consumption population matrix which is at the heart of the energy crisis For all these reasons I have taken the food question as a test case to think through and illuminate the scope of our moral responsibility in an interdependent world and as a means whereby we can also ascertain where we stand and where we must go and why with respect to questions of civil and human rights Forgive me then for an analysis which may seem like a digression I believe it will cast light on our predicament domestically and world wide We are in the midst of a transnational food crisis more terrifying and important than the energy crisis Its seriousness is manifest not merely in the tragic outbreaks of famine in the sub Saharan African nations and in India and Bangladesh but in the rising prices on the international market for principal food commodities such as wheat rice feed grains and soybeans There have been poor rice harvests in Asia a short fall in the Soviet wheat crop and for two consecutive years a drought of anchovetta off the coast of Peru In an effort to control rising domestic food prices the United States in the summer of 1973 announced restrictions on the export of soybeans and related foodstuffs Since the grim predictions of Malthus the relationship between rising population and declining food resources has been a recurrent worry More and more mouths to feed due to rapid population growth is of course a continual challenge to any nation But an added challenge is the insatiable affluence which pressures world food resources And here a startling picture of disproportionate consumption appears This disproportion is typified by grain consumption which accounts for more than 70 of the world s crop area Grain consumed directly provides 52 of our food energy supply Agricultural economist Lester Brown notes In the poor countries the annual availability of grain per person averages only about 400 pounds per year Nearly all of this small amount must be consumed directly to meet minimum energy needs Little can be spared for conversion into animal protein In the United States and Canada per capita grain utilization is currently approaching 1 ton per year Of this total only about 150 pounds are consumed directly in the form of break pastries and breakfast cereals The remainder is consumed indirectly in the form of meat milk and eggs The agricultural resources land water fertilizer required to support an average North American are nearly five times those of the average Indian Nigerian or Colombian The food and agricultural organization of the United Nations periodically issues reports which yarn that one third to one half of the world s population is undernourished because they do not consume enough calories or malnourished because the diet is protein deficient Since the mid 1940 s protein content has increased 6 in the diets of people in the developed countries and decreased 6 in the diets of people in the developing countries Total protein supply per capita in the U S Canada France Australia and New Zealand is approximately 100 grams per day For India Malaysia the Philippines and many parts of Africa and Latin America it is only half as much Although the so called Green Revolution has brought considerable hope it is not without serious difficulties and by no means is it alone the remedy The development of special strains of corn wheat and beans has multiplied the food supply of the developing world But several barriers bound that multiplication 1 cultivated land suitable for high yield seeds is becoming scarce 2 intensive chemical fertilizers pose ecological dangers and their supply is now threatened by the energy crisis and 3 the displacement of small farmers increases unemployment and aggravates problems of urbanization The oceans of course offer extensive opportunities for harvesting food if they are rationally managed But so far in this transnational area rational management has been a prescription not a practice the result has been over fishing that defeats its own purpose as world fish supply and catch continue to stagnate or decline Because rising population and rising affluence are straining the world s food supply just as finite limits on food production are becoming a reality the question of distribution is more and more critical But the attention which the question of distribution will receive depends upon the moral vision underpinning our view of society The wide contrast in food consumption between the developing nations and the developed nations poses a typical transnational moral challenge As Brown notes those living in the poor countries are sustained on 400 pounds or less of grain a year while those in the wealthier ones require nearly a ton of grain It is difficult to envisage a situation in which all of mankind could progressively increase per capita claims on the earth s food producing resources until everyone reached the level now enjoyed by the average North American Thus thought should be given to how diets could be simplified in the wealthy nations in order to reduce per capita claims on the Earth s scarce of land and water I have consciously drawn a depiction of the factual situation which contrasts levels of consumption in the face of declining food supply this contrast is one dimension of an interdependent world with a limited supply of essential commodities However there is another dimension in the food crisis equally important in understanding the demands of our interdependence and the choices which it puts to us We are not only the principal consumer of food in the world but the principal consumer of food in the world but the principal supplier of food for the rest of the world Some sense of the significance of our position is conveyed by the fact that the United States and Canada today control a larger share of the world s exportable supplies of grain than the Middle East does of oil In an interdependent world what is the nature and scope of the responsibility which comes with this position Is President Nixon s proposed Project Independence a responsive policy or an irresponsible anachronism Are we to hoard food now to guard against some distant American famine One answer is that we should determine how we exercise our power as a supplier in a seller s market according to the demands of our national interest alone This proposition is neither wholly invalid nor irrelevant but I think