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  • Law and Authority - Wikisource, the free online library
    the life of societies and the preservation of the race other desires other passions and therefore other habits and customs are evolved in human associations The desire to dominate others and impose one s own will upon them the desire to seize upon the products of the labour of a neighbouring tribe the desire to surround oneself with comforts without producing anything whilst slaves provide their master with the means of procuring every sort of pleasure and luxury these selfish personal desires give rise to another current of habits and customs The priest and the warrior the charlatan who makes a profit out of superstition and after freeing himself from the fear of the devil cultivates it in others and the bully who procures the invasion and pillage of his neighbours that he may return laden with booty and followed by slaves these two hand in hand have succeeded in imposing upon primitive society customs advantageous to both of them but tending to perpetuate their domination of the masses Profiting by the indolence the fears the inertia of the crowd and thanks to the continual repetition of the same acts they have permanently established customs which have become a solid basis for their own domination For this purpose they have made use in the first place of that tendency to run in a groove so highly developed in mankind In children and all savages it attains striking proportions and it may also be observed in animals Man when he is at all superstitious is always afraid to introduce any sort of change into existing conditions he generally venerates what is ancient Our fathers did so and so they got on pretty well they brought you up they were not unhappy do the same the old say to the young every time the latter wish to alter things The unknown frightens them they prefer to cling to the past even when that past represents poverty oppression and slavery It may even be said that the more miserable a man is the more he dreads every sort of change lest it may make him more wretched still Some ray of hope a few scraps of comfort must penetrate his gloomy abode before he can begin to desire better things to criticise the old ways of living and prepare to imperil them for the sake of bringing about a change So long as he is not imbued with hope so long as he is not freed from the tutelage of those who utilise his superstition and his fears he prefers remaining in his former position If the young desire any change the old raise a cry of alarm against the innovators Some savages would rather die than transgress the customs of their country because they have been told from childhood that the least infraction of established routine would bring ill luck and ruin the whole tribe Even in the present day what numbers of politicians economists and would be revolutionists act under the same impression and cling to a vanishing past How many care only to seek for precedents How many fiery innovators are mere copyists of bygone revolutions This spirit of routine originating in superstition indolence and cowardice has in all times been the mainstay of oppression In primitive human societies it was cleverly turned to account by priests and military chiefs They perpetuated customs useful only to themselves and succeeded in imposing them on the whole tribe So long as this conservative spirit could be exploited so as to assure the chief in his encroachments upon individual liberty so long as the only inequalities between men were the work of nature and these were not increased a hundred fold by the concentration of power and wealth there was no need for law and the formidable paraphernalia of tribunals and ever augmenting penalties to enforce it But as society became more and more divided into two hostile classes one seeking to establish its domination the other struggling to escape the strife began Now the conqueror was in a hurry to secure the results of his actions in a permanent form he tried to place them beyond question to make them holy and venerable by every means in his power Law made its appearance under the sanction of the priest and the warrior s club was placed at its service Its office was to render immutable such customs as were to the advantage of the dominant minority Military authority undertook to ensure obedience This new function was a fresh guarantee to the power of the warrior now he had not only mere brute force at his service he was the defender of law If law however presented nothing but a collection of prescriptions serviceable to rulers it would find some difficulty in insuring acceptance and obedience Well the legislators confounded in one code the two currents of custom of which we have just been speaking the maxims which represent principles of morality and social union wrought out as a result of life in common and the mandates which are meant to ensure eternal existence to inequality Customs absolutely essential to the very being of society are in the code cleverly intermingled with usages imposed by the ruling caste and both claim equal respect from the crowd Do not kill says the code and hastens to add And pay tithes to the priest Do not steal says the code and immediately after He who refuses to pay taxes shall have his hand struck off Such was law and it has maintained its twofold character to this day Its origin is the desire of the ruling class to give permanance to customs imposed by themselves for their own advantage Its character is the skilful co mingling of customs useful to society customs which have no need of law to ensure respect with other customs useful only to rulers injurious to the mass of the people and maintained only by the fear of punishment Like individual capital which was born of fraud and violence and developed under the auspices of authority law has no title to the respect of men Born of violence and superstition and established in the interests of consumer priest and rich exploiter it must be utterly destroyed on the day when the people desire to break their chains We shall be still better convinced of this when in the next chapter we have analysed the ulterior development of law under the auspices of religion authority and the existing parliamentary system CHAPTER III We have seen in the previous chapter how law originated in established usage and custom and how from the beginning it has represented a skilful mixture of social habits necessary to the preservation of the human race with other customs imposed by those who used popular superstition as well as the right of the strongest for their own advantage This double character of law has determined its later development during the growth of political organization Whilst in the course of ages the nucleus of social custom inscribed in law has been subjected to but slight and gradual modifications the other portion has