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  • Silva Forest Foundation - Harrop Proctor Watersheds
    a final check of all areas that had been identified as part of the potential Timber Management Landbase Finally a reconnaissance level field check of the photo interpreted terrain sensitivity was carried out Landbase Unsuitable for Development Map Chart Areas in the Harrop Procter watersheds that are judged unsuitable for timber management consist of non forested areas per MoF non productive and non merchantable forested areas per MoF environmentally sensitive areas per MoF and ecologically sensitive areas per Silva These areas are identified and delineated using MoF forest cover maps air photo interpretation field assessment and GIS analysis Netdowns are areas that are removed from the potential timber management area for either ecological sensitivity or economic consideration The following classes were identified and removed from the timber management landbase using the MoF forest cover data and the 1993 Kootenay Lake Timber Supply Analysis TSA Low Site Quality Areas identified as having low growth potential by the MoF ESA 1 Areas identified as environmentally sensitive by the MoF Typically these are areas with steep terrain and sensitive soils Deciduous Stands Deciduous stands are forest stands dominated by aspen birch or cottonwood These tree species are marginally merchantable and are not generally included in estimates of commercial timber productivity Low Volume Stands The TSA report identifies a matrix of stands by species and site class which are excluded from the landbase because their reported volume at maturity is too low to support economically viable harvesting Inoperable area These areas are considered uneconomic to harvest due to poor accessibility high elevation low stand volume and or poor timber quality NSR Areas which have been logged or disturbed and which are currently not growing commercial tree species but which are expected to be restocked in the future In the SFF Ecologically Sensitive Netdowns two summary classes were used Riparian ecosystems Steep and or complex terrain The Silva ecologically sensitive classes are only applied to areas that were not first netted out by the MoF netdowns The additional ecologically sensitive areas shown in Silva s classes highlight the extent and nature of the disagreement about the net timber potential of the Harrop Procter watersheds between conventional timber management and ecologically responsible ecosystem based forest management Old Growth Forests Map Chart Old forests are not uncommon in the study area Just less than 25 of the study area is occupied by old growth forests using strictly an age based definition and considering all forested areas above the cutoff age as old growth forests However because different types of old forests have different characteristics and perform different functions this general approach is flawed In other words some old forests as determined by age may not have old growth forest attributes Similarly some forests younger than the age cutoff may have old growth forest attributes The actual characteristics of old forests need to be further assessed to determine the extent of actual old growth forests The map shows the distribution of old forests or potential old growth forests

    Original URL path: http://silvafor.org/harropproctor (2016-02-10)
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  • Silva Forest Foundation - Cortes Island
    were once average sized trees in a continuous blanket of old growth forest While the lush second and third growth forests on Cortes are beautiful they are ecologically very different from the old growth fir cedar and hemlock forests that they have replaced Unless management plans are implemented to restore old growth composition and structure to all forest types the magnitude of the negative ecological changes will increase over time These changes include loss of soil fertility water quality and biological diversity The first step in restoring old growth forests within the Cortes landscape is to identify the old growth forests which currently remain on the island The first draft of mapping old growth forests was carried out by the SFF using 1 17 000 black and white air photos Mapping old growth from air photos is problematic there is no way to measure the age of a tree on air photos We used crown form crown width and tree height to identify what we believed were old forest areas Old trees generally have wide ragged crowns and are significantly taller than second growth forests We identified two classes of old forests on the island High Density Old Growth Areas with more than 10 stems per hectare of old growth trees Generally these are intact stands which have not been logged High density old growth is rare in the more settled portions on the island but becomes more common moving onto the central spine of the island and up onto Von Donop peninsula These areas are proposed for protection Low Density Old Growth Areas with less than 10 stems per hectare of old growth trees Generally these are logged areas or rocky sensitive sites with a few scattered old growth trees Low density old growth forests on stable and moderately stable terrain remain in the potential timber management landbase with the caveat that any logging activity in the area must not impact the stems or roots of the large old trees This will likely require buffer zones around all individual trees Following SFF s analysis of old growth forests David Shipway of the CIFC then performed further photo interpretation and extensive field inspection of the photo interpreted old growth stands Changes from his work were incorporated into the database We believe that old growth forests once dominated the landscape of Cortes Island However extensive logging and resulting settlement related fires around 80 to 100 years ago have greatly reduced the area of remaining old growth Currently only 6 of Cortes Island is occupied by high density old growth forests and a further 23 falls within the low density class The low density old growth class is not old growth forest but is generally a natural open area or logged area which contains some large old growth structures While ecologically valuable low density old growth areas are not an ecological substitute for full canopy old growth forests on good growing sites Because there is so little old growth left on Cortes

