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    NantucketBrief NewtonBrief Nitrosamines ParticulateMatter Phthalates Players View PrecautionaryPrinciple Process SanFranciscoBrief Say No SciaccaHeatStudy Silica Staph TurfBrief StaphNews Vandalism Warnings WaterDamage Weights Measures WellesleyBrief WestmountBrief WestportBrief WrapUp Articles Zinc Contact Summary of Environmental Health and Safety Issues Associated with Artificial Turf Document Review Comments and Opinion by Braun Intertec Corporation Project BL 08 00843 February 27 2008 On February 22 23 2008 the Friends of Riverfront www ourbeautifulriver org a Minneapolis advocacy group commissioned Braun Intertec Corporation to look into the environmental health and safety issues associated with artificial turf fields The recent proposal to install an artificial turf field on Nicollet Island provided the context for the study Braun Intertec www braunintertec com is an engineering and environmental consulting company in Minneapolis Minn For background on the Nicollet Island project see http www synturf org sayno html Item No 13 and references cited therein On February 27 2008 the Senior Industrial Hygienist for Braun Intertec Gregory Olson issued a four page report that contained a review of the literature the substances that pose health risks conditions that affect the degree of risk and the variables that affect potential health hazards The letter concluded Based on our reviews of the various

    Original URL path: http://www.synturf.org/braunintertecreport.html (2016-04-25)
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    like guinea pigs he told NorthJersey com Ibid The proliferation of artificial turf fields in North Jersey is acute Some 27 of 73 public and private high school football teams play on artificial turf Turf is or will soon be in use on fields at six of the seven colleges and universities that have athletic programs in the area Turf has also become the rage at municipal parks taxpayers paying millions to have them installed Ibid No 04 Turf Rutgers researcher says officials not asking right questions November 23 2007 Brad Park is a sports turf education and research coordinator for Rutgers University School of Environmental and Biological Sciences According to him towns need to be aware that the fields are not permanent and disposing of them could potentially be a financial and environmental headache in the future The municipalities and school districts that are considering synthetic turf are not asking some of these environmental questions They should be he told NorthJersey com Source Colleen Diskin Critics worry about artificial turf s impact on ecosystem in The Record northern New Jersey November 23 2007 available at http www northjersey com page php qstr eXJpcnk3ZjczN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXkzJmZnYmVsN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXk3MjI0OTg5JnlyaXJ5N2Y3MTdmN3ZxZWVFRXl5Mg No 03 The RAMP Report Calls for Moratorium on Turf Fields Rochesterians Against the Misuse of Pesticides RAMP is a citizens environmental coalition in Rochester New York It is led by a health and environment advocate named Judy Braiman judybraiman frontiernet net In October 2007 RAMP issued a study that concluded Many questions remain unanswered regarding whether or not there are potential health or ecological hazards that can result from installations of synthetic playing fields Due to the unresolved public health and environmental issues it is prudent public health policy to avoid installation of new synthetic turf fields until the health and environmental issues can be fully evaluated The study pointed to the filing on October 24 2007 of the Assemblymen Englebright and Colton that called for a moratorium on new synthetic turf installations pending a careful review of information regarding potential human health implications and an evaluation of potential impacts The RAMP Study consisted of a laboratory screening analysis of clean unused samples of fill from five synthetic turf suppliers The screening was conducted by Paradigm Laboratories in Rochester in reference to an information summary and health related links that were provided by Sciencecorps in Lexington Massachusetts The Study reported The chemicals listed above have the potential to cause serious harm under some conditions and many are persistent in the environment There is limited evidence regarding the potential for chemicals present in fill to move from into air soil and water under real world conditions However many are known to readily move through soil and other media when they are not bound within materials The likelihood of their release from the fill matrix requires more evaluation under varied real world conditions The potential for environmental contamination human exposures health impacts and ecological impacts as a result of the release of chemicals from fill is not

    Original URL path: http://www.synturf.org/breakingnews.html (2016-04-25)
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    San Francisco politicians and their misguided monied backers to have the ultimate say by next year acres upon acres of the natural grass playing fields at Beach Chalet on the national historic Golden Gate Park will be turned into synthetic fields topped with carcinogen packed crumb rubber infill See the posts at http www synturf org sanfranciscobrief html Not exactly a tribute to the legacy of the birthplace of the environmental movement Now comes news of another impending unspeakable cruelty against nature this from North Cowichan in Duncan British Columbia According to a news report in Cowichan Valley Citizen 13 February 2015 t he Lombardy poplar trees that have so long been a part of the local scene beside the David Williams field at the Sherman Road soccer park are coming down North Cowichan council approved the move Feb 3 2015 The trees were assessed by an expert who said they need to come down Council had at its July 16 2014 meeting approved the construction of a synthetic turf field at the park The following is a constructed give and take among between the players in this tragic story Ernie Masueti NC North parks and recreation director The trees were planted in 1969 Some of the poplars have already been removed due to failing health The tree roots extend into the field road and drainage systems which negatively affect the infrastructure The installation of the synthetic turf will require excavation which will result in root damage to the trees Another problem is that due to their height the trees do not allow adequate sunlight to defrost the field quickly and therefore have made it unplayable during the winter season Joyce Behnsen Councillor Masueti and David Polster Cowichan Valley Naturalists are working together to address the problem roots of any new trees may pose to the installation of the artificial turf Rob Douglas Councillor Mr Mansueti I m assuming these trees have quite deep root structures and if we tear them out I m just wondering if there are going to be any drainage issues as a result Masueti There shouldn t be We cut the roots right then and there and then take them down to the stumps and then grind the stumps They e actually caused more problems because they take so much water up through the heat of the summer They affect the field that way Kate Marsh Councillor Although I might often be called a treehugger I have complete confidence in Polster s assessment and Mansueti s plan Maeve Maguire Councillor Is there any value in the wood Masueti There s probably value in it for someone Poplars don t burn even for firewood But if there s a value to them and someone would like them that would be great S ource Lexi Bainas Poplar trees at North Cowichan field must come down in Cowichan Valley Citizen 13 February 2015 at http www cowichanvalleycitizen com news poplar trees at north cowichan field must come down 1 1761997 SynTurf org Note The foregoing reminds one of a passage in Act I of Robert Bolt s brilliant 1960 play A Man for All Seasons A character named Roper announces his readiness to cut down every law in order to achieve his purpose similar to the call by Masueti and Company to cut down every poplar Sir Thomas More says to Roper The currents and eddies of right and wrong which you find such plain sailing I can t navigate I m no voyager But in the thickets of the law oh there I m a forester I doubt if there s a man alive who could follow me there thank God And when the last law was down and the Devil turned round on you where would you hide Roper the laws all being flat This country s planted thick with laws from coast to coast man s laws not God s and if you cut them down and you re just the man to do it d you really think you could stand upright in the winds that would blow then No 03 Berkeley Report