been largely developed in directions indicated by the interests of the dominant classes and to the injury of the classes they oppress From time to time these dominant classes have allowed a law to be extorted from them which presented or appeared to present some guarantee for the disinherited But then such laws have but repealed a previous law made for the advantage of the ruling caste The best laws says Buckle were those which repealed the preceding ones But what terrible efforts have been needed what rivers of blood have been spilt every time there has been a question of the repeal of one of these fundamental enactments serving to hold the people in fetters Before she could abolish the last vestiges of serfdom and feudal rights and break up the power of the royal court France was forced to pass through four years of revolution and twenty years of war Decades of conflict are needful to repeal the least of the iniquitous laws bequeathed us by the past and even then they scarcely disappear except in periods of revolution The history of the genesis of capital has already been told by Socialists many times They have described how it was born of war and pillage of slavery and serfdom of modern fraud and exploitation They have shown how it is nourished by the blood of the worker and how little by little it has conquered the whole world The same story concerning the genesis and development of law has yet to be told As usual the popular intelligence has stolen a march upon the men of books It has already put together the philosophy of this history and is busy laying down its essential landmarks Law in its quality of guarantee of the results of pillage slavery and exploitation has followed the same phases of development as capital twin brother and sister they have advanced hand in hand sustaining one another with the suffering of mankind In every country in Europe their history is approximately the same It has differed only in detail the main facts are alike and to glance at the development of law in France or Germany is to know its essential traits its phases of development in most of the European nations In the first instance law was a national part or contract Such a contract was agreed upon between legions and people at the Champs de Mars 2 a relic of the same period is preserved even yet in the Field of May of the primitive Swiss cantons despite the alterations effected by the interference of centralising and middle class civilization It is true that this contract was not always freely accepted Even in those early days the rich and strong were imposing their will upon the rest But at all events they encountered an obstacle to their encroachments in the mass of the people who often made them feel their power in return But as the Church on one side and the nobles on the other succeeded in enthralling the people the right of law making escaped from the hands of the nation and passed into those of the privileged orders Fortified by the wealth accumulating in her coffers the Church extended her authority she tampered more and more with private life and under pretext of saving souls she seized upon the labour of her serfs she gathered taxes from every class she increased her jurisdiction she multiplied penalties and enriched herself in proportion to the number of offences committed for the produce of every fine poured into her coffers Laws had no longer any connection with the interests of the nation They might have been supposed to emanate rather from a council of religious fanatics than from legislators observes an historian of French law At the same time as the Baron likewise extended his authority over labourers in the fields and artizans in the towns he too became legislator and judge The few relics of national law dating from the tenth century are merely agreements regulating service statute labor and tribute due from serfs and vassals to their lord The legislators of that period were a handful of brigands organised for the plunder of a people daily becoming more peaceful as they applied themselves to agricultural pursuits These robbers exploited the feeling for justice inherent in the people they posed as the administrators of that justice made a source of revenue for themselves out of its fundamental principles and concocted laws to maintain their own domination Later on these laws collected and classified by jurists formed the foundation of our modern codes And are we to talk about respecting these codes the legacy of baron and priest The first revolution the revolt of the townships was successful in abolishing a portion only of these laws the charters of enfranchised towns are for the most part a mere compromise between baronial or episcopal legislation and the new relations created within the free borough itself Yet what a difference between these laws and the laws we have now The town did not take upon itself to imprison and execute citizens for reasons of State it was content to expel anyone who plotted with the enemies of the city and to raze his house to the ground It confined itself to imposing fines for so called crimes and misdemeanours and in the townships of the twelfth century may even be discerned the just principle today forgotten which holds the whole community responsible for the misdoing of each of its members The societies of that time looked upon crime as an accident or a misfortune a conception common amongst the Russian peasantry at this moment Therefore they did not admit the principle of personal vengeance as preached by the Bible but considered that the blame for each misdeed reverted to the whole society It needed all the influence of the Byzantine Church which imported into the West the refined cruelties of Eastern despotism to introduce into the manners of Gauls and Germans the penalty of death and the horrible tortures afterwards inflicted on those regarded as criminals Just in the same way it needed all the influence of the Roman code the product of the corruption of Imperial Rome to introduce the notions as to absolute property in land which have overthrown the communistic customs of primitive people As we know the free townships were not able to hold their own Torn by intestine dissensions between rich and poor burgher and serf they fell an easy prey to royalty And as royalty acquired fresh strength the right of legislation passed more and more into the hands of a clique of courtiers Appeal to the nation was made only to sanction the taxes demanded by the King Parliament summoned at intervals of two centuries according to the good pleasure or caprice of the Court Councils Extraordinary Assemblies of Notables Ministers scarce heeding the grievances of the king s subjects these are the legislators of France Later still when all power is concentrated in a single man who can say I am the State edicts are concocted in the secret counsels of the Prince according to the whim of a minister or of an