    Original URL path: http://silvafor.org/cortes (2016-02-10)
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  • Silva Forest Foundation - Slocan Valley
    land survival history of the Siniixt Peoples Another area specifically named as an identified area in the cultural zoning and listed as an area of spiritual importance to the Siniixt is the White Grizzly area The White Grizzly are sacred to the Siniixt in their belief system and have great significance in the Siniixt connection to their land on a spiritual level To destroy any part of the White Grizzly habitat would be to undermine spiritual beliefs Identified burial sites such as the Vallican Site are important to protect for all of the obvious reasons The Siniixt people have repatriated and reburied fifty two 52 complete and fractured skeletal remains of the Siniixt ancestors It is a belief of the Siniixt that there is a cultural law that states that when one dies the physical form must return to the earth When the physical form of a human is not allowed to return to the earth then the law is being broken and the person whom the remains represent must be vindicated The only clear way that the living can rectify the mistake is to return the remains to the earth and let the law be followed 2 Zoning reflects the need to protect identified specific cultural sites and areas To allow for protection in a specific area but not to delete the possibility that other sites may exist Once an area is determined for development and that development will occur in a cultural zoning area this will create the opportunity for research teams to reconnaissance areas and identify specific sites if they exist in the specified development area 3 To allow for protection of cultural sites yet to be determined Once an area is determined for development and reconnaissance has identified a specific site the importance of the site will be determined and will create the protection value of the site Zones which have been depicted in the mapping process have been identified in three modes Identified Areas of Spiritual Importance High Cultural Use Areas Moderate Cultural Use Areas The zoning boundaries as identified in the mapping process may fluctuate As an example there may be areas in the moderate cultural use areas which have not yet been identified but may be reclassified as High Use or Areas of Spiritual Importance The identified areas of spiritual importance are areas that require the highest level of protection and cannot be compromised The other two areas allow for reconnaissance and a determination of protection value priority 4 To initiate current and future required participation of the Siniixt in all land use planning Siniixt people are requiring an opportunity to reconnaissance areas designated for development to inventory and identify cultural sites that may or may not require protection There is an ongoing process which may determine that the Siniixt people will have some specific land claims in their territory in the future and will require participation on other levels Involvement on this level now will make the transition into that process expeditious 5 To encourage that land use and development be proper encompass and include all sector interests When the value of interests are determined in the land use planning process the ultimate goal would be to create a higher value of protection for those areas that are of interest to more than one sector The development of and the inclusion of cultural zoning is an important step in providing useful information for fair just land use decisions The expectation of the Siniixt is that this aspect of land use planning will not be ignored Our hope is that the cultural zoning will be part of a local shared decision making process for land use in the Slocan Valley Map 5 Wholistic Forest Use Zones Map These maps show human use zones which were identified in the areas between the components of the protected landscape network and in some parts of the protected landscape network In human use zones all activities need to be carried out in ecologically responsible ways Each human use zone is assigned a priority use which sets the terms under which other uses may be carried out For example commercial tourism zones may include areas used for ecologically responsible timber extraction However all timber extraction in such zones must protect all aspects of the zone that are valuable for current and future tourism activities Because some of the zones may overlap the total area of all Wholistic Forest Use zones generally exceeds the total area of the landscape analysis unit General principles for ecologically responsible forest use and specific standards for ecologically responsible timber management may be found in SFF s Eco Cert standards for ecosystem based forest management link to Archives Eco Certification Human use zones were identified through consultation with several sectors represented in the Slocan Valley CORE Pilot Project All sectors were invited to participate in three consultation sessions carried out by the Silva Forest Foundation although some chose not to participate Human use zones proposed for establishment in this ecosystem based plan include Siniixt Cultural Zones As explained previously Siniixt Cultural Zones cover the entire Slocan River watershed All forest uses including large protected areas are subject to a just and lasting settlement of the land question In the interim Siniixt culture and land will be protected throughout the Slocan Valley by taking direction from the Siniixt Nation The three Siniixt Cultural Zones are Identified Areas of Spiritual Importance High Cultural Use Areas Moderate Cultural Use Areas Consumptive Use Watersheds These are small watersheds within the larger Slocan Valley watershed landscape that supply water for domestic and agricultural purposes to human settlements largely in the main valley floor Some aspects of activities such as timber management mining commercial tourism outdoor recreation and wildcrafting pose an unacceptable risk to water quality quantity and timing of flow of water supplies and are not acceptable in these consumptive use watersheds Specific risks include introduction of sediment into water supplies destabilization of stream channels deeper snowpacks and more

    Original URL path: http://silvafor.org/slocan (2016-02-10)
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