Artificial turf releases more greenhouse gases in its production transportation and processing than the maintenance of natural turf ever would SynTurf org Newton Mass April 25 2010 According to a news article in the Santa Cruz Sentinel April 14 2010 a recently released report from University of California at Berkeley concludes that player injuries drop on artificial turf but significant greenhouse gases are released in its creation See Genevieve Bookwalter New study provides fuel for both sides of artificial turf fight in Santa Cruz Sentinel April 14 2010 available at http www santacruzsentinel com localnews ci 14879819 or click here for pdf While the first conclusion may not be necessarily a valid one see http www synturf org health html the second conclusion about the carbon footprint of artificial turf fields is on the money see http www synturf org carbonfootprint html The Sentinel quoted David Dornfeld a Berkeley professor and director of the school s Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability as saying the report was compiled to make sure that the resources that were referred to were reasonable The report concluded that Artificial turf releases more greenhouse gases in its the production transportation and processing than the maintenance of natural turf ever would As far as SynTurf org is concerned this alone is the most significant conclusion of the report considering that the report is entitled Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications February 2010 and was commissioned by The Corporation for Manufacturing Excellence MANEX an industry consulting firm That company has in the past worked with California Integrated Waste Management Board to find ways to best recycle old tires Those tire pieces often turn into the newest artificial playing fields According to Manex s website http www manexconsulting com PageID 268 individuals interested in obtaining a copy of the full report may email turfstudy manexconsulting

    Original URL path: http://www.synturf.org/carbonfootprint.html (2016-04-25)
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    no cases of elevated blood lead levels in children have been linked to artificial turf on athletic fields in New Jersey and elsewhere Concerned parents should talk to their child s pediatrician about potential and known sources of lead in their children s environment and whether their children should have a blood lead test This is a simple blood test that is paid for by most private insurers and by Medicaid NJDHSS has asked the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC to investigate this potential problem and CDC and ATSDR are currently waiting for information from CPSC to help guide future public health recommendations and actions Interim Public Health Actions Related to Testing Artificial Turf Products and Reducing Potential Exposures to Lead NJDHHS s testing of artificial turf fields was limited and only sampled turf containing nylon Since NJDHHS CDC and ATSDR did not test fields composed of substances other than nylon and nylon polyethelene blend we do not know if lead is also a component in other types of artificial turf Additionally not necessarily all turf made of nylon contains elevated amounts of lead CDC has long recommended the elimination of all nonessential uses of lead Because it is unclear whether all artificial turf contains lead at this time CDC and ATSDR only recommend testing artificial turf fields that appear worn or weathered As a precaution until further guidance is available from CPSC and until we have more information about the absorption of lead from artificial turf products and its capability of harm CDC and ATSDR recommend Testing turf that has fibers that are abraded faded or broken contains visible dust and that is made from nylon or nylon blend fibers Information about testing is provided later in this alert If the dust contains more than 400 ppm lead do not allow turf access for children under the age of 6 years If access is restricted care should be taken to ensure that alternative sites contain lead levels less than 400 ppm Not testing turf made from polyethylene only fibers This recommendation is based on currently available data Not testing turf made from nylon or nylon blends that is not worn and does not contain visible dust These fields should be routinely monitored for wear and dust generation Replacing fields as soon as practicable if worn and dusty as a precautionary measure CDC recommends testing children s blood lead levels in accordance with state guidelines Concerned parents caregivers should consult their medical providers for further information General Recommendations on the Use of Fields with Artificial Turf At this time CDC does not yet understand the potential risks associated with exposure to dust from worn artificial turf The following precautions can be taken to minimize any potential risk Field managers should consider implementing dust suppression measures Suggestions for dust suppression methods can be found at NJDHSS s website which is provided in the additional information section Children ages 6 and younger are most susceptible to lead s harmful health

    Original URL path: http://www.synturf.org/cdc.html (2016-04-25)
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    Replacement Migration Miscellanea Moratoriums NantucketBrief NewtonBrief Nitrosamines ParticulateMatter Phthalates Players View PrecautionaryPrinciple Process SanFranciscoBrief Say No SciaccaHeatStudy Silica Staph TurfBrief StaphNews Vandalism Warnings WaterDamage Weights Measures WellesleyBrief WestmountBrief WestportBrief WrapUp Articles Zinc Contact The Effects of Crumb Rubber on Water Quality a repot by The Coastal Marine Resource Center Policy Project September 2008 The CMR org Brooklyn New York The abstract of the work featured here states This paper will present the arguments both for and against the use of crumb focusing on the implications for water quality and advance certain precautions and guidelines that may be taken to safeguard against potential hazards Table 1 Recommendations for Containing and Managing Crumb Rubber These are recommendations to prevent the release of crumb rubber into the surrounding environment and minimize the flow of water from fields to water sources and water bodies The potential hazards to water quality from crumb rubber may not justify a moratorium on the construction of synthetic fields however officials involved in building these fields must be circumspect in their designs and take full account of the effects that crumb rubber may have on the surrounding environment and the water supply aside from possible health effects Additionally with

    Original URL path: http://www.synturf.org/cmrorg.html (2016-04-25)
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    investigator for artificial turf was don t chew on it Congress imposed stricter standards for children s products because of their special vulnerability to chemical exposure added Ruch pointing out that experts maintain there is no safe level of lead exposure for children For years now we have tried to engage the Commission without apparent success in examining products marketed as play surfaces for very young children containing illegally high levels of lead The agency appears to be captured by the industry it is supposed to regulate For the link to this piece as well as links to other PEER statements go to http www peer org news news releases turf lobbyists cultivate consumer product safety commission html VWfNa9lZx2R mailto or click here No 9 Chairman of the Consumer Product Safety Commission has deep concerns with the 2008 press release that said synthetic turf fields OK to install OK to play on According to a news report on WSB TV 2 ABC affiliate Atlanta Georgia 29 April 2015 t he Consumer Product Safety Commission is no longer standing by the safety of crumb rubber used in artificial turf and playgrounds In 2008 the agency posted an article called CPSC Staff Finds Synthetic Turf Fields OK to Install OK to Play On However the agency appears to be re evaluating its position Scott Wolfson the Communications Director for the Consumer Product Safety Commission told WSB TV that the CPSC Chairman Elliot Kaye has deep concerns with the 2008 press release and it is not the agency s current position What was done in 2008 was not good enough to make a claim either way as to the safety of those fields Source Rachel Stockman CPSC no longer stands by safety of artificial turf on WSB TV 2 ABC affiliate 29 April 2105 at http www wsbtv com news news local cpsc says they no longer think crumb rubber artifi nk6Ch No 8 CPSC declares that synthetic turf is exempt from child safety standards because it is NOT a children s product Video proof to the contrary According to a communication received from