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  • WC Home Page
    to address the issues affecting the Calo o sahatchee and Big Cypress watersheds The purpose of the Watershed Council is to ensure that the interests and concerns of all stakeholders are addressed and that long term management strategies balance the needs of this region s growth and the natural systems upon which our economy and quality of life depend To learn more about the goals of the Watershed Council visit our Information page Membership is open to all Any individual group or business that wants to ensure that decisions affecting the watershed are based on the best science available and balance the needs of all stakeholders should see our Membership form for more information on how to join Lee County Graphic Population Change since 1930 PowerPoint large file 12 4mb Today is A big thanks to Gregg Poulakis and his associates at FWC for making the presentation on smalltooth sawfish at our October meeting and to Dr Don Duke for making the arrangements at FGCU and with AWRA folks Over 70 were in attendance and we learned a great deal on the current status of this endangered species in the Caloosahatchee Estuary SWFWC letter to BOCC regarding 2015 2016 Lee budget items for water quality remediation John Cassani Water reform in Florida is deja vu SWFWC Letter to UF Water Institute on Moving Water South NEWS C 43 Reservoir construction back on Caloosa Belle 1 25 16 Ranchlands Continue Successful Transformation to Wetland s William E Gibson reports for the Sun Sentinel Water concerns topped the list when 1 251 adults statewide were asked to name the biggest environmental problem facing Florida The survey also found that two in three Floridians 66 percent believe the state should impose stricter environmental regulations Even more 72 percent favor stricter water quality rules

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  • SWFWC Information
    stakeholders in consensus building planning and decision making we are working to meet the economic natural and cultural needs for this and succeeding generations The Watersheds 4 203 Square Miles Major hydrological units Caloosahatchee River San Carlos Bay Estero Bay Corkscrew Swamp Big Cypress Swamp Ten Thousand Islands Counties Lee Collier Hendry Glades Charlotte Guiding Principals of the Watershed Council Stakeholder Partnerships Geographic Focus Sound Science Building Partnerships Between Public and Private Sector Between different levels of Government Between different water using sectors Between technical experts and laypeople Opportunities For Partners Pool financial and technical resources Gather scientific and socio economic data Chart a course for watershed conservation and restoration Implement protection and restoration Primary Benefits Improve coordination and promote integration among the various interests involved Facilitate policy development from good science Potential Products Develop regional database on water quality water levels and conditions Provide an Internet news and networking forum on agency and stakeholder activities in the region Create a forum for dispute resolution and consensus building Promote citizen based subwatershed associations Propose amendments to land use plans Sponsor research and educational seminars on water resource issues Develop a regional watershed management plan A COPY OF THE OFFICIAL REGISTRATION

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  • WC Library
    Within the Okeechobee Basin A Beginner s Guide to Water Management The ABCs Descriptions of Commonly Used Terms A Beginner s Guide to Water Management Water Clarity A Beginner s Guide to Water Management Nutrients Broad Leaf Arrowhead A Workhorse of the Wetland Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection A Citizen s Streambank Restoration Handbook The Clean Water Act An Owners Manual River Network Clean Water In Your Watershed A Citizens Guide To Watershed Protection Consensus Agreement On Model Development Principles To Protect Our Streams Lakes and Wetlands Effects of Long Term Disturbance on Riparian Vegetation and In Stream Characteristics Field Manual of Urban Stream Restoration First Flush of Stormwater Pollutants Investigated in Texas Florida Lake Management Society A Survey of Local Government Urban Lake Management Florida Lake Regions Florida LakeWatch Data Florida Yards And Neighborhoods Handbook A Guide to Environmentally Friendly Landscaping Fundamentals of Urban Runoff Management Technical and Institutional Issues Funding for Habitat Restoration Getting in Step A Guide to Effective Outreach in Your Watershed Groundwater Impacts of Golf Course Development in Cape Cod Ground Water and Surface Water A Single Resource U S Geological Survey Circular 1139 Hillsborough Stream Watch Keep It Clean A Citizens Guide to Protecting Our Estuary Know Your Watershed A Guide for Watershed Partnerships Building Local Partnerships Getting to Know your Local Watershed Leading Communicating Managing Conflict Putting Together A Watershed Management Plan Reflecting On Lakes State and Regional Watershed Contacts Land and Water The Magazine of Natural Resource Management and Restoration Landscaping A Guide to Environmentally Friendly Landscaping Florida Yards and Neighborhoods Handbook Lee Coast Water Quality Monitoring Stations Minimizing the Impact of Golf Courses on Streams Natural Resources Conservation Service USDA NRCS Ocklawaha Prairie Restoration Area Land Management Plan St Johns River Water Management District Organizing Lake Users A Practical Guide Peace River Water Quality Monitoring Project Pollutant Dynamics of Pond Muck Muck deposition influences design and maintenance of stormwater ponds Practical Bioengineering Applications in Watershed Management The Practice of Watershed Protection Techniques for protecting our nations s streams lakes rivers and estuaries Proceedings National Watershed Water Quality Project Symposium Rapid Watershed Planning Handbook A comprehensive Guide for Managing Urbanizing Watersheds Oct 1998 reprinted 1999 A Second Look at Porous Pavement Underground Recharge Is Rooftop Runoff Really Clean Save Our Streams Monitor s Guide to Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Save Our Streams Program Catalog A Second Look at Porous Pavement Underground Recharge Should Numerical Imperviousness Be Used to Zone Watersheds Open Forum devoted to the question of whether specific numerical limits on total watershed imperviousness are a practical and defensible zoning tool to protect stream quality in developing areas Stormwater Management A Guide for Floridians Stormwater Ponds A Citizens Guide to Their Purposes and Management Stormwater Strategies Community Responses to Runoff Pollution A Strategy for Evaluating In lake Treatment Effectiveness and Longevity Stream Care Guide Treatment of Stormwater Runoff From And Agricultural Basin by a Wet Detention Pond in Ruskin Florida Interim Report Trophic State A Waterbodies Ability to Support Plants

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  • WC Documents
    Reservation WC Letter to Janet Llewellyn 8 5 2010 DEP Response 100410 SFWMD 1008 SFWMD1108 SFWMD 0708 SFWMD 0908 SFWMD 0705 SFWMD 061704 Legislative Delegation Letter 041504 SFWMD Water Reservation Baseline Data 022004 SFWMD 042904 SFWMD Water Reservation Baseline Data Request 121103 FDEP Water Reservation Request Letter 061903 DEP072203 SenGraham071803 SFWMD WaterReseveration Comment Letter 082602 SFWMD Reseveration Request Letter 082202 DEP WRI Letter 081902 SFWMD CR Permit Letter 062702 Lee County Water Budget Concept Lee BOCC WB Letter of Support 022503 Water Budget Water Restrictions SFWMD Water Restrictions 012303 SFWMD Water Restrictions121202 Charlotte Harbor SWIM Designation SFWMD SWIM Thank You BG 022503 SFWMD SWIM Thank You Staff 022503 SFWMD CHSWIM 012303 Naples Bay SWIM Designation SFWMD Request 061903 SFWMD070103 Impaired Waters List Caloosahatchee Basin FDEP Letter March 2005 Impaired Waters List for the Caloosahatchee Basin Legislative Affairs Legislative Priorities for 2006 Senate Bill 1800 March 2005 Legislative Priorities for 2005 Legislative Delegation Meeting Letter 120303 Bennett Green Kyle Legislative Issues Letter 041403 Other Ceitus Overview August 2012 Presentation Presentation LORS 08 Revision Letter June 29 2011 Caloosahatchee BMAP Comments 11 5 10 Adaptive Protocols for Lake Okeechobee Ops C43 Reservoir Comments 102207 Closure of EPA Office in Southwest Florida Lake

