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  • février | 2008 | Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté
    la ville manque cruellement d espaces verts et plus singulièrement de verdure Au prix actuel des terrains il semblerait que les arbres soient vus d un mauvais oeil et les habitations ont tendance à gagner chaque mètre carré au détriment des arbres qui pourraient être présents La prolongation de la ligne 13 du métro le long de la rue des Bas n a amélioré en rien la situation Courant 2005 le début des travaux a vu la coupe d un certain nombre de platanes qui étaient sur les bords du boulevard Récemment la construction de la première station a eu raison d autres platanes qui étaient peu être trop près de ses murs et surtout qui ne permettaient pas à tout un chacun d admirer la beauté de la construction Ce qui était un axe de circulation pas particulièrement agréable l est maintenant encore moins Les plans de réfection de cet axe laissent cependant entrevoir la plantation de nouveaux arbres mais je n imagine pas que les nouveaux arbres auront la même stature que les platanes autrefois présents C est cependant un pas dans la bonne direction En dehors de ces grands travaux pas le moindre arbre n est apparu dans mon quartier en trois ans Venant de Paris l avenue d Argenteuil semble bien peu accueillante Le béton et le bitume règnent en maîtres Nous approchons à grands pas des élections municipales et au moins un candidat fait des propositions pour humaniser Asnières sur Seine Une vue d artiste de certains quartiers dont le mien avec des arbres et une place réduite pour la chaussée en change dramatiquement la perception En voilà donc un qui fait des propositions qui font du sens Je préfère voir mes impôts dépensés dans ce projet plutôt que dans le poste des honoraires d avocats Asnières sur Seine sera t elle plus agréable à vivre dans les années à venir Je croise les doigts Posted by Arnaud on 16 février 2008 in Coups de gueule Leave a comment Tags Asnières sur Seine Verdure Asnières sur Seine ou le déni de démocratie février 13 Il est difficile de vivre à Asnières sur Seine et ne pas connaître Monsieur le maire Si pendant les années où j ai vécu à Paris il m était bien difficile de nommer le maire de mon arrondissement Qu à cela ne tienne à Asnières sur Seine j ai rapidement appris que Manuel Aeschlimann était mon maire à l écoute de mes besoins par l intermédiaire d une communication bien trop présente invitation à la mairie des nouveaux habitants panneaux d information un peu partout dans la ville et surtout de nombreux courriers adressés en personne En cette période pré électorale j ai reçu comme chacun de mes concitoyens plusieurs courriers de la mairie Une belle enveloppe avec le blason d Asnières sur Seine un papier qui n avait rien de recyclé pour un message qui ne méritait pas une telle débauche de moyens Parfois je me demande où passent mes

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  • Index of /~arnaud
    Parent Directory pictures 2008 11 13 20 30 Style css 2008 11 13 20 30 3 4K Raskin en html 2008 11 13 20 30 37K Apple Story fr html 2008 11 13 20 30 30K Apache 2 4 10

    Original URL path: http://www.starway.org/~arnaud/?C=N;O=D (2016-02-09)
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  • Index of /~arnaud
    Parent Directory Apple Story fr html 2008 11 13 20 30 30K Style css 2008 11 13 20 30 3 4K Raskin en html 2008 11 13 20 30 37K pictures 2008 11 13 20 30 Apache 2 4 10

    Original URL path: http://www.starway.org/~arnaud/?C=M;O=A (2016-02-09)
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  • Index of /~arnaud
    Parent Directory pictures 2008 11 13 20 30 Style css 2008 11 13 20 30 3 4K Apple Story fr html 2008 11 13 20 30 30K Raskin en html 2008 11 13 20 30 37K Apache 2 4 10

    Original URL path: http://www.starway.org/~arnaud/?C=S;O=A (2016-02-09)
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  • Index of /~arnaud
    Parent Directory Apple Story fr html 2008 11 13 20 30 30K Raskin en html 2008 11 13 20 30 37K Style css 2008 11 13 20 30 3 4K pictures 2008 11 13 20 30 Apache 2 4 10

    Original URL path: http://www.starway.org/~arnaud/?C=D;O=A (2016-02-09)
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  • Histoire de la Pomme
    qui a soumis son projet à Atari n a pas plus de succès Après avoir terminé le câblage de sa machine Woz met vingt minutes à charger manuellement son Basic Integer dans la mémoire Écrit en hexadécimal il occupe 2 Ko Puis Woz lance la machine couplée au terminal qu il s est fabriqué et un curseur s affiche en haut de l écran ainsi naît ce que sera l Apple I quand Apple existera Il est assez lent 60 caractères secondes mais six fois plus rapide qu un téléscripteur Il ne possède aucune possibilité graphique et un PIA sert d interface parallèle et non série pour le relier au terminal Pour cet Apple I afin d économiser les puces dont il emploie une quarantaine seulement Woz a misé sur le multiplexage Il a aussi utilisé la technique des calculatrices qu il connaît bien puisque chez Hewlett Packard son travail consiste justement à les concevoir quand elles sont mises en marche le microprocesseur s appuie sur un moniteur petit programme contenu dans la ROM pour surveiller le clavier et commander l affichage correspondant à la touche pressée L Apple I a donc un clavier Woz en a acheté un par correspondance pour 60 dollars et un