www ehhi org as each branch of government washes its hands of dealing with the toxic issues in both synthetic turf and rubber tire mulch in toddler playgrounds children of all ages continue to be exposed to the chemicals in rubber tires used both as playground mulch and synthetic turf infill Watch this http www youtube com watch v 0lAmHiMcqQ Dear US Consumer Product Safety Commission Synthetic Turf is a Children s Product from SF Park s Published on 19 February 2014 No 7 Consumer Product Safety Commission corrects is earlier publication on artificial turf On 30 July 2008 the CPSC issued a press release 08 348 On 21 March 2013 Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility PEER requested that CPSC rescind and correct its online and printed information declaring artificial turf to be OK to install OK to play on and take other actions under the Information Quality Act IQA and the Consumer Product Safety Commission s CPSC Information Quality Guidelines Guidelines On 31 May 2013 the Assistant Executive Director of CPSC s Office of Hazard Identification and reduction denied PEER s request On 28 June 2013 PEER appealed the denial asserting that the CPSC s July 2008 Analysis and Assessment of Synthetic Turf Grass Blades and accompanying press release did not satisfy the Guidelines standards for objectivity because it did not use reliable data sources did not use sound analytic techniques did not have a clear policy for correcting the errors in the study as they stood or in light of new reliable data from elsewhere and the press materials were not supported by the admittedly limited study conducted by CPSC staff On 28 August 2013 the Executive Director of the CPSC dismissed the appeal denying PEER s request that the CPSC to remove information disseminate warnings and commission an independent study The July 2008 analysis the Director ruled described the assessment s limited scope used best date available at the time and relied upon valid analytic techniques However given the limitations of the CPSC s July 2008 assessment CPSC found that an explanatory note was warranted at the start of the July 2008 bulletin The language of the note as it now appears on the publication states Note CPSC staff advises consumers to read and interpret the following press release carefully The press release announces that CPSC staff evaluated certain samples from synthetic athletic fields in 2008 and determined at that time that young children were not at risk from lead exposure on synthetic fields As noted in the linked evaluation staffs assessment was subject to specified limitations including sample size The exposure assessment did not include chemicals or other toxic metals beyond lead CPSC staff continues to recommend that children wash their hands after playing outside including after using synthetic athletic fields CPSC s ruling is available here The corrected version of the CPSC publication is available at http www cpsc gov en Newsroom News Releases 2008 CPSC Staff Finds Synthetic Turf Fields OK to Install OK to Play On No 06 Consumer Reports criticizes CPSC s position on lead in artificial turf On September 5 2008 ConsumerReprts com published apiece entitled Federal agencies at odds over artificial turf recommendations The article is available http blogs consumerreports org safety 2008 09 lead in turf html The article highlighted the positions taken by the U S Consumer Product Safety Commission which thinks says turf fields are safe to play on and the Centers for Disease Control which recommends certain precaution and following certain hygienic protocols when playing on artificial turf fields In questioning the CPSC s position the article criticizes the agency s limited research and its inadequate methodology The publication pointed out CPSC s belief that even some fields contain some lead they do mostly fall within the acceptable range Consumer reports pointed out that the American Academy of Pediatrics has stated that there is no safe level of lead exposure Yet the CPSC s conclusions express risk in terms of what they have established as harmful levels We think their analysis and conclusions should be consistent with those of the medical community They should take into account that athletic fields are not the only source of exposure to lead and that it s important to eliminate avoidable sources of exposure For the text of the article go to http blogs consumerreports org safety 2008 09 lead in turf html or click here No 05 Connecticut Attorney General slams CPSC s turf report as dangerously deceptive On August 19 2008 the Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal called on the CPSC to remove and revise its recent turf study because it is dangerously deceptive There is a clear and present danger that municipal and state decision makers as well as parents and citizens will rely on this unconscionably deficient report which is replete with unsound scientific methodology and conclusions and unreliable findings It may lead to unsupportable and unwise commitments by towns and cities or their boards of education to build or replace athletic fields The text of the press release is available at http www ct gov ag cwp view asp A 2341 Q 421482 and here No 04 Connecticut Congresswoman slams CPSC s turf report as hasty and flawed On August 7 2008 the U S Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro of Connecticut sent a letter to the acting chairwoman of the U S Consumer Product Safety Commission slamming the agency s report on lead in synthetic turf fields as hasty and flawed She called for a thorough investigation The texts of the press release and letter are available at http www house gov delauro press 2008 August Flawed Report 8 8 08 html and here No 03 CPSC says Turf industry should get out the lead but fields are okay to play on SynTurf org Newton Mass August 3 2008 On July 30 2008 the Office of Information and Public Affairs at the U S Consumer Product safety Commission issued Release 08 348 CPSC Staff Finds Synthetic Turf Fields OK to Install Ok to Play On The Release referenced an evaluation of various synthetic turf fields by the CPSC staff which concluded that young children are not at risk from exposure to lead in these fields The Release is available on line at http www cpsc gov cpscpub prerel prhtml08 08348 html or here and the Evaluation is available at http www cpsc gov library foia foia08 os turfassessment pdf or here Here are results of the Evaluation as stated in the Release CPSC staff evaluation showed that newer fields had no lead or generally had the lowest lead levels Although small amounts of lead were detected on the surface of some older fields none of these tested fields released amounts of lead that would be harmful to children Lead is present in the pigments of some synthetic turf products to give the turf its various colors Staff recognizes that some conditions such as age weathering exposure to sunlight and wear and tear might change the amount of lead that could be released from the turf As turf is used during athletics or play and exposed over time to sunlight heat and other weather conditions the surface of the turf may start to become worn and small particles of the lead containing synthetic grass fibers might be released The staff considered in the evaluation that particles on a child s hand transferred to his her mouth would be the most likely route of exposure and determined young children would not be at risk The CPSC s evaluation concerned only the presence of lead in carpet fibers or paint that is applied to the carpet It did not analyze lead that is often contained in the crumb rubber No other aspect of artificial turf fields was considered Nor did the CPSC consider the possibility of potential risk to children in whom the micron of lead ingested or inhaled from artificial turf may well be the tipping point for rendering the accumulated lead level in a child to an unacceptable level The presence to lead is not just in the old carpet As the Release stated CPSC staff evaluation showed that newer fields had no lead or generally had the lowest lead levels This is not exactly declaring the turf lead free particularly when it is not made clear what constitutes a newer field By all measure the turf field at Saunders Stadium in South Boston http www synturf org lead html Item No 9 that was ripped out in June of this year was newer it being in its fifth year SynTurf org collected a sample of field s yellow lined turf and sent it to from that site was sent for a lead test to the Center for Environmental Health in Oakland California Using a X ray Fluorescence analyzer the CEH reported the yellow turf to have 7 997 parts per million mg kg of lead The U S Environmental Protection Agency has established 400 ppm as allowable level of lead in children s play areas