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  • WC Links
    Basin Regional Research Database Project EPA s Top 10 Watershed Lessons Learned Caloosahatchee River Citizens Association CRCA EPA Office of Wetlands Oceans and Watersheds Calusa Restoration Coordination Team EPA National Estuary Program Center for Watershed Protection Everglades Restoration Plan National Sea Grant Sponsored Research Chesapeake Bay Foundation South Florida Restoration Science Forum Coastal Conservation Association of Florida South Florida Water Management District Water Resources Advisory Commission WRAC The Conservancy of Southwest Florida US Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed Trust USGS Water Resources of the US Eco Voice USGS Water Use in the United States Friends of Six Mile Cypress Slough Preserve US Fish and Wildlife Service Southeastern Region Journal for Water Quality Professionals The Nature Conservancy People United to Restore Our Rivers and Estuaries Pew Oceans Commission Stormwater Utility Links Public Private Partnerships for the Urban Environment PPPUE Florida Association of Stormwater Utilities Responsible Growth Management Coalition Stormwater Rocky Mountain Institute The Stormwater Manager s Resource Center Sanibel Captiva Conservation Foundation Storm Water Resources Site Six Mile Cypress Slough Preserve Other Watershed Organizations Southwest Florida Amphibian Monitoring Network American Rivers Southeast Environmental Research Center of FIU River Network The Sustainable Development Institute The Watershed Management Council

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  • Acronyms
    EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency www epa gov NGO Nongovernmental Organization SFWMD South Florida Water Management District www sfwmd gov SWFRPC Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council www swfrpc org SWFWMD Southwest Florida Water Management District www swfwmd gov Programs Activities ASR Aquifer Storage and Recovery www sfwmd gov org pld proj asr index html C 43 Caloosahatchee River CARL State of Florida s Conservation and Recreational Lands Program www dep state fl us stland oes carlmain htm CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan www evergladesplan org CWA Clean Water Act www epa gov region5 defs html cwa htm CWMP Caloosahatchee Water Management Plan www sfwmd gov org exo cwmp index html EIS Environmental Impact Statement MFL Minimum Flows and Levels www sfwmd gov org wsd mfl index html MGD Millions of Gallons per Day NEPA National Environmental Policy Act OFW Outstanding Florida Water www8 myflorida com environment learn waterprograms surfacewater ofw html PMP Project Management Plan TMDL Total Maximum Daily Load www epa gov OWOW TMDL USEPA and www dep state fl us water Florida DEP USGS United States Geological Survey http water usgs gov Local Regional National Water Resource Entities AWRA American Water Resources Association www awra org CNCP

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  • Final Restudy PMs Summary
    major public water supply wellfields are located in southern Miami Dade County This area was evaluated by using the stage duration curves for the following structures C 100A S 123 C 1 S 21 C 102 S 21A and C 103 S 20F D 6 4 1 Performance Measure Used in the Agricultural Area along the L 31N Six cells in the western areas of southern Miami Dade County were evaluated End of the month stage duration curves for 1983 1993 were used to compare an 11 year target stage duration curve to the 31 year stage duration curves for the bases and alternatives D 6 5 Northern Central Everglades Modifications to hydropatterns have resulted in adverse impacts on the flora and fauna inhabiting portions of the Everglades that now exist as Water Conservation and other managed areas The Performance Measures identified for use in the Restudy were developed to evaluate a plan s potential for protection and accretion of peat soils indicated by a low predicted occurrence of extreme low water depths more than 1 0 ft below ground surface persistence of tree island communities indicated by a low predicted frequency of extreme high water and an inundation pattern suitable for an Everglades sawgrass or ridge and slough marsh indicated by a number and mean duration of inundation events that either closely matched the target for that indicator region or that fell within the range of patterns predicted by the NSM for that landscape type The final set of Performance Measures used was 1 Inundation pattern number and mean duration of inundation periods 2 Extreme high water number and mean duration of high water events and 3 Extreme low events number and mean duration of low water events Target variable values for the performance measures were those predicted by NSM 4 5 Final with four exceptions 1 Indicator Region 17 performance was evaluated by comparing values to the average of NSM values for Indicator Regions 14 and 18 this was because the NSM depths in this indicator region had been identified during evaluation of alternatives 1 3 as being lower than desirable for this relatively pristine marsh area 2 LNWR the targets were 1995 Base values in keeping with the refuge s current regulation schedule 3 High water extremes the performance target was that the number and duration of events be less than or equal to NSM values and 4 Low water extremes the performance target was for frequencies and duration of events to be minimized The final evaluation classified the indicator regions into ten subregions that correspond to areas with distinct hydrologic performance These are 1 Loxahatchee NWR Indicator Regions 26 27 2 Holey Land Rotenberger WMAs Indicator Regions 28 29 3 WCA 2A Indicator Regions 24 25 4 WCA 2B Indicator Region 23 5 NW WCA 3A N of Alligator Alley W of Miami Canal Indicator Regions 20 22 6 Northeastern WCA 3A N of Alligator Alley E of Miami Canal Indicator Region 21 7 Eastern WCA 3A S of Alligator Alley E of Miami Canal Indicator Region 19 8 Central Southern WCA 3A S of A Alley W of Miami Canal Indicator Regions 14 17 18 9 WCA 3B Indicator Regions 15 16 and 10 Pennsuco Wetlands Indicator Regions 52 53 D 6 6 Southern Everglades Southern Everglades were was evaluated according to two regions Shark River Slough and Rockland Marl Marsh D 6 6 1 Shark River Slough Ecological values and indicators of restoration success in Shark River Slough that are linked to the hydrologic performance measures in the conceptual model include increased nesting success and abundance of American alligators and a corresponding increase in the number of occupied alligator holes to serve as drought refugia and to increase habitat heterogeneity increased population density of aquatic fauna increased abundance of wading birds and wood storks re establishment of coastal nesting colonies of wading birds and wood storks earlier timing of colony formation by wading birds and wood storks resumption of the return frequency of wading bird and white ibis super colonies enhanced production and community composition of periphyton accelerated accretion of peat soils and persistence and resilience of macrophyte and tree island plant communities including the cessation of sawgrass expansion into wet prairies and sloughs Priority performance measures for the ecological restoration of Shark River Slough are identified in the Everglades Sloughs Conceptual Model Those measures in order of priority are 1 duration of uninterrupted flooding 2 drought severity as measured by the duration of dry conditions 3 water depth during periods of flooding 4 total annual flow volume and 5 seasonal distribution of flow in mid Shark River Slough NSM4 5 Final NSM4 5F characterized Shark River Slough as a predominantly aquatic system that was continually flooded and flowing during wet and dry seasons and during wet years and all but the most extreme dry years NSM4 5F indicated that Shark River Slough would have dried only two three and six times during the 31 year period of record in the NE Mid and SW indicator regions yielding uninterrupted periods of inundation that averaged 535 401 and 226 weeks Water depths averaged 1 8 1 6 and 1 2 feet during periods of flooding in the three respective indicator regions Dry conditions lasted for an average of four three and six weeks respectively