it important to ask whether it is adequate any longer Such reliance on calculations of self interest would result in decisions which most of us and millions of others in this country and abroad would regard as not only politically dangerous but morally reprehensible Yet this is precisely what happened last Spring when we imposed export controls on soybeans and other foodstuffs for the purpose of controlling inflation domestically from our point of view this was an understandable response In the classic moral dispensation there is a duty to care for those closest to us before we turn to others far away Yet from another point of view namely the demands of interdependence and the fact that we are in control of an essential commodity the consumption of which cannot be postponed simply by choice the decision set a precedent in the international system which could turn interdependence into a continuing power struggle of frightening proportions The immediate effect of our action was to intensify inflationary pressures on food prices in other parts of the world this caused resentment even in the developed nations where starvation is not yet the problem But if we are really to assess the impact of our adjudication of our domestic needs against international needs we should heed the following comment about the impact of rising food prices on the poorest countries of the world When one spends about 80 percent of one s income on food as a sizeable segment of mankind does today a doubling in the price of wheat or rice cannot possible be met by increased food expenditures It can only drive a subsistence diet below the subsistence or survival level Today s wheat prices of 5per bushel will without doubt be reflected in higher death rates in many poor nations in months ahead In an interdependent world forced to live with the politics of scarcity such stark moral trade offs between the essential needs of some and the preferences of others will continue to be with us A human rights view of adjudicating these needs and choices calls us to adopt a very specific definition of the community for which we are responsible and to which each of us stands accountable that view of community in turn is based on how we evaluate the role place and significance of the person in the political process In the national interest framework the nation state and the national community have a unique significance in the formulation of policy and the evaluation of duty to the larger international community Interdependence as a material fact may complicate the implementation of policy but it does not change the hierarchy of value in its formulation The national community is seen as having an ultimate and overriding value in the

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/speech-at-the-university-of-notre-dame-on-civil-human-rights (2015-03-27)
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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Speech at the Alabama Young Democrats Convention
    thrown into the Potomac River and that s the set of Nixon economic advisers This is a new administration The president says it s an open administration So let s open the door to economic common sense Let s find new economic advisers and maybe we should even make a rule that once a week they have to shop for the family groceries The Nixon economic policies under another name will smell just the same Secretary of agriculture Earl Butz is as bad under Mr Ford as he was under Mr Nixon Just a few days ago he told us we shouldn t worry too much Farm prices are going to rise only 10 next year Isn t that wonderful there will be a lot of food but no one will be able to pay for it That kind of doubletalk is in the best Nixon tradition And along with new economic advisers we need new economic policies Whatever course we choose it must be set within the bounds of fairness This time no restraint should be placed on wages unless it is equally placed on prices profits and interest rates The last time prices continued to climb while earnings declined and all we kept hearing from the white house was that inflation was under control All along I kept wanting to know the name of Mr Nixon s supermarket This time no special favors should be handed out to Republican campaign contributors The last time the only possible explanation for some hardship exemptions from price controls was that corporations had looted their income to give more money to creep This time no press releases and public relations claims can substitute for effective policy The last time the administration waited until the economy was suffering inflation and recession together and the only man who was still making money was Bebe Rebozo And this time we want action which not only promises but actually works to stop inflation The white house budget director says it will take at least two years But the families of America can t wait two years They can t afford another 20 loss of income And just by coincidence two years will take us past the 1976 election I don t want that campaign to see just another promise to control prices For as we ve just learned again a re elected president can give us some real surprises after his re election There s another thing we have to say to the new president now We have to tell him Mr President we agree with your pledge to cut the budget but we want you to slash waste and giveaways not programs for average citizens who pay the bill for the federal budget Let s cut out the loans to Lockheed and keep the loans to homebuyers Let s repeal the investment tax credit for big business so we can pass a tax cut for working men and women Let s lower the level of

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address Evaluating the War on Poverty to the American Public Health Association
