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  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame - Wikisource, the free online library
    Middle Ages for the last two hundred years Mutilations come to them from every quarter from within as well as from without The priest whitewashes them the archdeacon scrapes them down then the populace arrives and demolishes them Thus with the exception of the fragile memory which the author of this book here consecrates to it there remains to day nothing whatever of the mysterious word engraved within the gloomy tower of Notre Dame nothing of the destiny which it so sadly summed up The man who wrote that word upon the wall disappeared from the midst of the generations of man many centuries ago the word in its turn has been effaced from the wall of the church the church will perhaps itself soon disappear from the face of the earth It is upon this word that this book is founded March 1831 TABLE OF CONTENTS edit VOLUME I BOOK FIRST I The Grand Hall II Pierre Gringoire III Monsieur the Cardinal IV Master Jacques Coppenole V Quasimodo VI Esmeralda BOOK SECOND I From Charybdis to Scylla II The Place de Grève III Kisses for Blows IV The Inconveniences of Following a Pretty Woman through the Streets in the Evening V Result of the Dangers VI The Broken Jug VII A Bridal Night BOOK THIRD I Notre Dame II A Bird s eye View of Paris BOOK FOURTH I Good Souls II Claude Frollo III Immanis Pecoris Custos Immanior Ipse IV The Dog and his Master V More about Claude Frollo VI Unpopularity BOOK FIFTH I Abbas Beati Martini II This will Kill That BOOK SIXTH I An Impartial Glance at the Ancient Magistracy II The Rat hole III History of a Leavened Cake of Maize IV A Tear for a Drop of Water V End of the Story of the Cake VOLUME II BOOK SEVENTH I The Danger of Confiding One s Secret to a Goat II A Priest and a Philosopher are two Different Things III The Bells IV ἈNΆГKH V The Two Men Clothed in Black VI The Effect which Seven Oaths in the Open Air can Produce VII The Mysterious Monk VIII The Utility of Windows which Open on the River BOOK EIGHTH I The Crown Changed into a Dry Leaf II Continuation of the Crown which was Changed into a Dry Leaf III End of the Crown which was Changed into a Dry Leaf IV Lasciate Ogni Speranza Leave all hope behind ye who Enter here V The Mother VI Three Human Hearts differently Constructed BOOK NINTH I Delirium II Hunchbacked One Eyed Lame III Deaf IV Earthenware and Crystal V The Key to the Red Door VI Continuation of the Key to the Red Door BOOK TENTH I Gringoire has Many Good Ideas in Succession Rue des Bernardins II Turn Vagabond III Long Live Mirth IV An Awkward Friend V The Retreat in which Monsieur Louis of France says his Prayers VI Little Sword in Pocket VII Chateaupers to the Rescue BOOK ELEVENTH

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  • Ballad of Mulan - Wikisource, the free online library
    to translated works Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Page Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author Random transcription Help Donate Display Options Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Download print Create a book Download

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  • Edgar Rice Burroughs - Wikisource, the free online library
    Foreign Legion 1947 John Carter edit A Princess of Mars 1912 The Gods of Mars 1914 The Warlord of Mars 1918 Thuvia Maid of Mars 1920 The Chessmen of Mars 1922 The Master Mind of Mars 1928 A Fighting Man of Mars 1931 Swords of Mars 1936 Synthetic Men of Mars Llana of Gathol 1948 John Carter of Mars 1964 Pellucidar edit At the Earth s Core 1914 Pellucidar 1923 Tanar of Pellucidar 1928 Tarzan at the Earth s Core 1929 Back to the Stone Age 1937 Land of Terror 1944 Savage Pellucidar 1963 Venus edit Pirates of Venus 1934 Lost on Venus 1935 Carson of Venus 1939 Escape on Venus 1946 The Wizard of Venus 1970 Caspak edit The Land That Time Forgot 1918 omnibus The Land That Time Forgot 1918 The People That Time Forgot 1918 Out of Time s Abyss 1918 Other Novels edit A Man Without A Soul The Cave Girl 1913 The Efficiency Expert 1921 The Girl from Farris s 1916 The Lost Continent 1916 The Oakdale Affair 1917 The Mad King serial 1914 15 republished as a book 1926 The Mucker 1914 The Return of the Mucker 1916 Sources edit Project Gutenberg Some or all works by this author are in the public domain in the United States because they were published before January 1 1923 The author died in 1950 so works by this author are also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author s life plus 60 years or less Works by this author may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 17220001 LCCN n80039681 ISNI

