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- Logos — SPICE Homepage

scope research partners events contact links library Publications Software Downloads Benchmarks Training Material documentation Logos Poster template Logos Here you can download all these SPICE logos mascot pictures SPICE stiker

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/library/downloads/logos/ (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Index of /library/software

09 21 13 EX2DELEL html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K EX2DELEL 2010 06 09 21 14 EX2DVAEL html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K EX2DVAEL 2010 06 09 21 14 FD3S AD html 2010 08 12 12 31 15K FD3S AD 2010 06 09 21 05 FD3S html 2010 08 12 12 31 15K FD3S 2010 06 09 21 15 Fd2d html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K Fd2d 2010 06 09 21 16 GEMINI html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K GEMINI 2010 06 09 21 16 Gar6more2D html 2010 08 12 12 21 12K Gar6more2D 2010 06 09 21 17 Gar6more3D html 2010 08 12 12 22 13K Gar6more3D 2010 06 09 21 17 HS3M 4M html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K HS3M 4M 2010 06 09 21 05 ISOLA html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K ISOLA 2010 06 09 21 05 LD BIMAT 2D html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K LD BIMAT 2D 2010 06 09 21 05 Normal Modes html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K Normal Modes 2010 06 09 21 17 PD BIMAT html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K PD BIMAT 2010 06 09 21 05 Ps2d html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K Ps2d 2010 06 09 21 18 Raytheory html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K Raytheory 2010 06 09 21 19 SHaxi html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K SHaxi 2010 06 09 21 05 TF MISFITS html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K TF MISFITS 2010 06 09 21 05 TI analytical 3D html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K TI analytical 3D 2010 06 09 21 19 anaseis m html 2010 08 12 12 31 14K anaseis m 2010 06 09 21 05 couplage html 2010 08 12 12 31 13K couplage 2010 06

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/library/software/ (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Dynamic rupture — SPICE Homepage

approaches to the problem of dynamic rupture propagation notably methods which discretise only the fault itself e g boundary integral elements or methods based on 3D grids e g finite differences and fault planes defined within them As complete 3D calculations are only beginning to be possible in interesting frequency domains there is an urgent need to define benchmarks and define domains of applications of the various approaches There are

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/dynamicrupture/index.html (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Earthquake hazard — SPICE Homepage

using empirical relationships Because large earthquakes happen infrequently it is impossible to build shaking hazard maps for particular earthquake scenarios from observations Therefore the deterministic approach to earthquake scenario simulations is rapidly gaining momentum Here for the given local crustal seismic velocity model and appropriate near surface structure the complete ground motion for a whole region can be calculated The synthetic data can be converted into shaking hazard maps by considering at each point on the surface grid the peak ground velocity acceleration and other properties of the wavefield such as shaking duration While this is a powerful concept there are still many open questions some of which we detail briefly 1 Ground motion is strongly influenced by near surface seismic velocity structure These velocities may have values as low as 300m s This poses an enormous computational problem How can we incorporate the near surface structure in numerical modelling Can we use variable grid sizes If so is it possible to use space dependent time stepping 2 For very large earthquakes e g Mexico City 1985 regions even at great distances e g 400km are at risk For these cases is it useful to combine 2 5 D approaches

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/earthquakehazard/index.html (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Global seismology — SPICE Homepage

the imaging process In ray theoretical approaches high frequency approximation the seismogram is reduced to travel times picked for particular phases In the intermediate frequency range one can model surface wave forms using non linear perturbation theory These approaches have led to the picture of the Earth s interior that we have today While it is fascinating what has been learned even with these relatively crude approaches over the past

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/globalseismology/index.html (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Inverse problems — SPICE Homepage

through iterative procedures or extensive searches of the model space So far this model search was carried out using predominantly linear or linearized approaches Arguably the most elegant method to solve inverse problems is the probabilistic approach whereby a probability density function is calculated that is descriptive of the information available accounting for observations and uncertainties in theory and observations Even though we are aware that with complete 3D solutions

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/inverseproblems/index.html (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Numerical methods — SPICE Homepage

media with strong discontinuities unphysical high frequency oscillations appear in the solutions Therefore this approach is suited only for relatively smooth models for which one could argue that perturbation methods are more efficient However the potential in the pseudo spectral approach is in the combination with FD methods It is possible to combine PS e g for horizontal derivatives and laterally smooth velocity variations with FD e g for the vertical derivatives which have to account for material discontinuities Such an approach has a further advantage in connection with the implementation on parallel computer architecture The domain decomposition necessary for parallelization can be carried out along the FD axis Therefore combinations of the PS approach with other methods will be considered and evaluated in the course of this project Finite spectral elements F S E The FE method originates from considerations of static elasticity in engineering and is today maybe the most established numerical method in static and dynamic elasticity Nevertheless it has found less attention in the area of seismology probably due to the fact that its implementation is considerably more involved than the FE approach In addition the original FE approach involves the solution of in 3D gigantic systems of equations which are not easily solved on parallel computers However during the last decade an extension of the FE method is entering computational physics and has potential to be the method of choice in many domains spectral elements What are spectral elements Instead of approximating an arbitrary function inside an element by linear quadratic cubic functions the functions are approximated using spectral basis functions e g Chebyshev Lagrange which implies that they exactly describe a function on the corresponding collocation points A major discovery was the fact that when using Lagrange polynomials the mass matrix is diagonal and the system of equations is trivial to solve This implies that the extrapolation problem becomes explicit which makes an SE algorithm as easy to parallelize as an FD approach Spectral elements have been applied to local problems and to global problems Even though it is not fully clear whether the SE approach is advantageous in all domains of seismology we envisage that this method will play an important role in this project We intend to carry out careful and objective comparative studies with the other possible approaches Boundary elements BE For some problem classes in wave propagation studies it is sufficient to consider only boundaries instead of volumes Such problems involve crack propagation reflection and transmission of seismic waves at interfaces embedded in homogeneous media or diffraction from free surfaces with topography There are obvious advantages of this approach compared to the volume grids used in the techniques mentioned above The discretization is reduced to two dimensions The disadvantage is that scattering due to short scale heterogeneities and the interaction with the behaviour on the boundaries e g cracks rupture are not accounted for Yet it is an efficient way of simulating the effects of boundaries and as with other

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/numericalmethods/index.html (2016-04-29)

Open archived version from archive - Volcano seismology — SPICE Homepage

wave propagation tools to volcanology From a more technical point of view it is necessary to define optimal ways to model the very complex free surface not only as a scattering surface for incoming waves but also as the location of surface sources The reason is that one source of seismic energy is the downhill transport of mass along as domes collaps and or pyroclastic flows run down the flanks

Original URL path: http://www.spice-rtn.org/scope/volcanoseismology/index.html (2016-04-29)

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