    not for drugs at a pharmacy but for food He was giving prescriptions for food to the patients at that hospital because as a doctor he saw that the problems they had were not let s say the problems of the rich being overweight but the problems of the poor hunger malnutrition untreated physical handicaps such as poor eyesight poor hearing and multiple dental problems I had thought like most Americans think even today that America has the best medical profession the best medical service in the world And I guess it s true perhaps that for people at the top American medicine is as good or better than anywhere in the world It s great also if you have some peculiar disease on which research can be conducted It s also good if you re a scientist and you want to do some very difficult abstruse work in molecular biology bench research in a very tall building under controlled conditions It s very good for you You might win a Nobel prize But the reality for the majority was clear They could see the Massachusetts General Hospital with their own eyes looking out the front door of their own house yet they couldn t get a doctor The Prince of Arabia or the King of England so to speak would come all the way from over there to go to the hospital that the poor people a mile away couldn t get into In Watts the ghetto area near Los Angeles in Watts they had a saying They said Are you ten dollars sick And this is what they meant They meant and let me say ten dollars is a lot of money for them they meant that unless you were sick enough to want to spend ten dollars seven dollars for round trip taxi fare to get to the nearest medical center which would receive you that was a one hour round trip no public transportation available unless you wanted to spend seven dollars for that and three dollars for the minimum clinical fee you were not sick enough to get medical attention Ten dollars sick It was a sad tragic commentary on the state of American medicine And so we did start Neighborhood Health Centers and some of these other programs I mentioned In 1969 the Secretary of HEW said that America needed at least 1000 such centers Today we have 300 And if Casper Weinberger well known as Cap the Knife has his way we soon won t even have 300 such centers The fact is that here in America we don t need any more demonstrations We know enough now we know enough now not only about the right way to deliver services but we know enough now about the services which are needed in order to undertake a massive national program to change the structure for the delivery of medical services in America It is no longer justifiable if it ever was that we who are first in wealth in all the world should be among the medium if not the worst in health in the whole world Now some people think that the passage of a National Health Insurance Law is all that s necessary Let me say I disagree First of all a great deal depends on the kind of law that gets passed and some of the proposals would do very little more than to guarantee all the medical doctors that their fees would be paid promptly and in large amounts by the government First of all then we need a national health insurance act or law a national health security law if you will which will guarantee that the people who need the money to pay for services get the money to pay for the services And that does not mean the very rich who can pay for them right now it means the moderate income person and the poor person in our American society Secondly even if we have such a law we have not let me say we have not solved the problem We have not solved it unless we get structural changes in American medicine Now you all are being very patient here this morning very responsive I appreciate it greatly but you also must be getting very tired And so I want to say on the record that I subscribe to and support all the things I wrote out in my speech this morning but I m going to take out the whole middle part of it and jump right to the conclusion The middle part I might say just had some more things that we learned from 0E0 which are applicable today I ll just mention one of them for example We came up with the idea that the consumer the customer ought to be involved in the planning of the medical hospital or the medical clinic Well I think that the idea is more valuable today even than it was then We know today that consumer participation can be corrupted you can have tokenism you can have a committee that looks like consumer participation but which is really not consumer participation I m against that I m in favor of having the consumer involved from the top to the bottom in the whole process on the board of trustees as well as with respect to the nursing service or the sewage disposal That s just one of the things that is in my written text which I m going to eliminate I mean from giving you not from supporting I d like to jump to my conclusion I d like to suggest three or four specific things that all of you I believe could play a large role in achieving The first thing I d like to suggest this is rather presumptuous I hope you will forgive me but I would like to suggest that this organization this audience an audience as varied as

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to Stanford University
    possible supply of oil five years in the future will not decrease energy prices now or increase energy availability or free us from the grip of an Arab monopoly and the international cartels This country cannot wait five years to protect its people and its Middle Eastern policy we must never see the day when gasoline costs two dollars a gallon or some Secretary of State barters Israel for a tankful of fuel There are alternatives They have hardly even been explored because officeholders have been afraid even to express them But here are some inescapable truths In the near future we will probably have to ration gasoline we cannot afford price increases which have totaled 16 billion the last year alone We will have to drive smaller cars even if that means smaller profits for General Motors But the auto industry isn t going to switch merely because the public interest requires it We need public action such as a horsepower tax to discourage continued production of gas guzzlers We should study seriously now the immediate use of the Navy s vast oil reserves for if this is to be a genuine war against inflation the Defense Department can participate along with the rest of us We will have to use less air conditioning take fewer airline flights buy fewer appliances consume less and conserve more And wherever voluntary efforts fall short we will have to adopt mandatory controls Los Angeles may even have to start a public transportation system Such harsh measures could not resolve our energy problems overnight but they would relieve them over time They would advertise to the world moreover that the American people have not grown flatulent with affluence that we are ready and able to adapt to a