The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection would allow soil in lined landfills with maximum lead contamination of 2 000 ppm and only 1 000 ppm in unlined landfills The CPSC is nevertheless concerned about lead in artificial turf The Release stated Although this evaluation found no harmful lead levels CPSC staff is asking that voluntary standards be developed for synthetic turf to preclude the use of lead in future products This action is being taken proactively to address any future production of synthetic turf and to set a standard for any new entrants to the market to follow As for now As an overall guideline CPSC staff recommends young children wash their hands after playing outside especially before eating On Wednesday July 30 2008 the U S House of representatives voted 424 1 to ban lead in kids products The legislation would impose the toughest lead standards in the world banning lead beyond minute levels in products for children 12 or younger Associated Press House votes to ban lead in kids products in The Boston Globe July 31 2008 Business section page E3 available also at http www boston com business articles 2008 07 31 house votes to ban lead in kids products Perhaps with a Democrat in the White House come January 2009 the CPSC could order the elimination of lead from artificial turf products Following the CPSC Release the turf industry went into spin mode and extracted every ounce of propaganda for its cause it took the point that CPSC had made about lead and turned it into a declaration or clean bill of health for the turf as a whole See for example FieldTurf Applauds Clean Bill of Health Given to Synthetic Athletic Fields by U S Consumer Product Safety Commission in PrimeNewswire July 30 2008 available at http www marketwatch com news story fieldturf applauds clean bill health story aspx guid 7B9BADDF9B C240 4A5E 8448 08BDB8EEFFDD 7D dist hppr The CPSC s characterization of turf fields as safe for kids drew fire from Environment and Human Health Inc of North Haven Connecticut and the Center for Environmental Health in Oakland California David Brown Sc D the Public Health Toxicologist Environment and Human Health Inc www ehhi org made the following preliminary observations about the the CPSC s methodology and assumptions The USCPSC report sampled only 10 tests on four fields There were three samples on three fields and one sample on one other field How many fields are there in the United States The answer of course is thousands The table is padded with other turf data less than 10 from unspecified sources with no relevancy to the fields in actual use They wiped an area 50 cm long and 8 cm wide 18 inches long and 3 inches wide Your hand is about 4 inches wide and 8 inches long Next they divided the amount of lead found by 5 because they assumed that the hand is not as efficient at picking up lead as their wipe They then divided that number obtained again by 2 because they assumed that only half of the lead could be taken from one s hand and then become ingested Their determination of a safe reference exposure 1 They compared the exposure to a blood level of 10 ug dl as their level of concern although current peer reviewed literature clearly demonstrate health effects in children below that level 2 They than reference a position that chronic ingestion of lead should not exceed 15 ug day They then incorrectly assumed that the not to be exceeded level was an acceptable exposure level which it is not This rationale makes no sense because of the following incorrect assumptions Assumption 1 The child has no other exposures to lead each day The assumption is clearly incorrect based on population studies published by the centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assumption 2 During an athletic activity the child only touches the surface with one hand one time each day This assumption is ludicrous if anyone has observed any athletic activity on any playing field Assumption 3 That four fields would be considered adequate to evaluate the safety of the thousands of fields in the United States and then to characterize to the American people that this is a NATIONWIDE evaluation UNBELIEVABLE Assumption 4 It is acceptable to ignore the key chemical reaction between the acidity in the moisture on the surface and the release of lead bound in the material A reading in a basic high school chemistry text shows that highly soluble lead carbonate dust is formed when items containing lead are exposed to air containing carbon dioxide in humid atmosphere such as occurs every morning when dew forms on the surface of the fields Assumption 5 Most of the lead on the surface is not released on the first pass over the surface While there may be multiple passes over the surface there is no basis for a division by 5 or any other number most of the lead is released by the first touch although additional lead is picked up with further wipes If the CPSC had wiped the field 100 times would they have divided the amount obtains on their sample wipe by 100 It should be apparent to even the most casual observer that the CPSC test report cannot support any conclusion with respect to the health risk of children to exposure to lead from artificial turf fields Moreover lead has never been the only or even major concern from the health scientists In an e mail dated 31 July 2008 Nancy Alderman the President of EHHI wrote The story being told in response to the U S Consumer Product Safety Commission USCPSC declaring that synthetic turf fields safe because they do not contain lead is extremely misleading This declaration of safety is misinforming the public about what the potential risks from synthetic turf really are Environment and Human Health Inc EHHI remains as concerned as ever about the synthetic turf fields that are being installed by schools and towns all over the United States EHHI is a 9 member nonprofit organization composed of physicians public health professionals and policy experts dedicated to protecting human health from environmental harms through research education and improving public policy EHHI is supported by foundations and receives no funding from either businesses or corporations When Environment and Human Health Inc EHHI researched the health issues presented by synthetic turf fields it looked at the ground up rubber tire in fill that is a major component of synthetic turf The in fill is made of used rubber tires In some states used rubber tires are considered a hazardous waste and in other states they are considered a special waste When the he U S Consumer Product Safety Commission USCPSC tested the fields

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    environment where they could breathe the air containing the particles Scientists studied the effects of exposure after one seven and 28 days The research showed that carbon nanotubes were more potent when inhaled than when aspirated In addition the research showed early indications of serious health outcomes that may have longer term effects such as cancer and therefore ongoing research is important to more clearly understand the implications of exposure to carbon nanotubes In May 2008 Nature Nanotechnology reported a similar finding Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos like pathogenicity in a pilot study The study reported Carbon nanotubes have distinctive characteristics but their needle like fibre shape has been compared to asbestos raising concerns that widespread use of carbon nanotubes may lead to mesothelioma a cancer of the lining of the lungs similar to that caused by exposure to asbestos Exposing the mesothelial lining of the body cavity of mice as a surrogate for the mesothelial lining of the chest cavity to long multi walled carbon nanotubes results in asbestos like length dependent pathogenic behaviour This includes inflammation and the formation of lesions known as granulomas This is of considerable importance because research and business communities continue to invest heavily in carbon nanotubes for a wide range of products under the assumption that they are no more hazardous than graphite Our results suggest the need for further research and great caution before introducing such products into the market if long term harm is to be avoided How do carbon black nanoparticles get to brain tissue Peter Gehr a professor of histology the study of tissue and anatomy at the University of Bern in Switzerland stated that synthetic nanoparticles can penetrate tissue and cells and spread throughout the body even to the brain Gehr is astonished that potential health risks of synthetic nanoparticles are barely acknowledged outside the scientific world and government agencies If nanoparticles are not solidly bound to another material there is a risk that we could inhale them They can enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the