moniteur figé dans deux PROM de 256 Ko Le moniteur surveille le clavier examine la mémoire ou charge un programme à une adresse définie Woz a prévu un connecteur pour une carte additionnelle Il l utilise vite pour se relier à un magnétophone à cassette qui lui permet de charger le Basic en quelques minutes seulement La RAM n offre que 8 Ko dont le Basic prendra finalement la moitié si bien qu il restera seulement 4 Ko pour un programme L Apple I est doté d un connecteur vidéo destiné au terminal écran non fourni d un second connecteur à seize broches pour le clavier également non fourni et d une alimentation que l utilisateur doit brancher sur deux transformateurs lui délivrant respectivement 12 et 5 volts Woz apporte fièrement sa création au club qui compte maintenant 500 membres Il commence aussitôt à distribuer gratis les plans de la machine et du terminal Jobs et lui passeront plusieurs soirées chez tel ou tel membre du club pour l aider à construire et à tester son Apple I maison Le succès ramène Jobs au sens des affaires Montons une société et vendons le circuit imprimé sans les composants mais avec leur emplacement indiqué Chaque circuit nous reviendra à 20 dollars et nous le revendrons 40 Les gars achètent leurs composants chez un revendeur ou à la société d électronique pour laquelle ils travaillent Fabriquer 50 circuits nous coûtera 1000 dollars mais 50 amateurs c est facile à trouver Nous rentrerons vite dans nos fonds D ailleurs je suis sûr que nous en vendrons beaucoup plus Woz est sceptique Bon dit Jobs nous perdrons peut être notre fric mais au moins une fois dans notre vie nous aurons eu une société à nous Woz est finalement séduit mais ils n ont pas d argent Jobs vend son vieux minibus Woz sa calculatrice Ainsi naît Apple la pomme en avril 1976 avec deux pères fondateurs de ceux que l Amérique adore voir se propulser vers les hauteurs en surmontant toutes les difficultés un fils d émigrés polonais et un enfant adopté car Jobs n a pas de vrais parents La pomme le nom est venu à l esprit de Jobs qui travaille de temps à autres dans les vergers de l Oregon et raffole de pommes le jour où la société s est constituée Tous lui cherchent un nom Finalement Jobs lance Si nous n avons rien trouvé à 17 heures ce sera Apple Computers Grâce â lui Apple est toujours en tête des constructeurs d ordinateurs par ordre alphabétique Woz et Jobs ont chacun 45 des parts Un ami qui ne croit pas en leur succès mais possède quelques économies achète les 10 restant pour 800 dollars Il les leurs revendra au même prix dès qu ils auront de quoi les reprendre et ce ne sera pas long le porte à porte de Jobs se révèle payant Une boutique d informatique locale commande 100 Apple I 500 dollars chaque elle les revendra 566 dollars Un marché de 50 000 dollars Apple est lancé Mais ils ont besoin de 20 000 dollars pour acquérir le matériel Jobs toujours lui réussit à obtenir des fournisseurs le paiement des composants à 30 jours Le père du meilleur ami de Woz Alan Baum prête généreusement 5 000 dollars Dans son garage désormais vide Jobs met sa propre soeur au travail elle reçoit un dollar par carte mère pour y enficher les puces En dix jours les Apple I sont montés et livrés Jobs et Woz payent les fournisseurs et remboursent le père d Alan Baum Il y aura au total 200 Apple I fabriqués Sauf 25 ils seront vendus en neuf ou dix mois Dans la Silicon Valley l ordinateur personnel sort de l ère des bricoleurs et commence à intéresser les industriels Hewlett Packard même qui produisait son gros ordinateur 9830 comportant un Basic en ROM mais valant 10 000 dollars met en projet son propre ordinateur 8 bits le Capricorn Toujours obsédé par l image de l horloge rouge verte et bleue Woz décide de doter l Apple I de la couleur En réalité il l a prévue en mettant dans la machine un quartz délivrant la fréquence nécessaire mais y a renoncé pour une question de prix Woz a besoin d ajouter quelques puces pour obtenir au choix textes ou couleur en basse résolution L Apple II commence donc de naître sitôt l Apple I lancé et comme il s adresse toujours aux mêmes passionnés désargentés Woz réussit à employer deux fois moins de puces pour deux fois plus de possibilités Pour lui la couleur permet de programmer en Basic des jeux graphiques Aussi ajoute t il à son Basic Integer les commandes nécessaires pour gérer

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  • The creation of the Mac according to Jef Raskin & Bruce Horn
    unique aesthetic built in sound etc were all part of the project specs from the very beginning long before Mannock joined the team I still have drawings mostly by my long time friend and fellow early Apple employee Brian Howard starting in late 1979 that show these features The built in speaker and serial ports were merely carrying on the Apple II tradition My design also had a bus extension port to allow additional memory and other devices to be added but Steve Jobs removed that feature It returned with the SE Before creating the Mac project I was Manager of Publications at Apple and so for the Mac I was careful to insist that the excellence of the product extend to use Horn s words to the unpacking instructions the profusely illustrated and beautifully written manuals tastefully packaged Packaging was another major concern of mine I had worked for a company in South San Francisco called The Box Factory where I had done box and display design I