planet short of resources and politically resistant to sharing them They would reveal our awareness that only by sharing what we have will we be able to share in what others have only by limiting what we use can we liberate our economy from foreign abuse We should admit that whatever course we choose will prove only a partial response to inflation Whatever weapons we wield the battle will probably be long and hard fought Like Franklin Roosevelt we must be ready to admit that we do not have final answers that we are willing to try many measures to find the ones that work And like Franklin Roosevelt we must recognize that the search will require sacrifice from each of us Now sacrifice is a favorite political word it evokes the best moments of our history from Valley Forge to Pork Chop Hill to the Freedom Riders of Alabama Yet these days we hear the words of sacrifice but we do not have the substance Sacrifice should mean that when unions and workers are forced to restrain wages business and banks must be forced to restrain profits and interest rates as well The blunt truth is that wage and price controls did not fail They were not fully tried There were exemptions for W Clement Stone s insurance company after Stone gave nearly a million dollars to Richard Nixon s political campaigns There were billions of dollars worth of exemptions for utilities But there was no exemption for the families of Los Angeles of San Jose San Clemente maybe but not San Jose Who would trust this Administration to be fair now Who would trust a White House where the senior Economic policymaker says that those now suffering most are stockbrokers Sacrifice to achieve a fair society means the opposite of the new Ford tax program which is a direct descendant of the Nixon economic policies Here is what the President wants to do Raise taxes on the middle class and lower taxes on corporate investment Here is what the new Democratic Congress ought to do lower property taxes on homeowners and raise taxes on excess profits Most fundamentally a fair society means a fair distribution of America s resources and power The largest corporations and the wealthiest individuals today control more of the economy than they did a generation ago They sell pajamas for our children which catch fire They corrupt the political process with secret contributions They lobby for higher prices and a lower minimum wage against National Health Insurance and worker safety Government giveaway programs are not the answer for people are not asking to be given something they do not deserve Rather they want control over their government their economy and their lives This will require actions which politicians have hardly dared to speak let alone mean It will mean Strict enforcement of the anti trust laws and if current laws are too weak or the current enforcers too soft then let us have new laws and a new enforcement system Strict controls on lobbying and campaign contributions strictly enforced so the laws of this land will be written in the halls of Congress and not in lobbyist s offices Strict prohibitions against conflicts of interest so that generals do not retire from the Pentagon one day and return the next day in a business suit to sell their friends another wasteful weapons system It will mean a new and strict accounting of our entire economic system to eliminate welfare for the rich in the form of tax subsidies to secure a fair break for the rest of us so that every citizen will have the chance to earn enough and to keep a fair share of the income he earns We face difficult days ahead months perhaps years of inflation and recession at the same time years perhaps an era of international resource shortage Yet like other Americans before us we can overcome our difficulties if we have a sure sense of confidence in our leadership This confidence must be earned not claimed Now it is the Democratic opportunity and the Democratic obligation to earn it by the simple act of telling the truth and acting in accordance with

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to the University of Mississippi
    happy every time some one like John Connolly deserts The second important contribution the South can give the country is a reawakened sense of strength in the face of adversity The South has faced devastation severe economic problems and racial problems more severe and more intractable than any other part of the country yet today it has made more progress in overcoming these problems than any other section of our nation The Southern record of military service of courage under fire of devotion to this country has been exhibited in war after war It is the quiet strength to face adversity that is so needed today Third I believe the South can help with all our national problems because so many of them involve the need for a reawakened sense of honor and probity No matter what section of the country people live in they are fed up with corruption at all levels in all areas of our national life They are sick of Watergate immorality corruption at state and local levels in business in labor unions in police forces What people are longing for more than anything else throughout the country is a rededication to morality in all aspects of our public life including foreign policy for example and the role if any that our government should play in overthrowing other governments Food policy for example the morality or better the immorality of allowing millions to starve while others suffer only the displeasure of overeating Health policy the immorality of rationing our health care life in effect on the basis of ability to pay Tax policy tremendous burdens placed on the working class while millionaires pay little or no taxes at all Political campaigns where public favors are auctioned to the highest bidder often a corporate bidder at that Poverty the immorality of millions Americans living at substandard incomes while others enjoy preferential treatment at the hands of the federal state and local government These aspects of our national life today anger and infuriate Americans in all parts of our country But fortunately the South has been uncommonly productive of leaders with the highest principles Robert E Lee and General George Marshall in the military Great jurists like Hugo Black Of course all Americans are primarily concerned with the economy Can we make it work Can we prevent another 1929 They simply aren t going to accept 7 unemployment rates a declining gross national product the fall of real purchasing power the most outrageous interest rates in history the highest inflation in peacetime while corporate profits are running at the highest level in history People everywhere North South East and West insist that more attention be given to the problems of the average working man He must not be asked to make a disproportionate share of the sacrifices of our society whether it be in the form of job lay offs skyrocketing health costs or the bearing of a disproportionate tax burden while others go tax free Governor Wallace