D 6 6 2 Rockland Marl Marsh Ecological values and indicators of restoration success in the Rockland Marl Marsh that are linked to the hydrologic performance measures in the Conceptual Model include re colonization and population resurgence by American alligators and a subsequent increase in the number of occupied alligator holes to serve as dry season refugia for aquatic fauna and to increase habitat heterogeneity increased population density of aquatic fauna increased seasonal abundance and foraging activity of wading birds and wood storks enhanced production and community composition of periphyton accelerated accretion of marl substrate increased nesting success and population size of Cape Sable seaside sparrows and persistence and resilience of highly diverse macrophyte and tree island plant communities Priority hydrologic performance measures for the ecological restoration of the Rockland Marl Marsh are identified in the Marl Prairie Rocky Glades Conceptual Model Those measures in order of priority are 1 duration of uninterrupted flooding 2 drought severity as measured by the duration of dry conditions and 3 number of wet season water level reversals when the depth drops to less than 0 2 feet during a period of flooding NSM4 5F characterized the Rockland Marl Marsh as a seasonally flooded system where water levels typically dropped below the ground surface during most years except during prolonged high rainfall periods when the marsh remained flooded for multiple years NSM4 5F indicated that uninterrupted periods of inundation averaged 44 weeks Only two wet season water level reversals occurred during 31 years Dry conditions lasted for an average of 26 weeks D 6 7 Florida Bay Ecological values and indicators of restoration success in the Florida Bay mangrove estuary and coastal basins that are linked to the hydrology salinity performance measures in the conceptual model include increased production of low salinity mangrove fish and invertebrates re establishment of coastal nesting colonies of wading birds and wood storks and eastern Florida Bay colonies of roseate spoonbill earlier timing of coastal colony formation by wading birds and wood storks resumption of the return frequency of wading bird and white ibis super colonies increased growth and survival of juvenile American crocodiles increased cover of low to moderate salinity aquatic macrophyte communities in coastal lakes and basins return of seasonal waterfowl aggregations to coastal lakes and basins enhanced nursery ground value for sport fishes and pink shrimp in coastal basins and persistence and resilience of the mangrove salt marsh and tidal creek vegetation mosaic Priority performance measures for the ecological restoration of the Florida Bay coastal basins are identified in the Florida Bay Mangrove Estuarine Transition Conceptual Model All performance measures are based on relationships between mean monthly salinity in five coastal basins from Joe Bay to North River Mouth to water stage at the P33 gage in mid Shark River Slough The final PMs used are 1 number of months during the period of record when stages equal or exceed 6 3 feet msl at P33 2 number of months during the period of record when stages equal or exceed 7 3 feet msl at the P33 gage 3 cumulative salinity difference ppt from the undesirable high salinity levels that were identified for each basin and 4 cumulative salinity difference ppt from desirable low salinity levels that were identified for each basin during the wet dry season months of August October D 6 8 Model Lands C 111 The Model Lands Alternatives Evaluation Matrix consists of the following performance indices which are applied to each of the four indicator regions in the Model Lands area 4 5 6 and 47 1 High water index The proportion of time that water levels are below the high water threshold which has been specified for the indicator region The target is 1 00 however proportions down to 0 90 are acceptable to allow for interannual variation This index quantifies the period of time that water levels are so high that they may stress the vegetation communities naturally characteristic of these areas 2 Low water index The proportion of time that water levels are above the specified low water threshold The target is 1 00 This criterion seeks to minimize the period of time that water levels are below a specified low water level 3 Extreme low water index The proportion of time that water levels less than 1 ft below the specified low water threshold Target is 1 00 Values near 1 indicate that dry season levels are above the extreme low water level almost all of the time Values closer to 0 indicate that dry season water levels typically fall at least another foot below the specified low water level 4 Relative dry period slope index Relative measure of the steepness of the slope of the stage duration curve during dry periods The index can vary from almost 0 very steep slope water levels drop dramatically during dry periods to approximately 1 0 slope shallow water levels relatively stable throughout the dry season Values closer to one are preferred 5 Wet season inundation pattern index Proportional measure of how many times during the 31 yr simulation that water levels drop below surface elevation during the July October portion of the wet season The best alternative received a score of 1 0 and the worst received a score of 0 0 This criterion gives a relative ranking for how many times the aquatic habitat is disrupted by dry downs during the core months of the wet season The months June and November were omitted from the analysis to allow for variation early and late in the season 6 Late wet season inundation index Proportional measure of how many times during the 31 yr simulation that autumn periods of inundation ended during the months of November and December This index was applied only to Indicator Region 5 Model Lands South which includes habitat critical for Roseate Spoonbill feeding A good year for wading bird feeding would be characterized by standing water in this indicator region well into January Premature drydowns in the early dry season in this region may severely reduce available food to support Roseate Spoonbill nesting The best alternative received a score of 1 0 and the worst received a score of 0 0 D 6 9 Big Cypress The Big Cypress area was evaluated as three areas North Big Cypress South Big Cypress and Southeast Big Cypress The following is a summary description of the PMs and problems by subarea D 6 9 1 North Big Cypress National Preserve Impacts in north Big Cypress are due primarily to agricultural development and its associated canals upstream north of this area However the results were suspect because there are model boundary problems with hydrologic model output in this area since the area to the north is included in the Natural System Model but not the South Florida Water Management Model PMs used were 1 Percent of North Big Cypress National Preserve that matches NSM mean NSM hydroperiod matches 100 This PM provides a spatial measure of one of the more impacted portions of the Big Cypress that lies along its northern border 2 Reduction in percent of time inundated from NSM condition based on indicator regions 42 43 This PM provides a measure of deviation from NSM hydroperiod for these indicator regions 3 Maximum deviation from NSM stage duration curve using indicator regions 42 43 This PM used normalized weekly stage duration curves to provide a measure of how much water levels have been altered from NSM conditions as a function of the NSM range of fluctuation for these indicator regions 4 Average flood duration for indicator regions 42 43 This PM provides a measure of deviation from NSM for average duration of individual flooding events for indicator regions 42 43 D 6 9 2 South Big Cypress National Preserve Final PMs used for the southern portion of the Preserve 1 Percent of South Big Cypress National Preserve that matches NSM mean NSM hydroperiod matches 100 This PM provides a spatial measure of the relatively unimpacted portion of the Big Cypress 2 Reduction in percent of time inundated from NSM condition based on indicator regions 31 and 36 40 This performance measure provides a measure of deviation from NSM hydroperiod for an indicator region 3 Maximum Deviation from NSM stage duration curve based on indicator regions 31 36 40 Normalized weekly stage duration Curves were