imbecile King and subjects must obey on pain of death All judicial guarantees are abolished the nation is the serf of royalty and of a handful of courtiers And at this period the most horrible penalties startle our gaze the wheel the stake flaying alive tortures of every description invented by the sick fancy of monks and madmen seeking delight in the sufferings of executed criminals The great Revolution began the demolition of this framework of law bequeathed to us by feudalism and royalty But after having demolished some portions of the ancient edifice the Revolution delivered over the power of law making to the bourgeoisie who in their turn began to raise a fresh framework of laws intended to maintain and perpetuate middle class domination amongst the masses Their Parliament makes laws right and left and mountains of law accumulate with frightful rapidity But what are all these laws at bottom The major portion have but one object to protect private property i e wealth acquired by the exploitation of man by man Their aim is to open out to capital fresh fields for exploitation and to sanction the new forms which that exploitation continually assumes as capital swallows up another branch of human activity railways telegraphs electric light chemical industries the expression of man s thought in literature and science c The object of the rest of these laws is fundamentally the same They exist to keep up the machinery of government which serves to secure to capital the exploitation and monopoly of the wealth produced Magistrature police army public instruction finance all serve one God capital all have but one object to facilitate the exploitation of the worker by the capitalist Analyse all the laws passed for the last eighty years and you will find nothing but this The protection of the person which is put forward as the true mission of law occupies an imperceptible space amongst them for in existing society assaults upon the person directly dictated by hatred and brutality tend to disappear Now a days if anyone is murdered it is generally for the sake of robbing him rarely from personal vengeance But if this class of crimes and misdemeanours is continually diminishing we certainly do not owe the change to legislation It is due to the growth of humanitarianism in our societies to our increasingly social habits rather than to the prescriptions of our laws Repeal to morrow every law dealing with the protection of the person and to morrow stop all proceedings for assault and the number of attempts dictated by personal vengeance and by brutality would not be augmented by one single instance It will perhaps be objected that during the last fifty years a good many liberal laws have been enacted But if these laws are analysed it will be discovered that this liberal legislation consists in the repeal of the laws bequeathed to us by the barbarism of preceding centuries Every liberal law every radical programme may be summed up in these words abolition of laws grown irksome to the middle class itself and return and extension to all citizens of liberties enjoyed by the townships of the twelfth century The abolition of capital punishment trial by jury for all crimes there was a more liberal jury in the twelfth century the election of magistrates the right of bringing public officials to trial the abolition of standing armies free instruction c everything that is pointed out as an invention of modern liberalism is but a return to the freedom which existed before Church and King had laid hands upon

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  • Peter Kropotkin - Wikisource, the free online library
    Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Bessarabia in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 in part with John Thomas Bealby Bokhara city in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Bokhara state in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Bulgaria Eastern in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Caucasus in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 in part with John Thomas Bealby Cossacks in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Crimea in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Daghestan in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Dnieper in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Dniester in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Don Russia in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Don Cossacks Territory of the in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Dvina in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Echmiadzin in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Esthonia in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby and Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot Ferghana in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Finland in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 in part with Joseph R Fisher and John Scott Keltie Kiev city in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Lithuanians and Letts in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 History Minsk government in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Moscow in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby New Siberia Archipelago in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Poland Russian in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Poltava in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 in part Pskov in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 in part Radom government in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Riga in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby St Petersburg in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Tambov government in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Tatars in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot Warsaw in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 with John Thomas Bealby Articles in Encyclopædia Britannica Ninth Edition edit Spitzbergen in Encyclopædia Britannica 9th ed 1887 Articles in Popular Science Monthly edit Recent Science I in Popular Science Monthly Volume 41 October 1892 Recent Science II in Popular Science Monthly Volume 43 July 1893 Recent Science III in Popular Science Monthly Volume 43 September 1893 The Geology and Geo Botany of Asia in Popular Science Monthly Volume 65 May 1904 Works about Kropotkin edit Kropotkin Peter Alexeivich in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Kropotkin Peter Alexeievitch in The Encyclopedia Americana New York The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation 1920 Kropotkin Peter Alexievich Prince in Collier s New Encyclopedia New York P F Collier Son Co Some or all works by this author are in the public domain in the United States because they were published before January 1 1923 The author died in 1921 so works by this author are also in the public domain in countries and areas