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address on American-Soviet Trade Relations
    procuring the product While profit as we know it is not the prime mover from the point of view of the Soviets their ability to out capitalist the capitalists should never be underestimated however Recent events notably the grain deal debacle have shown the Soviets to be shrewd businessmen in anyone s vocabulary Although extensive economic relations between the U S and USSR are a relatively recent phenomenon the Soviets have been trading with Western countries in Europe and Scandinavia for some time and have done their homework well The status of the Soviet government as the real party in interest in trade negotiations is partly responsible for the sometimes tortuous pace at which such negotiations move Soviet negotiators do not enjoy the decision making autonomy of representatives of US corporations with whom they re dealing as a result Soviet negotiators often serve as middlemen between the government and the US corporation and proposals must be cleared with the government before they can be accepted or counter proposals made Having said that I should add that to the extent a proposal is expected and its impact weighed in advance by the Soviet government Soviet negotiators are empowered to accept in principle even the broadest proposal and often do so before details have been finalized which is sometimes unsettling to U S firms which often don t like to agree to anything until they know precisely what they re agreeing to The contracting process generally requires that three agreements be reached each reflecting a different stage of development and increased level of complexity The first agreement called a protocol is essentially an agreement to negotiate further It identifies the parties and defines the broad parameters of the parties goals and understandings Although not substantively important the protocol is vital to further negotiations as it is regarded as bestowing favored status on the U S corporation in question by establishing that company s credentials with the Soviet government The second agreement called the general agreement spells out the rights and obligations of the parties in greater detail including construction schedules delivery schedules etc The final agreement called the commercial agreement represents the culmination of all prior negotiations and takes the form of an exhaustive contract which purports to cover every possible contingency The Soviets have an international reputation as strict observers of their contractual obligations and one of the reasons is their practice of not entering into final agreements until they are sure that the contract contains everything they seek One who desires to do business with them must therefore be prepared to spend considerable time negotiating every last detail I was recently interviewed in Washington for Soviet radio and television The Soviet commentator told me the day before the interview that he intended to ask me among other things whether I thought increased economic ties between the U S and USSR served the interests of both countries and whether such relations would result in an improved political climate between our two

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's Address to the Society of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick
    its meaning for the present and the future A spark amid darkness hope even in despair the affirmation of life in the presence of death faith when others apostatize a fight for the right against the odds these are the grace and the gift of Ireland A grace because few have known such wounds and yet gone on still believing that he who seeks shall find always with a sense of wonder and of wit A gift because it has not been kept to the nation which made it but carried outward to all the world Ireland is an idea as well as a place an ideal before it was a country its borders all human space its brothers the human species For the deepest impulses of human existence are the oldest enterprise of Irish experience First there is the yearning for independence When America marks its two hundred years Ireland will have known barely fifty years of nationhood The struggle crossed a decade of centuries an eternity against Picts Ivernians and Danes the Normans of Henry and the English of Cromwell Those who began it could not even dream the world in which it would be won They did not know the name their nation would come to be called what they and their descendants knew was the cause of their dying There was no single father of the country no one shot which was heard around the globe Instead in a small island speck of earth men and women and children raised their standard each time it fell and by so doing they set a standard of sacrifice and faith for all who want to determine their own destiny The second yearning is unity Fourscore and nine years after its Revolution America established that unity as it extended human freedom The cost was bloody civil strife the duration was four years But for generations Ireland has been split asunder People live in the same neighborhood but are distant they do different work or similar work at different wages they worship the same god but some condemn the other s service as sacrilege There is killing in Belfast and Londonderry bombing in Tyrone and Antrim and terror everywhere Still good men and more each season move toward unity in peace through a rekindling of common antecedents a quieting of mutual suspicion Someday the yearning will shape a united Ireland where the majority is just the minority is protected and the peace is secure This may seem wishful or unreachable but so was our independence in the beginning and so in fact was Irish liberation for a thousand years The final yearning is transcendence The scripture tells us to be in the world but not of it the telling is not of a truth we do not know it is an impelling to look into our hearts for the truth that is already there Men are of a family and a tribe but not entirely of it Citizens are of