entire body The mere fact that particles penetrate into the body is a problem Carbon black nanoparticles what about the children Environment and Human Health Inc has asked the following questions about nanoparticles in the tire crumb infill used as mulch for playgrounds used by children 1 How does the knowledge that carbon black nanoparticles are added to rubber tires affect the risk assessments done on synthetic turf and the rubber mulch used in toddlers playgrounds 2 Because none of the risk assessments done up to the present time on rubber tire crumbs or playground mulch have taken into consideration the fact that carbon black nanoparticles have been added to rubber tires how does this fact affect the claim by some jurisdictions that rubber tire crumbs and rubber tire playground mulch are safe for children to play on 3 As children play on synthetic turf fields and playground mulch dust develops Are nanoparticles in the dust If so are they capable of being aspirated into the children s lungs Who is researching this Rubber tires are designed for cars and trucks they were never designed for grinding up and putting where children play How does this fact affect some jurisdictions approvals for putting used tire crumb where children play 4 Could this be another example of a toxic material getting out into the environment without enough testing Perhaps neuroscientist Dr Kathleen Michels summarized it best Carbon black is the proverbial 800 pound gorilla in the room that no one wants to talk about or take notice of but it has the potential to wreck everything in its path First It has been declared a possible carcinogen by the U S government and by the World Health Organization Then carbon black used in tires consists of the purest smallest ultrafine nanoparticles giving them a unique potential toxicity throughout the body Normally this might not be a problem for any individual since most of the carbon black is trapped inside a tire However when you pulverize tires for use in children s playing fields whether done at ambient or cold temperatures everything in them including carbon black particles becomes more available to interact with the environment and people since the surface area to volume increases exponentially as you go from whole tire to pulverized tire granule to the dust that becomes airborne with weathering and the impact of each child s footfall and body Finally the sheer concentrated volume of this pulverized carbon black material should get serious attention tires are 30 per cent or more carbon black so a 200 ton tire crumb laden sports field contains around 60 tons of carbon black an unprecedented exposure that deserves serious attention and research But carbon black is not the only nanoparticle containing component of tires Engineered nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes which may have asbestos like toxicity are also being added to tires But how much and to which tires is difficult to determine Which highlights a main problem with tire crumb the recipe of any company s tires is proprietary so we never know exactly what the ingredients are for any individual tire much less a bag of tire crumb and even less the 30 000 or so tires in a sports field Some schools which have tire crumb on fields or playgrounds close to their classrooms report a fine grey dust on school surfaces inside when windows are open Most artificial turf fields with tire crumb are still relatively young There is no evidence yet of long term harm from this unprecedented often chronic exposure of children to carbon black or other tire components from playing on tire crumb but then again there are no studies on children exposed chronically to tire crumb over time But there are worrying studies on exposure to carbon black particles in the air Shouldn t we be asking the questions and following up on the exposed children with research Important There are different types of nanoparticles made of different building blocks and each type of nanoparticle can be unique in its actions and effects and act differently in engineered products as well as in the body It is true that frequent exposure to nanoparticles from many consumer products means some nanoparticles are getting into us It is also true that cell studies suggest that some types of nanoparticles can damage the DNA or cause cell death in different parts of the body such as the brain the lungs or blood vessels The term nanoparticle is not intended to apply to all nanoparticles but in this case carbon black nanoparticles People either have no idea about nanoparticles or do not regard them as a problem said Dr Peter Gehr professor of histology and anatomy at the University of Bern The potential risks are also of little interest at the political level People are simply not reacting to the possible harmful aspects of synthetic nanoparticles right now The mere fact that particles penetrate into the body is a problem but this is barely acknowledged outside the realms of science and government agencies The aforementioned comments were based on research reports and articles from numerous health care organizations research scientists health care professionals and nanotechnology experts who represent a wide variety of non biased and reputable sources Because the subject matter is likely to stir interest and create some controversy we have provided a partial list of numerous reference materials so readers can reach their own conclusion References Study Says Carbon Nanotubes as Dangerous as Asbestos New research shows long needle thin carbon nanotubes could lead to lung cancer Scientific American http www scientificamerican com article cfm id carbon nanotube danger Association of Black Carbon with Cognition among Children in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study Harvard School of Public Health published in American Journal of Epidemiology http aje oxfordjournals org content 167 3 280 full As Nanotech s Promise Grows Will Puny Particles Present Big Health Problems Amid the great promise nanotechnology offers big questions remain on health dangers posed by exposure to tissue penetrating particles Scientific American http www scientificamerican com article cfm id will nano particles present big healthproblems How dangerous are carbon nanoparticles Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine http www item fraunhofer de en press media latest news pm carbonblack jsp NIOSH Research Methods Demonstrate that Breathing Nanoparticles May Result in Damaging Health Effects National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health http www cdc gov niosh docs 2010 158 pdfs NanotechParticles pdf Acute Pulmonary Response of Mice to Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes Inhalation Toxicology 22 4 340 347 March 2010 http www nanolawreport com In Vivo Abstracts part 45 pdf Carbon Black Wisconsin Department of Public Health http www dhs wisconsin gov eh chemfs fs carblack htm Grappling With The Gray Zone Feds Focus on Nano Workers Health New Haven Independent http www newhavenindependent org index php archives entry grappling with the gray zone Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Significant New Use Rule Environmental Protection Agency http www gpo gov fdsys pkg FR 2011 05 06 pdf 2011 11127 pdf Frustrated phagocytes and the fibre paradigm Diamond Environmental Ltd independent Health Safety and Training consultancy http diamondenv wordpress com 2011 04 15 frustrated phagocytes and the fibre paradigm Nanotechnology s Public Health Hazard Science Now http news sciencemag org sciencenow 2008 05 20 01 html Carbon Nanomaterials Fine for Fly Food Bad for Fly Coating Scientific American http www scientificamerican com article cfm id carbon nanomaterials bad for fruit fly coating Synthetic Athletic Fields A Question of Ingestion The City of San Francisco City Fields Foundation http www youtube com watch v 8zsodulEmz0 Inhaled Carbon Nanotubes Reach Subpleural Tissue in Mice Nature Nanotechnology 4 11 747 751 http www nanolawreport com In Vivo Abstracts part 41 pdf Nanoparticles Induce Changes of the Electrical Activity of Neuronal Networks on Microelectrode Array Neurochips Environmental Health Perspectives http ehp03 niehs nih gov article fetchArticle action articleURI info 3Adoi 2F10 1289 2Fehp 0901661 Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel Science 3 February 2006 Vol 311 no 5761 pp 622 627 DOI 10 1126 science 1114397 http www sciencemag org content 311 5761 622 abstract YouTube VIDEO Toxic Chemicals The Safety of Synthetic Fields and How Environmental Laws are Failing Our Children 9 40 into nanoparticles Speaker Dr Joel Forman associate professor of pediatrics and community and preventive medicine Mt Sinai School of Medicine and other researchers offer their latest findings on the potential