used to measure how much water levels have been altered from NSM conditions as a function of the NSM range of fluctuation for the indicator regions 4 Average flood duration for indicator regions 31 36 40 This PM provides a measure of deviation from NSM for average duration of individual flooding events for indicator regions 31 36 40 5 Percent change in flow from NSM condition 100 Total flows during the wet and dry season for a flow cross section Eastern Big Cypress were used to express hydrologic conditions and how they changed in response to proposed alternatives D 6 9 3 Southeast Big Cypress Final PMs used for the southeast Big Cypress were 1 Reduction in percent of time inundated from NSM condition This PM provides a measure of deviation from NSM hydroperiod for indicator region 13 2 Maximum deviation from NSM stage duration curve This PM used normalized weekly stage duration curves to provide a measure of how much water levels have been altered from NSM conditions as a function of the NSM range of fluctuation for indicator region 13 3 Average flood duration for indicator region 13 This PM provides a measure of deviation from NSM for average duration of individual flooding events for indicator region 13 4 Percent change in flow from NSM condition 100 Total flows during the wet and dry season for a flow cross section Lostman s Slough were used to express hydrologic conditions and how they changed in response to proposed alternatives D 6 10 Caloosahatchee Estuary Caloosahatchee Estuary has been adversely impacted by extreme water delivery events from Lake Okeechobee and local drainage basins These events cause extreme ranges in salinity as well as severe physical alterations within the estuary The following are the final performance measures used 1 Minimum mean monthly flows less than 300 cfs This PM is based on the number of times the minimum mean monthly flows from the lake and watershed fall below 300 cfs at S 79 Insufficient fresh water discharges had direct effects on estuarine seagrasses fish and invertebrates including critical indicator species e g Vallisneria by enabling the estuary to become too saline 2 Mean monthly freshwater discharges exceeding 2 800 cfs This PM is based on the number of times mean monthly flow exceeds 2 800 cfs as measured at S 79 High volume discharges to the estuary contribute to poor estuarine water quality conditions including increased turbidity color and violation of favorable salinity envelopes These conditions have direct effects on estuarine seagrasses by reducing light penetration necessary for photosynthesis destroying fish and invertebrate habitat and contributing to unfavorable salinities for aquatic vegetation fish and invertebrates including critical indicator species e g the American oyster turtle grass and Vallisneria 3 Fresh water discharges exceeding 4 500 cfs This performance measure is based on the number of times mean monthly flows exceed 4 500 cfs at S 79 Mean monthly flows above 4 500 cfs results in freshwater conditions throughout the entire estuary causing impacts to estuarine biota This volume of flow also begins to reduce water quality and adversely impact biota in San Carlos Bay 4 Zone A discharges from Lake Okeechobee This PM is based on the number of days of Zone A discharges from the lake measured as 7 800 cfs per day at S 79 Zone A discharges have rapid and serious effects on estuarine seagrasses in the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and San Carlos Bay by reducing light penetration necessary for photosynthesis destroying fish and invertebrate habitat and contributing to unfavorable salinities for estuarine biota D 6 11 St Lucie Estuary The St Lucie Estuary receives freshwater inputs both through interbasin transfer from Lake Okeechobee and from local watershed contributions The maintenance of flows to the estuary to achieve the appropriate salinity regime therefore must manage both watershed runoff and regulatory flows from Lake Okeechobee Final PMs used were 1 Minimum flows mean monthly flows 350 cfs This PM is based on the number of months the mean monthly flows fall below 350 cfs The target is to have no more than 50 months with mean monthly flow less than 350 cfs Insufficient freshwater discharges during the dry season contribute to reduced estuarine productivity Minimum levels of inflow and nutrients usually occur at the

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  • Final Restudy PMs Details
    Submitted Revised June 1998 General Planning Objective The re distribution of flow into Shark River Slough with subsequent restoration of extended duration of uninterrupted flooding brief duration of dry conditions water depth pattern and overland flow volume and timing characteristic of the pre drainage system is among the highest priorities for ecosystem restoration in the southern Everglades The conceptual models identify drought severity as the second most important hydrologic variable for ecological restoration in the Everglades Region The mean duration of dry events is applied as a performance measure to the Shark River Slough and Rockland Marl Marsh indicator regions Restoration Goal Increased nesting success and abundance of American alligators and a corresponding increase in the number of occupied alligator holes to serve as drought refugia and to increase habitat heterogeneity 2 increased population density of aquatic fauna 3 increased abundance of wading birds and wood storks 4 re establishment of coastal nesting colonies of wading birds and wood storks 5 delay syn in timing of colony formation by wading birds and wood storks 6 resumption of the return frequency of wading bird and white ibis super colonies 7 enhanced production and community composition of periphyton 8 accelerated accretion of marl and peat soils 9 persistence and resilience of macrophyte and tree island plant communities including the cessation of sawgrass expansion into wet prairies and sloughs and 10 increased nesting success and population size of Cape Sable seaside sparrows Problem Addressed Drought severity affects the ability of aquatic fauna to survive dry conditions in alligator holes and solution holes the intensity of wild fires and the loss of peat soil in the Everglades Model Target Mean duration of dry events indicated by NSM45F Model Output Format Drought severity is most clearly indicated by 2X2 model output as the duration of dry conditions Dry events are defined as times when the water level drops either to zero or a negative value below the ground surface Two dry events that are separated by a flood event when the water level rises to less than 0 2 feet above the ground surface are grouped as one dry event because such a minor flood event has been observed to impair the establishment of populations of aquatic organisms In that case the duration of the dry event is calculated as the sum of the two dry events and the intermittent flood event The performance measure is the mean duration of all dry events during the 31 year period of record It is given a weighting of two when averaged with the other performance measures for these regions Evaluation Tools The South Florida Water Management Model and Natural System Model should be used to evaluate Indicator Regions Rockland Marl Marsh SW Shark Slough Mid Shark Slough NE Shark Slough Literature Cited Authors Contributors Author Steve Davis Contributors South Florida Water Management District and Everglades National Park staff Final document will identify individual contributers Category Ecological Performance Measure Number of Dry Events Note Since reduction in the number of dry events became a priority in the modeling leading to Alternative D13 it was added as a performance measure to replace mean duration of flooding Date Submitted Revised June 1998 General Planning Objective The conceptual models identify drought severity as the second most important hydrologic variable for ecological restoration in the Everglades Region Number of dry events is applied as a performance measure to the Shark River Slough Restoration Goal Increased nesting success and abundance of American alligators and a corresponding increase in the number of occupied alligator holes to serve as drought refugia and to increase habitat heterogeneity 2 increased population density of aquatic fauna 3 increased abundance of wading birds and wood storks 4 re establishment of coastal