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  • Sargent Shriver Peace Institute - Sargent Shriver's "Toward an International Ethic of Science"
    whose geography you know much better than I do I am an international layer not a scientist But perhaps you will permit me some general observations Science as we know it can best be characterized as an endeavor dedicated to the search for truth in a manner distorted by no dogma pursued by the interaction of individual and community and disciplined by an awareness of ultimate responsibility for the consequences of one s choices It is these very elements that I believe must shape international life in the coming era Let me be more specific by offering a recent example Earlier this year an international conference of molecular biologist was held in Asilomar California Scientists from the Soviet Union and the United States met with their counterparts from other nations to propose a worldwide system of restraints and safeguards on further research in genetic engineering The participants demanded commitment to the vigorous pursuit of knowledge by replacing a previously imposed ban on certain categories of experiments with a more moderate set of limitations This moderation was made possible by the intervening development of a technique for rendering dangerous microorganisms harmless upon their exposure to the atmosphere At the same time those who took part in the Asilomar Conference demonstrated their sense of responsibility to society as a whole by agreeing upon and urging their governments to accept limitations in whose absence organisms of potentially devastating toxicity to man might yet be unleashed The participants recognized that the technical ability to do a thing does not necessarily mean that it should be done and they recognized that limits on what may be done can be made effective only at the international level Hard as it is to stay they impulse of experimentation it becomes virtually impossible when the scientists of one nation can say let s go ahead because others will do the experiment anyway Finally the Asilomar Conference illustrated the promising interaction of individual and communal effort on which societies must increasingly rely For it was both individual and team research that made the Asilomar resolve possible and it was the international science community that created the context for Asilomar itself But the resolve of Asilomar represented a bare beginning The scientists who met there directed their attention only to a narrow range of relatively technical problems risks of physical damage or disease caused by newly created or released microorganisms The more subtle the risks associated with emerging fields of biomedical research and technology like the risk that we may destroy the essence of humanity as we pursue man s perfection through behavioral modification and biomedical manipulation are yet to be addressed in a responsible international forum Methods of using electronic and chemical brain stimulation to alter patterns of behavior and even to change an individual s basic character are in the early stages of development in a number of countries apart from some experience in psychosurgery most of the relevant experimentation is still being done with animals rather than humans More and more scientists and philosophers as well as concerned citizens are asking a basic question Despite the great promise of these techniques should the technology of neurological manipulation be developed The advanced nations have already done vast damage After the recent voyage of the Ra Thor Heyerdahl reported a new discovery which confirmed the worst fears of scientists voiced over many years There is a man made sea of pollution quite literally overlaying the ocean Yet men still make the ocean the womb of all life their largest garbage dump which plundering its reserves of life It is alarming that world fish yields for the first time in history have actually fallen over the past two years Nor is the air which circles our planet any more immune from the poisons of careless technology The ozone which may be destroyed by one nation s fleet of supersonic planes is the ozone which could have protected every nation s people from cancer inducing radiation By supporting the United Nations Environment Program your government and mine made a commitment to international environmental cooperation But both of us must go further than either has yet shown a willingness to go Particularly when our own immediate interests are at stake neither nation has adequately remembered that ours is indeed a spaceship earth a frail vehicle with finite resources of nourishment and regeneration with no airlocks for anyone against another s fouling of the atmosphere no watertight compartments to prevent flooding from a polluted ocean a world whose physical frontiers have been reached and in many ways exceeded We cannot expect others to be responsible if we do not accept our responsibilities We cannot ask them to take a long range view when we are shortsighted when the Soviet Union resists proposals at the Bucharest Conference to limit population growth or when the United States postpones scheduled environmental protections Instead we must move in a common effort of many nations to reclaim the seas to monitor regional and global pollution and inadvertent weather modification from all sources to share information on the testing and dissemination of potentially dangerous new synthetics to provide advance notice and discussion of experiments and activities which could have irreversible adverse effects to develop our understanding of the ethical foundation of environmental choices and to take other measures that fully recognize the extent of our dependence upon a bounded and wounded earth Together we will protect our planet or separately at first a relative few of us then more them millions and finally generations will perish amid its pollution without the greatest caution in all countries across all boundaries which directions of