health and environmental risks associated with crumb rubber in fill used on synthetic turf fields Panel Dr Susan Buchanan clinical assistant professor environmental and occupational health sciences University of Illinois Chicago Dr Helen Binns professor in pediatrics and preventive medicine Children Memorial Hospital Chicago and Carolyn Raffensperger environmental lawyer and executive director of science and environmental health network http www findallvideo com toxic chemicals safety synthetic fields how environmental lawsare failing our children pt 02 id 3325988535 Induction of Inflammasome dependent Pyroptosis by Carbon Black Nanoparticles The Journal of Biological Chemistry http www jbc org content 286 24 21844 Nanoparticles can penetrate brain tissue Interview with Dr Peter Gehr professor of histology the study of tissue and anatomy at the University of Bern in Switzerland by the Federal Office for the Environment the Swiss federal government s centre of environmental expertise Dr Gehr is internationally renowned as a researcher and for his studies on the behaviour of nanoparticles in the lungs and on their interaction with cells http www bafu admin ch dokumentation umwelt 10649 10659 index html lang en SynTurf org Note The U S Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia M Burwell released the 13th Report on Carcinogens on 2 October 2014 The Report on Carcinogens RoC is a congressionally mandated science based public health document that the National Toxicology Program http ntp niehs nih gov pubhealth roc roc13 index html The report identifies agents substances mixtures and exposure circumstances that are known or reasonably anticipated to cause cancer in humans http www niehs nih gov news newsroom releases 2014 october2 index cfm Press Release 2 October 2014 One of the substances identified in the study as a known to be human carcinogen is ortho toluidine or o toluidine http ntp niehs nih gov ntp roc content profiles toluidine pdf an isomer compound used in the manufacture of rubber and therefore tires See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Tire and Rubber Company 2 o Toluidine Exposure in NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publications and Products at http www cdc gov niosh pgms worknotify O toluidine html 1990 updated 13 July 2012 and further reviewed 3 February 2014 So by implication crumb rubber in synthetic turf infill contains o toluidine which can cause cancer See also Sam Pearson Federal report identifies tire production compound as carcinogen in E News Environment and Energy Publishing 2 October 2014 at http www eenews net search stories utf8 E2 9C 93 keyword sam pearson commit go 21 date 5Bfrom month 5D 10 date 5Bfrom day 5D 2 date 5Bfrom year 5D 2014 date 5Bto month 5D 10 date 5Bto day 5D 2 date 5Bto year 5D 2014 No 34 Andrew McNitt Between 6 000 and 7 000 pounds of crumb rubber can come out migrate of a field each year Andrew McNitt should know He is the Program Coordinator of Turfgrass Science Major Professor of Soil Science and Director of the Center for Sports Surface at Penn State http plantscience psu edu directory asm4 pdf His research studies experiments about artificial turf are chronicled at http plantscience psu edu research centers ssrc pdf His program according to a press release dated 29 July 2009 at Penn State University was started in partnership with a purveyor of artificial turf fields The idea behind the partnership was to develop a facility dedicated to sports surface research with a five year commitment that will center around research on synthetic turf running tracks and indoor sports surfaces According to the press release t he new Center for Sports Surface Research will be an intercollegiate program managed within the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences in Penn State s College of Agricultural Sciences and headed by Andrew McNitt McNitt is regarded as a pioneer in the world of sports surface research particularly as it relates to natural and synthetic turf and conducts research relating to athletic field surface characterization and golf green construction and maintenance the release stated The text of the release is at http www prweb com releases FieldTurf PSU Sports Center prweb2684034 htm pdf According to news item in The Alamanc 16 Juen 2014 on 12 June 2014 McNitt addressing more than 30 residents of Mt Lebanon Pennsylvania on the improvements to the fields at the municipality s Main Park stated that natural turf can get muddy and only take one event before it needs to be groomed R esearch shows that most high school fields need to be renovated after 80 events per year He said with artificial turf fields the negatives are the cost injury potential heat and chemicals used in the turf He added that with artificial turf the crumb rubber or other type of infill needs to be replaced or top dressed on a regular basis He said between 6 000 and 7 000 pounds of crumb rubber can come out of a field each year With organic infill some type of shock absorption pad would need to be used which can run about 50 000 While McNitt is not a toxicologist but a soil scientist he said there are chemicals in artificial turf They include alcohols acids ketones esters lactones and sulfur among others The meeting was recorded and is available for view online at www mtlebanon org and on Mt Lebanon s cable channels 17 and 34 Source Mt Lebanon invites experts to talk turf in The Almanac 16 June 2014 at http www thealmanac net article 20140616 NEWS 140619956 pdf SynTurf org Note Where do the 6 000 and 7 000 pounds of crumb rubber migrate to The environment players clothes eyes mouth stomach shoes cars and the garbage can and down the drain Those that end up in the garbage can go to landfill that probably would not accept whole tires Those that end up in the sewer end up in the municipal water and sewer treatment facilities Now think of the same problem along the following lines number of installed fields in the geographical region x 6 000 7 000 lbs of crumb rubber y y divided by number of average automobile tires that renders one pound of crumb rubber z Z is the number of tires that migrated off the field in one year No 33 Before using pulverized styrene butadiene consider this Kelley Watts of SFPARKS SHPFC San Francisco California recently fired a letter to the California Coastal Commission Staff challenging the revised finding of the Commission s 9 May 2013 approval of coastal permit with conditions to renovate existing Beach Chalet athletic fields in Golden Gate Park Kelley s area of concern is that the Revised Finding is not in conformance with the Local Coastal Program LCP in that it allows the project to introduce over 400 tons of loose uncovered toxic styrene butadiene particles into the coastal zone The following is an expert of that challenge whose substance in our opinion should a standard wrap sheet on crumb rubber for distribution to policymakers and members of the public when the question of artificial turf arises in our communities BASIS OF CONCERN What is styrene butadiene Styrene butadiene sometimes called styrene butadiene rubber or SBR is derived from tires You may have seen it in particulate form fly up when athletes play in it on a synthetic field or perhaps when shaken out of children s hair and clothes Hundreds of under regulated chemicals and metals constitute a tire including lead PAHs and carbon black Over 20 of a tire s chemical makeup is listed as causing cancer by the State of California s Office of Environmental and Health Hazard Assessment OEHHA based on the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC How much styrene butadiene particulate material will be used in the project According to the leading supplier of San Francisco s styrene butadiene synthetic fields one single football sized installation contains over 35 000 pulverized tires If you stacked 35 000 tires side by side as we commonly see them done attire dealers then the stack would reach 3 86 miles high or 16 Empire State buildings The total amount of tire material used in the 7 acre Beach Chalet conversion project would create a stack well over 7 times more well over 25 miles high How exposed will the styrene butadiene particulates be to the coastal environment Contrary to a common misconception the styrene butadiene particles will not be covered by a plastic layer but will instead be on top of a plastic carpet sitting loose among the blades The fact that one can hardly see the particles on a synthetic field illustrates how ultra finely pulverized the tire particulates will be The particles are barely visible on a plastic carpet with a 1 75 inch blade height The particles small size creates a migratory inevitability throughout the coastal zone environment The following YouTube video clips illustrate styrene butadiene