nesting colonies of wading birds and wood storks 5 delay syn in timing of colony formation by wading birds and wood storks 6 resumption of the return frequency of wading bird and white ibis super colonies 7 enhanced production and community composition of periphyton 8 accelerated accretion of peat soils 9 persistence and resilience of macrophyte and tree island plant communities including the cessation of sawgrass expansion into wet prairies and sloughs Problem Addressed Drought severity affects the ability of aquatic fauna to survive dry conditions in alligator holes and solution holes the intensity of wild fires and the loss of peat soil in the Everglades Model Target The target is not to exceed the number of dry events indicated by NSM45F Model Output Format Dry events are defined as times when the water level drops either to zero or a negative value below the ground surface Two dry events that are separated by a flood event when the water level rises to less than 0 2 feet above the ground surface are grouped as one dry event because such a minor flood event has been observed to impair the establishment of populations of aquatic organisms In that case the duration of the dry event is calculated as the sum of the two dry events and the intermittent flood event This performance measure calculates the number of dry events during the 31 year period of record Evaluation Tools The South Florida Water Management Model and Natural System Model should be used to evaluate Indicator Regions SW Shark Slough Mid Shark Slough NE Shark Slough Literature Cited Authors Contributors Author Steve Davis Contributors South Florida Water Management District and Everglades National Park staff Final document will identify individual contributers Category Ecological Performance Measure Mean Depth During Flooding Date Submitted Revised June 1998 General Planning Objective The water mean depth during periods of flooding was identified in the Everglades Sloughs Conceptual Model as relevant to the community composition of wetland vegetation to the establishment survival and community composition of aquatic fauna and to the freshwater head driving flows toward Florida Bay While the mean depth during flooding is important in these regards it is not considered to be as high a priority in the restoration of ecological values as duration of flooding or drought severity in the southern Everglades Region The mean depth during flooding is applied as a performance measure only to Shark River Slough Indicator Regions 9 10 and 11 Restoration Goal Increased nesting success and abundance of American alligators and a corresponding increase in the number of occupied alligator holes to serve as drought refugia and to increase habitat heterogeneity 2 increased population density of aquatic fauna 3 increased abundance of wading birds and wood storks 4 re establishment of coastal nesting colonies of wading birds and wood storks 5 delay syn in timing of colony formation by wading birds and wood storks 6 resumption of the return frequency of wading bird and white ibis super colonies 7 enhanced production and community composition of periphyton 8 accelerated accretion of peat soils 9 persistence and resilience of macrophyte and tree island plant communities including the cessation of sawgrass expansion into wet prairies and sloughs Problem Addressed Shark River Slough represents the largest drainage basin in the southern Everglades and contains most of the ridge and slough peatland landscape within Everglades National Park Pre drainage Shark River Slough was the classic river of grass a nearly continuously flowing and flooded peatland Multi year periods of flooding in Shark River Slough punctuated by infrequent and brief dry conditions provided a year round aquatic ecosystem that produced peat deposits drove the hydrology of adjacent rockland and marl marshes provided a drought refugium for aquatic organisms from the adjacent shorter hydroperiod wetlands and influenced the salinity regimes in the coastal basins of Florida Bay The re distribution of flow into Shark River Slough with subsequent restoration of extended duration of uninterrupted flooding brief duration of dry conditions water depth pattern and overland flow volume and timing characteristic of the pre drainage system is among the highest priorities for ecosystem restoration in the southern Everglades Model Target The target is the mean depth indicated by NSM45F Model Output Format To be consistent with the definition for the duration of flooding only events when the water depth averaged at least 0 2 feet are included in the calculation The performance measure is the mean depth of all flood events during the 31 year period of record It is given a weighting of one when averaged with the other performance measures for Shark River Slough Evaluation Tools The South Florida Water Management Model and Natural System Model should be used to evaluate Indicator Regions SW Shark Slough Mid Shark Slough NE Shark Slough Literature Cited Authors Contributors Author Steve Davis Contributors South Florida Water Management District and Everglades National Park staff Final document will identify individual contributers Category Ecological Performance Measure Wet Season Water Level Reversals Date Submitted Revised June 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Marl Prairie Rocky Marl Marsh Conceptual Model developed by the SERA Natural Systems Team and addresses several hydrologic and ecologic planning objectives identified by the Governors s Commission for a Sustainable South Florida in the C SF Project Restudy Conceptual Plan Region The number of wet season reversals is applied as a performance measure only to the Rockland Marl Marsh since reversals were not found to apply to Shark River Slough in the model outputs Restoration Goal Recover natural system pattern of wet season reversals Problem Addressed A wet season water level reversal is defined as an incident during a period of flooding when water depth recedes to less than 0 2 feet but then rebounds to greater than 0 2 feet without the marsh drying completely A reversal is distinguished from a dry period in that during a reversal water depth does not drop to or below the ground surface The Marl Prairie Rocky Glades Conceptual Model identifies a critical ecological pathway triggered when water depth drops to less than 0 2 feet during a period of flooding aquatic fauna population densities decline survivors retreat to refugia in solution holes or alligator holes and population recovery is slowed Model Target The target is not to exceed the number of reversals indicated by NSM45F Model Output Format The performance measure is the total number of reversals during the 31 year period of record It is given a weighting of one when averaged with the other performance measures for the Rockland Marl Marsh Evaluation Tools The South Florida Water Management Model and Natural System Model should be used to evaluate the Rockland Marl Marsh Indicator region 8 Literature Cited Authors Contributors Author Steve Davis Contributors South Florida Water Management District and Everglades National Park staff Final document will identify individual contributers Category Ecological Performance Measure Total Annual Overland Flow Volume Mid Shark River Slough Date Submitted Revised June 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Everglades Sloughs Conceptual Model developed by the SERA Natural Systems Team and addresses several hydrologic and ecologic planning objectives identified by the Governors s Commission for a Sustainable South Florida in the C SF Project Restudy Conceptual Plan Region The total annual overland flow volume is applied as a performance measure only to a cross section in mid Shark River Slough Restoration Goal The re distribution of flow into Shark River Slough with subsequent restoration of extended duration of uninterrupted flooding brief duration of dry conditions water depth pattern and overland flow volume and timing characteristic of the pre drainage system Problem Addressed The annual overland flow volume down Shark River Slough provides a measure of the total contribution of the Slough to freshwater inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay estuaries Flow volume also relates to duration of flooding and water depth within the Slough Model Target The target is the annual overland flow volume indicated