development promise to fulfill the highest human aspirations and which direction threaten to degrade humanity For if we ask such questions then we will soon find ourselves aboard a directionless satellite hurtling through spaces we have never charted with no hope of ever turning back This is the crossroads to which I believe modern science and technology are bringing us I do not shrink from the questions we must now confront I welcome them as the worthiest questions that can ever engage our attention That those questions can never be answered with total certainty need not be a source of dismay choosing for the future without the benefit of foreknowledge may after all be the only possible form of human freedom The biomedical advances that now perplex us promise also to heal the sick and to help the disabled And the mirror that those advances hold before us is a mirror into our very souls No discipline no ideology no nation has a monopoly on truth in this deepest of realms Eastern mystics as well as Western pragmatists capitalist theorists and liberals as well as Marxist philosophers agnostic humanists as well as Christian and Jewish and Moslem theologians all may have insights to contribute to the ethical discourse we must undertake if we are to act responsibly in making the momentous choices that lie ahead I stress that the need for such discourse depends on no assumption of a convergence among various ethical and moral views just as the need for a partnership of nations within a common global existence depends on no assumed convergence among national political or economic systems The need for discourse like the need for global partnerships arises instead from the impossibility of discerning and doing what is right in splendid isolation Only shared discernment open minded dialogue and controversy can move us toward ethical solutions in this difficult time The need to pause and to reflect in ethical dialogue before taking potentially irreversible actions is greatest when those actions go to the very root of what we are and force us to look into the abyss of what we might become Technologies that could so directly reshape the nature of man are only beginning to appear on the horizon of realistic possibilities This gives us all some reason to hope since there is still time to act before the momentum of psychological economic and bureaucratic commitment puts us on a trajectory that we may be powerless to change Technologies that affect man less directly by altering his natural environment while leaving the essence of man himself largely unchanged are in a different posture Which respect to many such technologies the need to pause for ethical assessment may be less powerful inasmuch as the truly irreversible consequences are likely to be less profound Yet the case for careful assessment of technologies in this environmental category may in a sense be more pressing since many of them fit into patterns of development that are already too firmly fixed and too deeply surrounded by vested interests to be changed with ease we cannot expect the opportunity for choice with respect to technologies that affect the environment to be with us for long Happily each of our nations had manifested a new awareness of the delicate sphere of the world s threatened ecosystems and of the need to engage in serous analysis and dialogue before taking actions likely to have substantial environmental impacts Each of us has enacted significant legal constraints upon the heedless plunder of land air and water resources TASS reports that you have allocated every tenth ruble to a major program of environmental protection And bilaterally our nations have entered into a far reaching agreement for cooperative research in eleven areas ranging from pollution control to earthquake prediction Yet much more is required not only in the form of joint efforts to improve our respective environments but also in the form of international initiatives to forge an environmental consciousness and responsibility that world over Neither of us can take such an initiative alone for then either of us would be accused of callous indifference to the needs of less developed economies But together we can speak the same truth after a process of economic development heedless of natural systems there will be little use for canals which salinate fields instead of irrigating them there will be small reward from an industrialization which makes the air itself an agent of death no one will gain in the long run by subverting the natural systems which sustain the existence of us all The global challenge of ecology characteristically illustrates both the new level of difficult of the problems whose solution we must seek together and the paradoxical character of contemporary science and technology in relation to such problems In part their source modern science and technique can also aid in their elimination Both by providing the technical means of monitoring and controlling environmental hazards and by enabling us to process the previously unmanageable masses of data required for effective monitoring and control the shared use of the sciences can contribute to the reclamation of the earth In a parallel way the sciences can come to the aid of the half billion people who are today at the edge of famine Although the crisis has yet to be universally conceded the evidence of its existence had mounted beyond the point of rational denial The food shortage is not a rumor started by hundreds of thousands of dying children or millions of malnourished parents Coming to terms realistically with the food shortage is in our mutual interest for we cannot permanently endure as secure islands in a sea of starvation It is to the interest of both of us as nations because we too have occasional food shortages We have our own real if rarely admitted problems of malnutrition And it is in the interest of us both and of the world as a whole that our two countries join with others who are trying to shape and support and international organization to develop and disseminate new agricultural technologies to collect and process statistical information on projected food shortages and food supplies and to gather a global food reserve Yet consider my country s past decisions to withhold land from agricultural production nor our frequent misuse of food as an instrument of international politics observe