environmental impacts 1 A compilation of news clips and accounts with a Bay Area presence It contains multiple San Francisco and Bay Area synthetic turf installations with styrene butadiene infill YouTube Synthetic Turf Particles SFPARKS http www youtube com watch v q2USPTy wVM 2 A compilation of statements from medical doctors pediatricians and toxicologists addressing the potential health risks of exposure from styrene butadiene to children and pregnant women YouTube Children Synthetic Turf SFPARKS http www youtube com watch v c3sg2BNlLfU No 32 Study Risk of ingesting lead increases as size of crumb rubber gets smaller According to an analysis by scientists from the Institute for Environmental Research at Yonsei University and Department of Preventive Medicine at Yonsei University College of Medicine Seoul Korea the exposure of lead ingestion and risk level increases as the particle size of crumb rubber gets smaller The study looked at the ingestion exposure by particle sizes more than 250 um or less than 250 um of recycled ethylene propylene diene monomer crumb rubber that is used as infill in artificial turf The analysis on crumb rubber was conducted using body ingestion exposure estimate method Two methods using acid extraction and digestion extraction concentration were compared and evaluated As a result of the ingestion exposure of crumb rubber material the average lead exposure amount to the digestion extraction result among crumb rubber was calculated to be 1 56 10 4 mg kg day for low grade elementary school students and 4 87 10 5 mg kg day for middle and high school students in 250 um or less particle size and that to the acid extraction result was higher than the digestion extraction result Results of digestion extraction and acid extraction showed that the hazard quotient was estimated by about over 2 times more in particle size of lower than 250 um than in higher than 250 um There was a case of an elementary school student in which the hazard quotient exceeded 0 1 The study is entitled Health Risk Assessment of Lead Ingestion Exposure by Particle Sizes in Crumb Rubber on Artificial Turf Considering Bioavailability by Sunduk Kim Ji Yeon Yang Ho Hyun Kim In Young Yeo Dong Chun Shin and Young Wook Lim The study was published in Environmental Health and Toxicology 2012 published online 2 February 2012 http www ncbi nlm nih gov pmc articles PMC3278598 No 31A University of Santiago de Compostela Spain research confirms existence of dangerous chemicals in crumb rubber and other used tire products This entry is an update of Item No 31 below Entitled Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers the study s authors are Maria Llomparta Lucia Sanchez Pradoa J Pablo Lamasa Carmen Garcia Jaresa Enrique Rocab and Thierry Dagnacc This original paper from a multi departmental investigators at the Universidad de Santiago de Compostela in Santiago de Compostela Spain was published on 22 August 2012 on line http dx doi org 10 1016 j chemosphere 2012 07 053 and made available at http www sciencedirect com science article pii S0045653512009848 It is now available also at http www elcorreodelsol com sites default files chemosphere maria llompart pdf and here The following are from the abstract and conclusion parts of the study Abstract In this study the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated Direct material analyses using solvent extraction as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample were carried out Twenty one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds In addition seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy followed by analysis of the extract by GC MS The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs phthalates antioxidants e g BHT phenols benzothiazole and derivatives among other chemicals The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high reaching values up to 1 In addition SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds Uses of recycled rubber tires especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children should be a matter of regulatory concern Conclusion In this study a large number of samples collected in urban play grounds as well as commercial rubber pavers have been analysed The samples were solvent extracted and analysed by GC MS The presence of hazardous chemicals was confirmed in all of them Initial screening experiments allowed selecting 31 target compounds including the 16 priority PAHs vulcanisation additives antioxidants and plasticizers All samples contained PAHs The most abundant congener was PYR followed by NAP PHN FLA and CHY The considered most toxic PAH B a P was found in 5 samples The analysis of commercial pavers recycled rubber tire tiles showed unexpected results with extremely high PAH levels All the 16 priority PAHs were found in all the samples Phthalate plasticizers were found in all samples and in general their individual and total concentrations were considerably higher in the commercial pavers The most abundant congener was DEHP Other emerging pollutants such as BTZ and BHT were found in all samples Many of the target analytes were detected in the SPME experiments Regarding PAHs all the compounds found in the playground samples were identified in the vapour phase at room temperature excluding the less volatile ones In the case of the commercial pavers five ring PAHs were also detected including the carcinogenic B a P BTZ as well as the priority phthalates DEP DIBP DBP DEHP and BHT were found in all cases demonstrating that all these chemicals reach the vapour phase and can enter the human organism by inhalation The present study highlights the presence of a high number of harmful compounds frequently at high or extremely high levels in these recycled rubber materials Therefore they should be carefully controlled and their final use should be restricted or even prohibited in some cases No 31 Spanish research confirms existence of dangerous chemicals in crumb rubber and other used tire products The study analyzed a large number of recycled tire playgrounds and commercial pavers It confirmed the occurrence of numerous harmful compounds at high levels among thirty one selected targets PAHs vulcanisation additives antioxidants plasticizers It found that the total PAH concentration was remarkable The study called attention to presence of B a P and noted that analytes were detected in the headspace SPME experiments at room temperature The following is an abstract of Maria Llomparta Lucia Sanchez Pradoa J Pablo Lamasa Carmen Garcia Jaresa Enrique Rocab and Thierry Dagnacc Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers an original paper from a multi departmental investigators at the Universidad de Santiago de Compostela in Santiago de Compostela Spain published on 22 August 2012 on line http dx doi org 10 1016 j chemosphere 2012 07 053 and made available at http www sciencedirect com science article pii S0045653512009848 In this study the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated Direct material analyses using solvent extraction as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample were carried out Twenty one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds In addition seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy followed by analysis of the extract by GC MS The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs phthalates antioxidants e g BHT phenols benzothiazole and derivatives among other chemicals The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high reaching values up to 1 In addition SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds Uses of recycled rubber tires especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children should be a matter of regulatory concern No 30 Dr David Brown toxicologist discusses crumb rubber in artificial turf fields A video presentation entitled Artificial Turf A troubling Perspective September 2012 on Vimeo com at https vimeo com 49518944 from Amy Stephan Dr Brown is a public health toxicologist and serves as the Director of Public Health Toxicology at Environment and Human Health Inc www ehhi org a non profit in North Haven Connecticut No 29 Carbon black nanoparticle in crumb rubber raises further concern about artificial turf fields In a press release dated August 10 2010 the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine in Germany announced that it is participating in a research alliance on the health risks of carbon black According to the press release Carbon black is an industrial chemical that is manufactured in large quantities worldwide It consists of smallest nanoparticles and is used for example in the manufacturing of automobile tires and other plastic materials A health risk from carbon black nanoparticles CBNP can as yet not be ruled out and the World Health