by NSM45F Model Output Format The monthly volumetric flow rate is simulated as the volume passing a section perpendicular to the direction of flow The cross section is taken across the entire width and depth of flow in mid Shark River Slough The total annual flow volume is determined by summing the monthly flow values The total annual flow volume is averaged over the 31 year period of record The performance measure is the mean annual flow volume expressed as percent of the NSM45F flow volume It is given a weighting of one when averaged with the other performance measures for Shark River Slough because of the higher level of uncertainty in NSM45F simulations of flow compared to other parameters Evaluation Tools The South Florida Water Management Model and Natural System Model should be used to evaluate a cross section taken across the entire width and depth of flow in mid Shark River Slough Literature Cited Authors Contributors Author Steve Davis Contributors South Florida Water Management District and Everglades National Park staff Final document will identify individual contributers Category Ecological Performance Measure Salt Intrusion Front Movement and Groundwater Flows to Biscayne Bay Date Submitted Revised August 1998 General Planning Objective This measure addresses Governor s Commission for a Sustainable South Florida general planning objectives 1 Restore more natural hydropatterns including associated sheetflow and 2 Provide more natural quality and quantity timing and distrubutuion of freshwater flow to and through the natural Everglades Region This performance measure addresses groundwater flows into Biscayne Bay and affects LEC Service Area 3 Restoration Goal The restoration target is to restore to the extent possible the hydraulic head which drives groundwater flows to Biscayne Bay Preliminary analysis of the existing Miami Dade County water quality database for Biscayne Bay indicates that some groundwater flows may occur during periods of high rainfall or during wet years This is an indication that it may be possible to increase groundwater flows to the bay by raising watershed groundwater levels to the extent possible without triggering flood control measures Problem Addressed Biscayne Bay historically received a large portion of its freshwater inputs from groundwater Groundwater seeps and springs were are located throughout the bay and historically freshwater entered the bay in a more or less distributed manner Drainage of the watershed for flood control lowered regional groundwater levels and reduced the hydraulic head west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge which drove these flows The result has been a reduction in the freshwater inputs from groundwater and an increase in the proportion of the freshwater budget which is provided through surface water flows from the canals The current surface water flows constitute a point source discharge and although the freshwater is required to maintain estuarine conditions the distribution and timing of the point source discharges cause large local variations in salinity which are harmful to marine and estuarine biota Model Target The following target groundwater levels which are based on the Ghyben Herzberg relationship would therefore represent the direction in which groundwater levels need to be raised in order to create a more desirable hydraulic head for driving increased groundwater flows to Biscayne Bay Alternatives that improve conditions over base or future base i e where the groundwater levels more closely approach the Ghyben Herzberg relationship are preferable to those where conditions are equal to or worse than base or future base It should be noted that direct comparisons of target groundwater levels calculated with the Ghyben Herzberg relationship and the LEC Minimum Levels should not be made The LEC Minimum Levels are for canal stages at the specified structures the groundwater levels for the surrounding land will be higher Cell Cluster Approximate Depth to the Base of the Biscayne Aquifer Target Groundwater Levels based on the Ghyben Herzberg Relationship Average Topography for Cell Cluster from Topography for SFWMM LEC Minimum Flows and Levels Canal Structure North Bay 1 180 ft between G 3300 and the Snake Creek C 9 Canal 4 5 NGVD 9 61 NGVD 2 00 C 9 S 29 North Bay 2 130 ft at mouth of the Miami Canal 3 25 NGVD 8 25 NGVD 2 50 C 6 S 26 Central Bay 110 ft at Snapper Creek 2 75 NGVD 10 26 NGVD 2 50 C 2 S 22 South Bay 85 ft at G 3316 2 13 NGVD 5 1 NGVD None Set Source Fish J E and M Stewart 1991 Hydrogeology of the Surficial Aquifer System Dade County Florida U S Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 90 4108 50 pp Model Output Format Area of Interest Four blocks of WMM model cells distributed along the western shoreline of Biscayne Bay The cell clusters are as follows North Bay Block 1 R28 C36 R27 C36 R27 C35 R26 C35 North Bay Block 2 R24 C34 R23 C34 Central Bay Block R21 C33 R20 C33 R20 C32 R19 C32 R19 C31 South Bay Block R14 C30 R13 C30 R12 C30 R12 C29 North Bay 1 is centered over the Atlantic Coastal Ridge is bisected by the Biscayne C 8 Canal and is composed predominantly of higher elevation uplands North Bay 2 is centered over the Miami River but intersects the Atlantic Coastal Ridge at the extreme north and south ends and therefore is composed predominantly of moderate to low lying uplands Central Bay Block is centered over the Snapper Creek C 6 Canal and is composed predominantly of higher elevation uplands South Bay Block is located between Cutler Ridge and the north end of the Model Lands Basin and is composed almost entirely of low lying uplands and wetlands Groundwater stage hydrographs weekly averages and groundwater stage duration curves over the period of record averaged for each of the cell blocks Average elevation for each cluster and the Ghyben Herzberg relationship for that location based on the aquifer depth at that location provided below should be displayed as horizontal lines superimposed on the hydrographs and stage duration curves Although similar to the salt intrusion performance measures for the LEC this measure is different because it looks at area groundwater levels rather than canal stages Bar graph showing the number of times weekly average groundwater levels equal or exceed the Ghyben Herzberg relationship for that cell block over the period of record Alternatives with higher numbers of events would provide higher groundwater flows to Biscayne Bay than alternatives with lower numbers or no events Although more appropriate for a static aquifer the Ghyben Herzberg relationship depth to the saltwater interface below sea level in a coastal aquifer is 40 times the elevation of the water table above sea level at the same location can be used as a first approximation for the groundwater levels necessary to maintain freshwater conditions to the base of the aquifer The LEC Water Supply Plan Committee proposed minimum canal stages for the C 9 C 6 and C 2 to prevent salt intrusion to the Biscayne Aquifer but modified the levels projected by this relationship based on information that the equation would overestimate the head needed in a flowing system SFWMD 1997 Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Mulliken J D and J A VanArman eds 1995 Biscayne Bay Surface Water Improvement and Management Technical Supporting Document South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach FL 178 Pp plus appendices Parker G G G E Ferguson S K Love and others 1955 Water Resources of Southeastern Florida Water Supply Paper 1255 U S Geological Survey Washington D C 965 Pp Authors Contributors Gwen Burzycki DERM Contributors Kevin Kotun DERM Category Flood Control Performance Measure End of Month Stage Duration Curve1983 1993 Date Submitted Revised February 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure addresses the general planning objective identified by the Governor s Commission for a Sustainable South Florida in the Conceptual Plan for the C SF Project establish levels of provided flood protection in terms of frequency depth and duration Region C 111 Basin Restoration Goal Provide flood protection to the area east of the L 31N and C 11 canals and south of Richmond Drive Problem Addressed The property east of the L 31N and C 111 canals south of Richmond Drive was provided a beneficial level of flood protection during the 1983 to 1993 period by