your country s reluctance to release agricultural data on grounds of national security recall your understandable suspicion that the release of detailed information on food production could swell the profits of grain traders rather than filling the stomachs of the hungry These are sincere and genuine fears But why should we accept things as they are Existing hunger and the threat of famine call for a commitment by both of our nations to the emerging structure of agreements based on the recent World Food Conference in Rome The structure must be carefully built so every nation can exercise appropriate control and vital information can be accumulated and assessed in ways sensitive to the need for alert to the risks of exploitation But no nation in my judgment should stand aside while most nations are working to design a viable world food system We in the USA and the USSR have competed with one another for nuclear superiority now let us cooperate with many others for the sake of food sufficiency bringing to our mutual aid the resources of our scientific enterprise One could multiply endlessly the fields in which such scientific and technical cooperation represent a promising path to our mutual benefit and the world s basic wellbeing You know better than I those areas of our science and technology which would be of interest or use to you For our part many of us are particularly attracted by your work in such fields as MHD generators thermonuclear fusion coal gasification power transmission and the extraction of aluminum from nephelite More important than extending this list of illustrations is recognizing its existence The significance of such a list of an array of areas of potential scientific cooperation was brought home to me most vividly by my recent visit to the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis near Vienna This Institute has many unusual qualities First of all scientists are at work there from both socialist and capitalist countries They work in harmony and with mutual respect Advanced computers at the Institute link these scientists with information contained in other computers in Novosibirsk Moscow San Francisco Boston Berlin Paris Frankfurt Oxford Cambridge at M I T and Cal Tech The socialist and capitalist scientists talk back and forth to socialist and capitalist computers The information flow to and from the International Institute is almost instantaneous and effortless Those scientists work on weather and climate prediction and control oceanography and a host of other problems The scientists believe that the most urgent problems of the future can be studied and solved best and quickest and perhaps only on a basis which transcends national frontiers The goals and methods of the Institute do not mean that national frontiers are unimportant They do mean that the problems which today are causing the most difficulty cannot be fully or perfectly solved on a national basis alone They cannot be solved in Washington or Moscow or by the two of us acting together Their solution requires information from all parts and peoples of the world and the globally cooperative efforts of scientific and political intelligence Outside of Vienna in Antarctica and in outer space this new style of cooperative effort is already at work financed by your country and mine and by others managed and supervised by men and women from your country and mine and by others with the results available to your country and mine and to many others This style of philosophy and planning could be applied with great promise to other areas and other problems provided there is the will to do so on both sides provided there is trust and provided there is an adequate effort to broaden the analyses the scientific and technological assessments to include the moral and ethical dimensions of all choices under study A number of important efforts to address such dimensions exist in both our countries and in other nations as well But no effort of which I am aware adequately draws forth the combined insights of imaginative and capable scientists ethical and moral philosophers theologians psychohistorians of all those who might contribute to the wise resolution of questions about scientific and technological development Just last month the United States and the Soviet Union held the first meeting of their newly created Joint Commission of Social Sciences and Humanities The discussions embraced eight areas economics history literature international relations law psychology sociology and anthropology Such an extension of international cooperation beyond the physical and natural sciences is certainly encouraging But still missing is any framework for including ethical concerns or any structure for focusing such concerns upon the specific choices that raise them most powerfully As the first step toward filling this major gap I would take advantage of this extraordinary opportunity to address the scientific community at Novosibirsk by proposing the creating of an International Institute for Science Ethics and Public Policy Modeled in part on the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis the institute I have in mind would have two major features First its central concern would be a normative one to assist in deciding what should be done Second the basic pattern for studies by the institute I propose would be the assessment of particular science related problems and plans followed by the publication of reasoned opinions including dissents and separate concurring views when they are strongly held making and defending specific policy recommendations to the responsible officials and agencies Complete consensus among the individuals doing a particular study would be neither necessary nor in many instances desirable Non controversial communication almost invariably tends to be conversation about the inconsequential What is important is that each study would generate sustained and focused reflection in a partnership among concerned and qualified scholars upon a concrete problem with both scientific and ethical dimensions The published conclusions of any such study would be binding on no one But they might nonetheless be expected to influence public policy

    Original URL path: http://www.sargentshriver.org/speech-article/toward-an-international-ethic-of-science (2015-03-27)
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