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  • Tarzan of the Apes - Wikisource, the free online library
    a copy of this work Ideally this will be a scanned copy of the original that can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons and proofread If not it is preferably a URL if one is not available please explain on the talk page Contents edit Chapter 1 Out to Sea Chapter 2 The Savage Home Chapter 3 Life and Death Chapter 4 The Apes Chapter 5 The White Ape Chapter 6 Jungle Battles Chapter 7 The Light of Knowledge Chapter 8 The Tree Top Hunter Chapter 9 Man and Man Chapter 10 The Fear Phantom Chapter 11 King of the Apes Chapter 12 Man s Reason Chapter 13 His Own Kind Chapter 14 At the Mercy of the Jungle Chapter 15 The Forest God Chapter 16 Most Remarkable Chapter 17 Burials Chapter 18 The Jungle Toll Chapter 19 The Call of the Primitive Chapter 20 Heredity Chapter 21 The Village of Torture Chapter 22 The Search Party Chapter 23 Brother Men Chapter 24 Lost Treasure Chapter 25 The Outpost of the World Chapter 26 The Height of Civilization Chapter 27 The Giant Again Chapter 28 Conclusion This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1 1923 The author died in 1950 so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author s life plus 60 years or less This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works Public domain Public domain false false Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Tarzan of the Apes oldid 4439868 Categories 1912 works Spoken works Texts without a source PD old 60 1923

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  • Jules Verne - Wikisource, the free online library
    Two Years Holiday 1888 1889 first published in English From the Earth to the Moon The Moon Voyage 1865 1873 first published in English 20 000 Leagues Under the Seas Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas 1870 Around the Moon 1870 1873 first published in English A Floating City 1871 The Mysterious Island 1874 Around the World in Eighty Days 1873 Hector Servadac Off on a Comet 1877 Michael Strogoff Michael Strogoff The Courier of the Czar 1876 Mathias Sandorf 1886 Robur the Conqueror 1886 1887 first published in English Cæsar Cascabel 1890 Claudius Bombarnac The Adventures of a Special Correspondent 1892 The Green Ray Green Ray The A Romance of the Scottish Highland 1882 1883 first published in English The Survivors of the Chancellor 1875 The Master of the World 1904 1914 first published in English Eight Hundred Leagues on the Amazon 1881 The Lighthouse at the End of the World 1906 1923 first publishe in English Attributed to Michel Verne Facing the Flag 1896 1897 first published in English In Search of the Castaways 1867 1873 first published in English The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Hatteras 1866 1875 first published in English The Adventures of Three Englishmen and Three Russians in Southern Africa 1872 Non fiction work edit Title Other title Year Published Translated Salon of 1857 1857 The Exploration of the World Celebrated Travels and Travellers 1879 About Jules Verne edit Verne Jules in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Notes edit JV GILEAD ORG IL EPGUIDES COM NAJVS ORG Works by this author published before January 1 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain

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  • 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea - Wikisource, the free online library
    his submarine Nautilus as seen by one of his passengers Professor Pierre Aronnax 1597956 English language translations of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Jules Verne 1870 English language translations of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers include Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Original English translation by Lewis Page Mercier Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea 1911 translation by Charles Francis Horne start transcription Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas 2001 translation by Frederick Paul Walter Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title 20 000 Leagues Under the Sea oldid 5936643 Categories Translations pages Works originally in French Science fiction novels Adventure novels French novels Works of Jules Verne Hidden category Pages with noyearcat Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Page Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author Random transcription Help Donate Display Options Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Download print Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other languages