did not work on the manuals or the box design myself but I had put in place the systems and people who would do a first rate job and inculcated these values in Apple s management Horn and many other people who joined Apple long after the Mac and Lisa projects were well under way never knew the genesis of many of the ideas the were later to become prominent and widely copied For example he attributes the internationalization of the products to the Lisa group but it actually began when I hired Joanna Hoffmann into the Mac group partially because of her international background and my interest in providing international fonts I could go on for another few pages of similar small errors in chronology or attribution in Horn s remarks but they are not of major importance except perhaps to the people who did the work Time plays tricks on memory By chance I got to use a Xerox Star for the first time recently It was in a room with a Lisa and an early Mac I found the Star and the Lisa to be incredibly slow and somewhat clumsy to use the Mac was far faster and more fluid a tribute to Horn and his associate s efforts The speed differences were real but it could be that my familiarity with the Mac accounts for the feeling of clumsiness with the Star and Lisa I suspect if Horn were to go and use a Star today he would not be quite so enthusiastic about how advanced it was at least from a user s point of view Of course he might well be correct when speaking from a programmer s point of view However I ve always been more concerned with users Programmers do their work but once while users are saddled with it ever thereafter I find looking at the past not nearly as interesting as looking into the future As Horn says and as I have written in a number of articles things haven t changed as much as the hype would have it I think that years from now when the details have been washed away by the acid rains of time four major commercial events will stand out in the history of personal computers the advent of the microprocessor which drove prices of computers down to the point where individuals could buy them and led to the first flowering of the present computer revolution the ascendancy of the software industry and the shift from users will program them to users will run software packages the Mac interface and its followers which brought the benefits of computers to a far broader audience and fundamentally changed the way we use computers of all sizes and software of all kinds and to tread on dangerous ground since the event is relatively recent the blossoming of the Internet To sum up the history Cheap Hardware Application Software Human Interface Internet Forget operating systems as a significant part of the story they are just a detail Users would be better off if they never had to deal with one and someday operating systems will disappear from view just as the details of the processor thankfully have The future lies with getting rid of the cumbersome and complex systems we have now and moving to simpler more direct methods of harnessing the power of the processor See my article in Wired cited above for a bit more on the reasons for this Essay This essay is from In the interest of eliciting more historical facts here are a few additional recollections A lot of people asked to see my thesis but that s rather large and much is irrelevant to this discussion so I ve excerpted the pertinent parts of it here Bruce Horn pointed out that Xerox had the pull down menus that I attributed to Atkinson a case of independent reinvention of which I was unaware though click and drag for selection and moving were as far as he and I know invented at Apple Bruce and others have expressed the idea that the Canon Cat was much as I would have wanted the Mac to be However the Canon Cat as marketed by Canon was only a dim echo of what my colleagues and I at Information Appliance Inc worked on For example most people only know it as a closed architecture which it wasn t secretarial workstation This is because Canon did not want to reveal that it was actually a 68000 based bit mapped product with a nice set of graphics tools in ROM which tools they never used This was partly because they decided to bundle it with a daisy wheel printer that could not do graphics and partly because it was brought out by their electric typewriter division and not their computer division Most observers at the time thought the marketing had been botched and I am not going to disagree Designed to allow easy integration of third party software Canon never pursued this essential path and the few third party vendors we had begun to sign up never had time to complete their work before Canon bailed out The Cat had a connector and software hooks for a pointing device but Canon never provided a mouse or mouse equivalent for it In many ways it was for 1987 far ahead It automatically resumed from where you had left off working even if you turned off the machine in the interim it had a screen saver instant on with any keystroke and you didn t even lose the keystroke it would have qualified for a green sticker had they been invented then it had true document centric operation with a level of integration beyond any of today s suites OpenDoc or OLE an ease of use that has yet to be duplicated the boot time was about seven seconds but seemed instantaneous due to a psychological trick it featured full text retrieval of