the way those two canals were operated During that period water levels were raised during the dry months without causing increased water levels during the wet periods Limited data from 1994 1996 indicate that Experimental Water Deliveries Program tests 6 and 7 have not achieved this objective Farmers in the area have experienced a decreased ability to eliminate excess stormwater from their fields An occurrence of ground water stage within two 2 feet of the ground surface for a duration of greater than 24 hours is considered a flood event with the potential for causing agircultural crop loss The SFWMM has no capability to directly measure flood control on individual fields or during relatively short events Peak stage difference maps have been developed to provide a general indication of the estimated changes in simulated peak stages that result from an alternative scenario They cannot be used as a performance measure for changes in flooding risk at a particular location for a specific storm event Model Target The 1983 93 portion of the stage duration curve taken from the model calibration and validation runs for each of the five 5 indicator cells in the southern Dade area Model Output Format Stage duration curve described above Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Authors Contributors Tom MacVicar Carol Drungil Linda McCarthy SFWMD s Agricultural Advisory Committee Lorraine Heisler Cal Neidrauer Category Ecological Performance Measure Daily Hydrograph with Spring Water Recession Windows Date Submitted Revised January 14 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure addresses one of the preferred options for ecosystem restoration of the Lake Okeechobee Area identified by the Governor s Commission for a Sustainable South Florida to restore more natural fluctuations of lake levels with no significant impacts to the littoral zone It also addresses several general planning objectives identified in the conceptual plan for the C SF Project Restudy improve habitat quality and heterogeneity and restore more natural hydropatterns Region Lake Okeechobee Restoration Goal Optimize intra year variation in lake levels to provide a healthy ecosystem for wading birds and other wildlife Problem Addressed Research conducted in the comprehensive Lake Okeechobee Ecosystem Study LOES indicated that a certain degree of seasonal variation in lake levels is necessary to maintain a healthy ecosystem Aumen and Wetzel 1995 In particular studies dealing with wading bird nesting and food resource forage fish utilization indicated that a spring January through May recession in lake levels from near 15 ft to below 12 ft with no reversal greater than 0 5 ft during that period would optimize the health of those animal populations Smith et al 1995 Smith and Callopy 1995 Receding lake levels in spring serve to concentrate prey resources at a time when birds are searching for food for their offspring Avoiding reversals during that time period is critical because birds select nesting sites on the basis of current lake levels and their sense of where lake levels are going in the future Reversals sudden increases in lake level following a period of decline are unexpected events that can flood out and destroy nests Reversals also can interfere with the reproductive cycle of other animals e g the apple snail which lay eggs on emergent plant stems Spring lake level recessions to below 12 ft also benefit the ecosystem by invigorating willow stands a critical nesting habitat for wood stork and allowing fires to burn away cattail thatch Model Target The general goal is to achieve a hydropattern for the lake that results in as many years as possible with spring lake level recessions falling within the windows of the performance indicator graph However it is unclear how many total years out of 30 would be the ideal case Model Output Format A 30 year daily stage hydrograph for the 1995 and 2050 base conditions and each water supply Alternative overlaid by windows spanning the 12 15 ft depth and Jan May seasonal ranges Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Aumen N G and R G Wetzel 1995 Ecological studies on the littoral and pelagic systems of Lake Okeechobee Florida USA Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Advances in Limnology Volume 45 356 pp Smith J P and M W Callopy 1995 Colony turnover nest success and productivity and causes of nest failure among wading birds at Lake Okeechobee Florida 1989 1992 Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Advances in Limnology 45 287 316 Smith J P J R Richardson and M W Callopy 1995 Foraging habitat selection among wading birds at Lake Okeechobee Florida in relation to hydrology and vegetative cover Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Advances in Limnology 45 247 285 Authors Contributors Karl E Havens and Barry H Rosen South Florida Water Management District Contributors Robert Pace USFWS Lorraine Heisler GFC Category Ecological Performance Measure Similarity in Duration of Lake Stages 15 ft Date Submitted Revised January 14 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Lake Okeechobee Conceptual Model It addresses the general planning objective improve habitat quality and heterogeneity identified in the conceptual plan for the C SF Project Restudy Region Lake Okeechobee Restoration Goal Minimize the frequency of prolonged events lake stages exceed 15 ft for more than 12 continuous months that may limit light penetration to the lake bottom Problem Addressed Prolonged moderate high lake levels 15 ft are harmful to the lake s ecological and societal values including the recreational fishery birds and other wildlife the native vegetation mosaic recreation ecotourism and water quality Havens and Rosen 1997 Such events result in loss of submerged plant communities due to light limitation Steinman et al 1998 increase the lake wide phosphorus concentrations Havens 1998 and may cause an increased frequency of algal blooms in near shore areas Maceina 1993 Model Target The objective is to avoid prolonged high water level conditions that result in the adverse impacts described above in order to protect the lake s ecological and societal values From the standpoint of these objectives the optimal output would be a box spanning the range from approximately 0 to 90 days 3 months and whiskers not reaching beyond 180 days 6 months Model Output Format Box whisker plots showing duration statistics median maximum minimum 25 and 75th percentile duration in days for lake stages in excess of 15 ft for a historic period the 1995 and 2050 base cases and each proposed water supply Alternative for the 30 year period of record Each lake regulation schedule alternative will be compared to the period of historical record 1950 1972 Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Havens K E 1997 Water levels and total phosphorus in Lake Okeechobee Lake and Reservoir Management 13 16 25 Havens K E and B H Rosen 1997 A conceptual model for Lake Okeechobee Society for Ecological Restoration Conference Ft Lauderdale Florida Maceina M J 1993 Summer fluctuations in planktonic chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Okeechobee Florida the influence of lake levels Lake and Reservoir Management 8 1 11 Steinman A D R H Meeker A J Rodusky W P Davis and S J Hwang 1998 Ecological properties of Charophytes in a large subtropical lake Journal of the North American Benthological Society in press Authors Contributors Karl E Havens and Barry H Rosen South Florida Water Management District Contributors Robert Pace USFWS Lorraine Heisler GFC Category Ecological Performance Measure Similarity in Duration of Lake Stages 12 ft Date Submitted Revised January 14 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Lake Okeechobee Conceptual Model It addresses the general planning objective improve habitat quality and heterogeneity identified in the conceptual plan for the C SF Project Restudy Region Lake Okeechobee Restoration Goal Minimize the frequency of prolonged events lake stage falls below 12 feet for longer than 12 continuous months that substantially reduce the littoral area available as wildlife habitat and promote exotic plant expansion Problem Addressed Prolonged moderate low 12 ft lake levels are harmful to the lake s ecological and societal values including the recreational fishery birds and other wildlife the native vegetation mosaic