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  • Plato - Wikisource, the free online library
    W R M Lamb Loeb vol 8 1927 7 8 George Burges Works vol 4 1851 9 Minos translated by W R M Lamb Loeb vol 8 1927 10 11 George Burges Works vol 4 1851 12 Epinomis translated by W R M Lamb Loeb vol 8 1927 13 14 George Burges Works vol 6 1854 15 16 Theages translated by W R M Lamb Loeb vol 8 1927 17 18 George Burges Works vol 4 1851 19 Eryxias Spurious works variously included in other collections edit Axiochus translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 20 21 On Justice translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 22 23 On Virtue translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 24 25 Demodocus translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 26 27 Sisyphus translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 28 29 Definitions translated by George Burges Works vol 6 1854 30 31 Halcyon 18 Epigrams Works about Plato edit Socrates Plato and the Roman Stoics by Charles Pomeroy Parker in The Harvard Classics Vol 51 1914 Plato in Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Plato and Platonism in Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 Book III Plato by Diogenes Laërtius trans Robert Drew Hicks in Lives of the Eminent Philosophers 1925 Works by this author published before January 1 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 108159964 LCCN n79139459 ISNI 0000 0001 2096 7858 GND 118594893 SELIBR 196943 SUDOC 027076164 BNF cb11920019p ULAN 500248317 NDL 00452937 NKC jn19981001996 NTA 06861733X Open Library OL189658A IMDB nm0686817 Freebase m