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  • File:The Myth of Occams Razor.djvu - Wikisource, the free online library
    copyrighted outside the U S see Help Public domain Public domain Public domain false false File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 05 33 11 July 2009 2 406 3 639 9 pages 314 KB John Vandenberg talk contribs higher res no OCR 04 55 11 July 2009 No thumbnail 0 0 216 KB John Vandenberg talk contribs Information Description The Myth of Occam s Razor Mind 27 107 345 353 doi 10 1093 mind XXVII 3 345 Source http sveinbjorn org files papers MythOfOccamsRazor pdf Date 1918 Author W M Thorburn Permission PD 1923 other versions You cannot overwrite this file File usage The following 12 pages link to this file User William Maury Morris II Wikisource Proofread of the Month Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 1 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 2 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 3 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 4 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 5 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 6 Page The Myth of Occams Razor djvu 7 Page The Myth of Occams

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  • The Myth of Occam's Razor - Wikisource, the free online library
    mind of the later Middle Ages so unhappily cut off when he was only beginning to pass from the critical to the constructive stage According to some biographers he died at thirty four Though unintelligently described by Leibnitz and others as an Extreme Realist his Universal was only an Ens Rationis a Brain tool having a merely metaphorical entity Ens Reale seu Naturale est concretum he said in his Tractatus de Modis Significandis i c 25 12 page 58b in tom i Ens est duplex naturae et rationis Ens Rationis cujusmodi sunt Genus Species Definitio in his In Elenchorum LL Q 1 page 224 2 in tom i Est enim Species tenuis similitudo Singularium in his Super Universalia Porphyrii Q 4 page 90 4 in tom i The Formalism of the Most Subtle Doctor looks like the tentative and temporary device of a public teacher in Holy Orders who did not wish to break openly with the dominant tradition of Realism but was feeling his way to the Terminism boldly professed by his independent contemporary Bishop Durand of Meaux 1332 and afterwards completely worked out by his pupil William of Ockham It has lately been stigmatized by the modern semi Scotist Professor Pohle of Breslau as an inconceivable hybrid which excludes every attempt of the mind to grasp it p 153 of The Essence and Attributes of God vol i of his Dogmatic Theology translated by Arthur Preuss Both the Oxford Fransciscans Ockham and Scotus used indifferently the two formulas Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate and Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora while a former very similar to the latter was used by the Most Resolute Doctor the great Dominican Nominalist Durand Frustra ponuntur plura ubi unum sufficit In Sententias ii D 3 Q 5 N 4 Occam s main contribution to the Doctrine was a special application to the Logic of Universals in his characteristic formula Sufficiunt Singularia et ita tales res universales omnino frustra ponuntur In SS i D 2 Q 4 top of col 18 Few or no competent critics will question Mansel s judgment of Ockham on page 40 of his Introduction to the Rudimenta of Aldrich The ablest writer on Logic whom the Schools have produced The Summa Totius Logicæ of Occam is the most valuable contribution of the Middle Ages to the Logica Docens His editor Mark of Beneventum said that if the Gods used Logic it would be the Logic of Ockham 9 The doctrine was first completely applied to Physics by Sir Isaac Newton in 1713 He quotes the very words of Scotus and Ockham in the brief annotation of his first Regula Philosophandi 5 which is itself a very similar statement of the principle In the Third Edition 1726 of the Principia Mathematica De Mundi Systemate lib iii p 387 the Rule runs Causas rerum naturalium non plures admitti debere quam quae et verae sint et earum phenomenis explicandis sufficient Newton then subjoins Dicunt utique philosophi Natura nihil agit frustra et frustra fit per plura quod fieri potest per pauciora a comment not found in the First Edition 1687 There is however no mention of Ockham or Nominalism in the Principia The term Novaculum Nominalium was quite unknown in the seventeenth century as the international learned translation of Condillac s Gallic wit Rasoir des Nominaux in a note on page 214 of his Origine des Connasissances Humaines 1746 Section V Des Abstractions chap i 5 The English variant Occam s Razor is a century younger having made its first appearance in Sir William Hamilton s Discussions 1852 page 590 On Causality In the second edition 1853 it is used on pages 616 and 629 In the latter place it is for the first time distinctly associated with the current form 10 The following Conclusions I call Provisional mainly because there is still a possibility that they may be upset by German investigators of Ockham s unpublished manuscripts These have lain idle for nearly six centuries at Ingolstadt or Munich still uncopied and probably unread by any Englishman much to the discredit of Merton College and the University of Oxford Many of his cardinal works have never been printed including his Commentaries on the Second Third and Fourth Books of the Lombard Sentences The Commentary on the First Book printed in 1495 is very full but the appended comments on the other Books are only slender bundles of selected Questions occupying together only one third of the volume Provisional Conclusions A Occam s Razor is a modern myth There is nothing mediaeval in it except the general sense of the post mediaeval formula Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem This myth has come to full maturity and secured general assent within the lifetime of many philosophers of the present day though it is a matter of purely intellectual interest without any impulse or reinforcement from commercial greed family pride national vanity sectarian zeal or political party spirit B The age of the English title is not yet three score years and ten dating from the publication of Sir William Hamilton s Discussions 1852 C The Latin title Novaculum Nominalium is little if at all more than a century older being a translation of the French title Rasoir des Nominaux bestowed upon the current formula by Condillac in 1746 D 1 The current formula was unknown to Ockham and the other Schoolmen 2 It was invented in 1639 substantially in its present wording by the Scotist Commentator John Ponce of Cork a little known man of great abilities and very independent disposition 3 It first appeared in its present exact order of words in the Logica Vetus et Nova of John Clauberg of Groningen in 1654 4 It was first formally associated with Nominalism by Leibnitz in 1670 and this connexion seems to have been generally accepted from the beginning of the eighteenth century The reason of the connexion was indicated in 1676 by Jakob Thomasius father of the