recreation ecotourism and water quality Havens and Rosen 1997 At lake levels below 12 ft over 70 of the marsh is dry and cannot function as a habitat for fish birds or other wildlife SFWMD 1997 These conditions also are favorable for expansion of exotic plants into native plant dominated regions of the marsh Thayer and Haller 1990 Lockhart 1995 Model Target The objective is to avoid prolonged low water level conditions that result in the adverse impacts described above in order to protect the lake s ecological and societal values From the standpoint of these objectives the optimal output would be a box spanning the range from approximately 0 to 90 days 3 months and whiskers not reaching beyond 180 days 6 months Model Output Format Box whisker plots showing duration statistics median maximum minimum 25 and 75th percentile durations in days for lake stages below 12 ft for a historic period the 1995 and 2050 base cases and each proposed water supply Alternative for the 30 year period of record of each lake regulation schedule alternative will be compared to the period of historical record 1950 1972 Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Havens K E and B H Rosen 1997 A conceptual model for Lake Okeechobee Society for Ecological Restoration Conference Ft Lauderdale Florida Lockhart C S 1995 The effect of water level variation on the growth of Melaleuca seedlings from the Lake Okeechobee littoral zone MS Thesis Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton Florida SFWMD 1997 Surface water improvement and management SWIM plan update for Lake Okeechobee South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach Florida Thayer P L and W T Haller 1990 Fungal pathogens Phoma and Fusarium associated with declining populations of torpedo grass growing under high water stress Proceedings of the European Water Research Society 8 th Symposium on Aquatic Weeds pp 209 214 Authors Contributors Karl E Havens and Barry H Rosen South Florida Water Management District Contributors Robert Pace USFWS Lorraine Heisler GFC Category Ecological Performance Measure Similarity in Duration of Lake Stages 11 ft Date Submitted Revised January 14 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Lake Okeechobee Conceptual Model It addresses the general planning objective improve habitat quality and heterogeneity identified in the conceptual plan for the C SF Project Restudy Region Lake Okeechobee Restoration Goal Minimize the frequency of extremely low lake stages 11 ft that result in a loss of the littoral zone as habitat for aquatic biota and promote expansion of exotic plants into pristine native plant dominated regions of the lake Problem Addressed Extreme low lake levels 11 ft of any duration are harmful to the lake s ecological and societal values including the recreational fishery birds and other wildlife the native vegetation mosaic recreation ecotourism and water quality Havens and Rosen 1997 Low lake levels dry out critical marsh habitat and may permit the more rapid expansion of exotic plants Meleleuca and torpedo grass into regions still occupied by native plant communities Thayer and Haller 1990 Lockhart 1995 At lake levels 11 ft nearly 95 of the littoral zone is dry including the Mooneshine Bay region This region is of particular concern since it is a prime habitat for snail kite and a last refuge for these federally endangered birds as well as other species during regional droughts Bennetts and Kitchens 1997 At present Moonshine Bay is an excellent habitat because it is dominated by spike rush Eleocharis and bladderwort Utricularia which provide considerable open water habitat for forage fish and substrates for apple snail eggs If the region should be overtaken by torpedo grass whose expansion into new areas appears to be hindered by standing water Thayer and Haller 1990 these habitat values could be lost Model Target The objective is to avoid the extreme low water level conditions that result in the adverse impacts described above in order to protect the lake s ecological and societal values From the standpoint of these objectives the optimal output would be no such events i e all attributes of the box whisker plot below zero Model Output Format Box whisker plots showing duration statistics median maximum minimum 25 and 75th percentile durations in days for a historic period the 1995 and 2050 base cases and each proposed water supply Alternative for the 30 year period of record of each lake regulation schedule alternative will be compared to the period of historical record 1950 1972 Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Bennett R E and W M Kitchens The demography and movements of snail kites in Florida Technical Report 56 United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division Talahassee Florida Havens K E and B H Rosen 1997 A conceptual model for Lake Okeechobee Society for Ecological Restoration Conference Ft Lauderdale Florida Lockhart C S 1995 The effect of water level variation on the growth of Melaleuca seedlings from the Lake Okeechobee littoral zone MS Thesis Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton Florida Thayer P L and W T Haller 1990 Fungal pathogens Phoma and Fusarium associated with declining populations of torpedo grass growing under high water stress Proceedings of the European Water Research Society 8 th Symposium on Aquatic Weeds pp 209 214 Authors Contributors Karl E Havens and Barry H Rosen South Florida Water Management District Contributors Robert Pace USFWS Lorraine Heisler GFC Category Ecological Performance Measure Similarity in Duration of Lake Stages 17ft Date Submitted Revised January 14 1998 General Planning Objective This performance measure is linked to the Lake Okeechobee Conceptual Model It addresses the general planning objective improve habitat quality and heterogeneity identified in the conceptual plan for the C SF Project Restudy Region Lake Okeechobee Restoration Goal Minimize the frequency of extreme high lake stage events 17ft that may cause wind and wave damage to the shoreline plant communities and transport phosphorus laden pelagic water into pristine interior regions of the littoral zone Problem Addressed When lake levels reach this extreme high the following impacts can be expected in addition to those occurring when lake levels exceed 15 ft damage to bulrush and other shoreline plant communities by wind and waves and transport of nutrients into the pristine littoral marsh with nutrient induced changes in periphyton plant and animal communities Model Target The goal is to have zero events Model Output Format Box whisker plots showing duration statistics median maximum minimum 25 and 75th percentile durations in days for a historic period the 1995 and 2050 base cases and each proposed water supply Alternative for the 30 year period of record Each lake regulation schedule alternative will be compared to the period of historical record 1950 1972 Evaluation Tools SFWMM Literature Cited Bennett R E and W M Kitchens The demography and movements of snail kites in Florida Technical Report 56 United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division Talahassee Florida Fry B P L Mumford F Tam D D Fox G L Warren K E Havens and A D Steinman 1998 Trophic position and individual feeding histories of fish from Lake Okeechobee Florida Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences in review Havens K E 1997 Water levels and total phosphorus in Lake Okeechobee Lake and Reservoir Management 13 16 25 Havens K E and B H Rosen 1997 A conceptual model for Lake Okeechobee Society for Ecological Restoration Conference Ft Lauderdale Florida Havens K E T L East S J Hwang A J Rodusky B Sharfstein and A D Steinman 1998 Algal responses to nutrients in a littoral mesocosm experiment Oikos in review Lockhart C S 1995 The effect of water level variation on the growth of Melaleuca seedlings from the Lake Okeechobee littoral zone MS Thesis Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton Florida Maceina M J 1993 Summer fluctuations in planktonic chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Okeechobee Florida the influence of lake levels Lake and Reservoir Management 8 1 11 Steinman A D R H Meeker A J Rodusky W P Davis and S J Hwang 1998 Ecological properties of Charophytes in a large subtropical lake Journal of the North American

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