anything no matter in what application had built in communications including an auto answer auto dial modem the communications were available and integrated with all the application areas and so on Even the normally sage Esther Dyson didn t understand the product s openness at one point she wrote that it was unacceptable since it didn t do footnotes But neither did the Mac until appropriate third party software came along But everybody liked the Cat interface With regard to my thesis its formal title was A Hardware Independent Computer Drawing System Using List Structured Modeling The Quick Draw Graphics System Pennsylvania State University 1967 All the material in quotes in the next few paragraphs is from the thesis Some things I probably should put into their chronological context otherwise they may seem strange after thirty years of bit loss First I did not have access to an interactive graphics terminal which I thought would excite images of a new era in man machine communications as the more visionary proponents of the interactive console rightly put forth Surprisingly the utility of interactivity was not apparent to all computer scientists at the time A section of my thesis 6 23 on Interactive Graphics was snuck in nonetheless For example when the system had to ask the user something I proposed that small menus could appear right on the display and that the user could detect on now we would say click on as we don t use light pens the appropriate element in the menu Now we would call this a dialog box I was providing a common programming system for diverse output media based on their shared basic abilities at that time the ability to create a vector Bit mapped systems were not available at Penn State At a time when the existing graphics packages at Penn State drew only charts graphs and tables I spoke in terms of creating a system for Architects electronics engineers musicians computer scientists artists meteorologists linguists chemists and indeed the entire academic and professional community The real need I wrote was to have the ability to define arbitrary symbols and manipulate them into complex pictures Such symbols could be representations of furniture and fixtures in floor plans resistors transistors and the like in schematic diagrams notes and clef signs in music the individual shapes in flow charts symbols for atoms and molecular structures sentence structure diagrams and so on without limit I saw using images hierarchically The fixtures are arranged into rooms the rooms now treated as units are arranged into buildings and the buildings as units become developments urban centers and cities The Quick Draw Graphics System QDGS provided all affine transformations of objects and a few others such as perspective as well For portability it was written in s higher level language In this case FORTRAN was chosen since it was the one scientific language almost universally available at any computer center in the U S at the time True to what I would later do in the industry I provided a plain English QDGS Primer to get people started and included it as an appendix to my thesis Another section of the thesis discussed three dimensional representation as the QDGS could do perspective drawings we made a few short films such as one showing a cube with writing on its faces rotating in space This is trivial now of course but few people were doing 3 D computer generated animation prior to 1970 A lot of the thesis was standard computer science math stuff with matrix calculations and formal grammars E g As a grammar it is context free and since it is self embedding it is clearly not regular But I will skip all that formal stuff More important from today s perspective is the observation that with character generators one has a limited choice of lettering sizes There is one orientation horizontal and no ability to introduce new characters Over the objection that I was sacrificing efficiency I decided that Within the QDGS no provision is made for the use of character generators although special programs could be devised If such provision were made what would be lost aside from hardware independence is the ability to have annotations in various sizes styles and proportions at any angle and position What also would be lost is the ability to treat characters with a full range of transformations available to other geometric shapes to create arbitrary characters as the need arises to make annotations part of a figure and thus moved about with the picture it annotates and the ability to squeeze justify fit and creatively use characters as picture elements in every way I went through this same argument again a decade later with Woz when he was designing the Apple II I argued that he should eliminate the character generator and do all character generation graphically but Woz didn t think that would work Jobs didn t understand what was so important about making computes graphics based I finally got the hardware architecture I wanted by making it a fundamental principle behind the Mac Back to my thesis to insure hardware independence I considered the effect of different raster sizes and how to compensate in a graphics system for different resolutions such that if the entire picture is scaled its appearance is the same no matter which device it is plotted or drawn on This all seems pretty modern but other things were primitive A small innovation but a nicety