Organization has classified these particles as possibly carcinogenic For a copy of the press release click here According to the press release The aim of the scientists in the carbon black research alliance is to eventually find modifications of carbon black nanoparticles that pose no hazard to human health and can thus be commercially exploited without risk Until that time however the users of artificial turf fields are condemned to breathing in the carbon black nanoparticles that are found in the crumb rubber made from used tires and any other such carbon black nanoparticles that may reside in the artificial truf field s plastic blades These concerns have been noted recently by Environment and Human Health Inc In an e mail to SynTurf org EHHI posited the following Just now understanding that carbon black nanoparticles are in rubber tires asks the following questions about nanoparticles in rubber tire crumb infill and playground mulch used by children 1 How does the knowledge that carbon black nanoparticles are added to rubber tires affect the risk assessments done on synthetic turf and the rubber mulch used in toddlers playgrounds 2 Because none of the risk assessments done up to the present time on rubber tire crumbs or playground mulch have taken into consideration the fact that carbon black nanoparticles have been added to rubber tires how does this fact affect the claim by some states that rubber tire crumbs and rubber tire playground mulch are safe for children to play on 3 As children play on synthetic turf fields and playground mulch dust develops Are nanoparticles in the dust If so are they capable of being aspirated into the children s lungs Who is researching this Rubber tires are designed for cars and trucks they were never designed for grinding up and putting where children play How does this fact affect some states approvals for putting used rubber tires where children play 4 Could this be another example of a toxic material getting out into the environment without enough testing Environment and Human Health Inc is simply asking these questions which seem appropriate under the circumstances For further study of the toxicity of carbon nanoparticles please refer to Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of carbon nanoparticles in humans in the new millennium A systemic review by Mukesh Sharma Occupational Medicine Division National Institute of Occupational Health Meghani Nagar Ahmedabad India in Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine vol 14 1 2010 web publication June 24 2010 abstract available at http www ijoem com article asp issn 0019 5278 year 2010 volume 14 issue 1 spage 3 epage 5 aulast Sharma Peter Gehr Professor of Histology the study of tissue and Anatomy at the University of Bern Switzerland in interview with Kaspar Meuli Nanoparticles can penetrate brain tissue on the website of the Federal Office for the Environment FOEN also BAFU in German March 2010 available at http www bafu admin ch dokumentation umwelt 10649 10659 index html lang en and here Brent Augustine Nanomaterials a paper in relation to a course on nanosociety by Charles Tahan of the Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland Collge Park available at http www tahan com charlie nanosociety course201 nanos BA pdf not dated and here Andre Nel Tian Xia Lutz Mädler and Ning Li Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel in Science 3 February 2006 622 627 abstract at http www sciencemag org cgi content abstract 311 5761 622 and The Honk Kong Standard Nanoparticle link to China deaths August 21 2009 available http www thestandard com hk news detail asp we cat 9 art id 86662 sid 25016949 con type 1 d str 20090821 fc 2 and here and see Asia News Nanoparticles Linked to Deaths in Chinese Factory August 21 2009 on You Tube at http www youtube com watch v Z9DinAm4n3s No 29 USA Today New York City and Los Angeles Unified School District spurn crumb rubber in artificial turf On June 10 2009 USA Today carried a news story about New York City and Los Angeles Unified School District saying no to crumb rubber infill Here is the opening line from the report Officials in the nation s two largest cities are not waiting out ongoing studies and debate about the safety of artificial turf fields that use crumbs of recycled tire rubber as a base The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation and the Los Angeles Unified School District have decided that any new artificial fields they purchase must use a different material as its base or infill layer Source A J Perez Two cities spurn crumb rubber in artificial turf in USA TODAY June 10 2009 available at http www usatoday com sports 2009 06 10 artificial turf N htm SynTurf org Note While alternative infill may well catch on the turf industry does its level best to discourage it scaring the potential buyer with cost escalations possible impairment of warranty absence of widespread performance data and absence of test results to show their environmental and health benefit like crumb rubber has SynTurf org has learned that Riverdale Country School in Bronx NY has just contracted for an artificial turf field that will use an amalgam of coconut and cork for its infill SynTurf org has also learned that the same infill is being used in the dead man zone of the main stadium at BYU Provo Utah which infill is claimed to be softer to the feet and some 30 degrees cooler than the crumb rubber that was previously used In the U S this infill was first used in connection with a synthetic turf playground in 2008 at International School of Boston in Cambridge for the story see http www synturf org industrynotes html Item No 16 What is at work in the case of NYC LAUSD and a smattering of other places is the gradual acceptance of the Precautionary Principle when it comes to the planning and operation of synthetic turf fields particularly the crumb rubber variety The Precautionary Principles states When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically In this context the proponent of an activity rather than the public should bear the burden of proof The process of applying the precautionary principle must be open informed and democratic and must include potentially affected parties It must also involve an examination of the full range of alternatives including no action No 28 What s new is old news Research professor warns about crumb rubber toxicity The following is an item form Tire Rubber Recycling Fax a bulletin of the Tire Industry Association TIA vol 2 no 1 January 13 2003 Available on the Internet at http www tireindustry org newsarchives recycling recyclyingfax jan03 asp the piece reported on the work of one Alison Draper a research professor at Bucknell University Bucknell Pennsylvania who is currently at Trinity College in Hartford CT TIA abstract January 13 2003 Preliminary data from a new research study looking into the effects of tire wear particles on the environment indicates the tire wear particles may have a negative effect on plant and animal life in aquatic environments Alison Draper a research professor at Bucknell

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    machinery at work Notice that none of the folks manning these machines is wearing protective gear Is this just an oversight OSHA exemption or a ploy to impress the public about zero health hazard of inhaling harmful material like rubber dust and sand during the removal process Check it out at https www youtube com watch v 9eWlf9Kc3Gc feature youtu be published on 19 January 2016 In order to see what we are talking about see this one for what blows in the wind https www youtube com watch v 6zIGvSzIrWI published on 20 May 2010 No 02 Middletown New Jersey Town plans to dispose of old turf in garbage According to a report in The Independent October 2 2008 the turf field at Middletown High School North is currently being cut up and the only place the turf would go into the garbage The turf is going to dumpsters said Board of Education Attorney Christopher Parton According to Parton the contractor cuts the field into a checkerboard and remove the square panels Our original plan was to roll it up and do whatever he said When the contractor has been directed to remove the turf it tried a theory of vacuuming all of the ambient rubber out and rolling up the turf that did not work said Parton The removal of he field is being necessitated because the first installer Mondo USA s failed to come back and fix work done on the field Source Jamir Romm Turft hits the curb at H S North in The Independent Freehold New Jersey October 2 2008 available at t is http independent gmnews com news 2008 1002 front page 009 html No 01 Where do dead turf fields go SynTurf org Newton Mass October 3 2008 In Massachusetts and many other

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