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  • File:Notes on equitation and horse training.djvu - Wikisource, the free online library
    this file only A full list is available Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 1 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 10 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 100 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 101 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 11 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 12 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 13 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 14 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 15 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 16 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 17 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 18 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 19 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 2 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 20 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 21 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 22 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 23 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 24 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 25 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 26 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 27 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 28 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 29 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 3 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 30 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 31 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 32 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 33 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 34 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 35 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 36 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 37 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 38 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 39 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 4 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 40 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 41 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 42 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 43 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 44 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 45 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 46 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 47 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 48 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 49 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 5 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 50 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 51 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 52 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 53 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 54 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 55 Page Notes on equitation and horse training djvu 56 Page Notes on equitation and horse

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  • Notes on equitation and horse training - Wikisource, the free online library
    January 1 1923 It may be copyrighted outside the U S see Help Public domain Public domain Public domain false false Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Notes on equitation and horse training oldid 2837878 Categories 1910 works PD 1923 Hidden category Pages with override author Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Page Discussion Variants Views Read Edit

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  • George Hamilton Cameron - Wikisource, the free online library
    by this author are in the public domain in the United States because they were published before January 1 1923 The author died in 1944 so works by this author are also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author s life plus 70 years or less Works by this author may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works Public domain Public domain false false Authority control English Wikisource 221128 Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Author George Hamilton Cameron oldid 5653599 Categories Authors Ca 1861 births Early modern authors 1944 deaths Modern authors Male authors English authors Author PD old 70 1923 Hidden categories Author pages without image Author pages with gender in Wikidata Author pages connected to Wikidata VIAF not on Wikisource Author pages without VIAF on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Author Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author

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  • File:Wills Act 1837.djvu - Wikisource, the free online library
    Kingdom Public domain Public domain false false This artistic work created by the United Kingdom Government is in the public domain This is because it is one of the following It is a photograph created by the United Kingdom Government and taken prior to 1 June 1957 or It was commercially published prior to 1966 or It is an artistic work other than a photograph or engraving e g a painting which was created by the United Kingdom Government prior to 1966 HMSO has declared that the expiry of Crown Copyrights applies worldwide ref HMSO Email Reply More information See also Copyright and Crown copyright artistic works Deutsch English suomi français italiano 日本語 македонски മലയ ള Nederlands polski português slovenščina Türkçe 中文 This file is in DjVu a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents You may view this DjVu file here online If the document is multi page you may use the controls on the right of the image to change pages You may also view this DjVu file in your web browser with proper browser plugin add on or use a desktop version DjVu viewer for your Operating system You can choose a suitable software from this list See Help DjVu for more information File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 11 07 8 December 2008 2 479 3 508 10 pages 233 KB 虍 Information Description en 1 An Act for the Amendment of the Laws with respect to Wills Source http www opsi gov uk acts acts1837a converted to djvu Author United Kingdom Date 1837 Permission other versions PD UKGov ImageUpl File usage The following 13 pages link to this file User William Maury Morris II Wikisource

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