is that labels can be automatically centered Hard to believe that such an idea could ever have been an innovation Many people were surprised to find the graphic arts and typographical term fonts in a computer science thesis Computer scientists were not supposed to be interested in such things except as an eccentric hobby Most of my collegues had never heard of a font Now everybody who uses computers is aware of fonts there s the very word on the menu above this note I am writing The most heretical statement I made my advisor thought it questionable was that my work was based on a design and implementation philosophy which demanded generality and human usability over execution speed and efficiency This at a time when the main aim of computer science courses was to teach you to make programs run fast and use as little memory as possible Come to think of it maybe we should bring back some of those courses nowadays major companies can t seem to write a word processor in fewer than 8 megabytes When I put human usability as a major goal I was off on my own and did not find like minded computer scientists until I ran into them at PARC about six years later In fact the very term human usability didn t enter the computer science lexicon with any regularity until later The IBM Usability Lab opened in the early 1970 s and at first was mainly concerned with ergonomics Only a handful of people such as Sutherland Weinberg Gilb and Englebart seemed interested in the topic and I didn t learn of the work of the last three until after I had done my thesis Weinberg s ground breaking The Psychology of Computer Programming was published in 1971 The quantitative work of Card Moran and Newell became widely known with the publication of important book The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction It appeared in 1983 My thesis led up to a final illustration the opening measures from Beethoven s Variations on God Save the King for piano I had created the music font including an elegant slur generator and the software for using it as a side project I also designed and built a digitizer for putting existing scores into the computer when you pressed a button to indicate that you were pointing where you wanted it noisily punched out Hollerith cards on keypunch machines I had modified I am not sure that anybody had ever before used general purpose graphics devices to notate music The notation was not crude it looked enough like published music so that most people could not detect that it was computer generated The story of this work and a photo of the digitizer I built has been published As I said in my history of the Mac Project the one currently being serialized in CHAC the Mac was by no means the work of one person but the combined efforts of thousands in hundreds of companies large and small It was not as many accounts anachronistically relate stolen from PARC by Steve Jobs after he saw the Alto running SmallTalk on a visit For one thing the usual account as in Levy s book Insanely Great and others denigrates the original and creative work done by all the Apple employees that put their hearts into the Mac Most of the histories of the Mac were written without their authors interviewing the original team Brian Howard who contributed so much is always missed and the history of the Mac that Apple s own P R department dispensed was based on Jobs s version Many didn t speak with me without knowing that I had worked out many of the key usability ideas when Jobs was still in grade school and before there was a Xerox PARC to learn from it is perhaps understandable that people would find it necessary to invent a history that derives the Mac s genesis from the nearest similar work The honest intellectual debt the Mac owes to the work at PARC was not a case of highway robbery 1996 by Jef Raskin Used with permission According to Horn This tidbit is from Bruce is one of the original Macintosh Division engineers He co authored the Finder A short bio is at the end On Xerox Apple and Progress I ve been watching the debate for more than a decade now about where the Macintosh User Interface came from Most people assume that it was taken directly from Xerox after Steve Jobs went to visit This fact is reported over and over by people who don t know any better and also by people who should This just isn t true there are some similarities between the Apple interface and the various interfaces on Xerox systems but the differences are substantial Steve did see Smalltalk when he visited PARC He saw the Smalltalk integrated programming environment with the mouse selecting text popup menus windows and so on The Lisa group at Apple built a system based on their own ideas combined with what they could remember from seeing the Smalltalk demo and the Mac folks yet another There is a significant difference between using the Mac and Smalltalk or the Star I don t know if Steve ever saw that and none of the Mac group did before the Mac came out There was no Finder in Smalltalk

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  • Index of /~arnaud/pictures
    6 2K Blue Home gif 2008 11 13 20 30 1 0K FavIcon ico 2008 11 13 20 30 17K Flag en gif 2008 11 13 20 30 1 4K Flag fr gif 2008 11 13 20 30 646 Home gif 2008 11 13 20 30 1 0K Mail gif 2008 11 13 20 30 602 Picapao png 2008 11 13 20 30 4 6K bullet ball glass yellow png

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