    Original URL path: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Plato (2016-02-13)
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  • Timaeus - Wikisource, the free online library
    signify something thereby for they are too volatile to be detained in any such expressions as this or that or relative to this or any other mode of speaking which represents them as permanent We ought not to apply this to any of them but rather the word such which expresses the similar principle circulating in each and all of them for example that should be called fire which is of such a nature always and so of everything that has generation That in which the elements severally grow up and appear and decay is alone to be called by the name this or that but that which is of a certain nature hot or white or anything which admits of opposite equalities and all things that are compounded of them ought not to be so denominated Let me make another attempt to explain my meaning more clearly Suppose a person to make all kinds of figures of gold and to be always transmuting one form into all the rest somebody points to one of them and asks what it is By far the safest and truest answer is That is gold and not to call the triangle or any other figures which are formed in the gold these as though they had existence since they are in process of change while he is making the assertion but if the questioner be willing to take the safe and indefinite expression such we should be satisfied And the same argument applies to the universal nature which receives all bodies that must be always called the same for while receiving all things she never departs at all from her own nature and never in any way or at any time assumes a form like that of any of the things which enter into her she is the natural recipient of all impressions and is stirred and informed by them and appears different from time to time by reason of them But the forms which enter into and go out of her are the likenesses of real existences modelled after their patterns in wonderful and inexplicable manner which we will hereafter investigate For the present we have only to conceive of three natures first that which is in process of generation secondly that in which the generation takes place and thirdly that of which the thing generated is a resemblance And we may liken the receiving principle to a mother and the source or spring to a father and the intermediate nature to a child and may remark further that if the model is to take every variety of form then the matter in which the model is fashioned will not be duly prepared unless it is formless and free from the impress of any of these shapes which it is hereafter to receive from without For if the matter were like any of the supervening forms then whenever any opposite or entirely different nature was stamped upon its surface it would take the impression badly because it would intrude its own shape Wherefore that which is to receive all forms should have no form as in making perfumes they first contrive that the liquid substance which is to receive the scent shall be as inodorous as possible or as those who wish to impress figures on soft substances do not allow any previous impression to remain but begin by making the surface as even and smooth as possible In the same way that which is to receive perpetually and through its whole extent the resemblances of all eternal beings ought to be devoid of any particular form Wherefore the mother and receptacle of all created and visible and in any way sensible things is not to be termed earth or air or fire or water or any of their compounds or any of the elements from which these are derived but is an invisible and formless being which receives all things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible and is most incomprehensible In saying this we shall not be far wrong as far however as we can attain to a knowledge of her from the previous considerations we may truly say that fire is that part of her nature which from time to time is inflamed and water that which is moistened and that the mother substance becomes earth and air in so far as she receives the impressions of them Let us consider this question more precisely Is there any self existent fire and do all those things which we call self existent exist or are only those things which we see or in some way perceive through the bodily organs truly existent and nothing whatever besides them And is all that which we call an intelligible essence nothing at all and only a name Here is a question which we must not leave unexamined or undetermined nor must we affirm too confidently that there can be no decision neither must we interpolate in our present long discourse a digression equally long but if it is possible to set forth a great principle in a few words that is just what we want Thus I state my view If mind and true opinion are two distinct classes then I say that there certainly are these self existent ideas unperceived by sense and apprehended only by the mind if however as some say true opinion differs in no respect from mind then everything that we perceive through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain But we must affirm that to be distinct for they have a distinct origin and are of a different nature the one is implanted in us by instruction the other by persuasion the one is always accompanied by true reason the other is without reason the one cannot be overcome by persuasion but the other can and lastly every man may be said to share in true opinion but mind is the attribute of the gods and of very few men Wherefore also we must acknowledge that there is one kind of being which is always the same uncreated and indestructible never receiving anything into itself from without nor itself going out to any other but invisible and imperceptible by any sense and of which the contemplation is granted to intelligence only And there is another nature of the same name with it and like to it perceived by sense created always in motion becoming in place and again vanishing out of place which is apprehended by opinion and sense And there is a third nature which is space and is eternal and admits not of destruction and provides a home for all created things and is apprehended without the help of sense by a kind of spurious reason and is hardly real which we beholding as in a dream say of all existence that it must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space but that what is neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence Of these and other things of the same kind relating to the true and waking reality of nature we have only this dreamlike sense and we are unable to cast off sleep and determine the truth about them For an image since the reality after which it is modelled does not belong to it and it exists ever as the fleeting shadow of some other must be inferred to be in another i e in space grasping existence in some way or other or it could not be at all But true and exact reason vindicating the nature of true being maintains that while two things i e the image and space are different they cannot exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time Thus have I concisely given the result of my thoughts and my verdict is that being and space and generation these three existed in their three ways before the heaven and that the nurse of generation moistened by water and inflamed by fire and receiving the forms of earth and air and experiencing all the affections which accompany these presented a strange variety of appearances and being full of powers which were neither similar nor equally balanced was never in any part in a state of equipoise but swaying unevenly hither and thither was shaken by them and by its motion again shook them and the elements when moved were separated and carried continually some one way some another as when rain is shaken and winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn the close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction and the loose and light particles in another In this manner the four kinds or elements were then shaken by the receiving vessel which moving like a winnowing machine scattered far away from one another the elements most unlike and forced the most similar elements into dose contact Wherefore also the various elements had different places before they were arranged so as to form the universe At first they were all without reason and measure But when the world began to get into order fire and water and earth and air had only certain faint traces of themselves and were altogether such as everything might be expected to be in the absence of God this I say was their nature at that time and God fashioned them by form and number Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we say that God made them as far as possible the fairest and best out of things which were not fair and good And now I will endeavour to show you the disposition and generation of them by an unaccustomed argument which am compelled to use but I believe that you will be able to follow me for your education has made you familiar with the methods of science In the first place then as is evident to all fire and earth and water and air are bodies And every sort of body possesses solidity and every solid must necessarily be contained in planes and every plane rectilinear figure is composed of triangles and all triangles are originally of two kinds both of which are made up of one right and two acute angles one of them has at either end of the base the half of a divided right angle having equal sides while in the other the right angle is divided into unequal parts having unequal sides These then proceeding by a combination of probability with demonstration we assume to be the original elements of fire and the other bodies but the principles which are prior to these God only knows and he of men who is the friend God And next we have to determine what are the four most beautiful bodies which are unlike one another and of which some are capable of resolution into one another for having discovered thus much we shall know the true origin of earth and fire and of the proportionate and intermediate elements And then we shall not be willing to allow that there are any distinct kinds of visible bodies fairer than these Wherefore we must endeavour to construct the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty and then we shall be able to say that we have sufficiently apprehended their nature Now of the two triangles the isosceles has one form only the scalene or unequal sided has an infinite number Of the infinite forms we must select the most beautiful if we are to proceed in due order and any one who can point out a more beautiful form than ours for the construction of these bodies shall carry off the palm not as an enemy but as a friend Now the one which we maintain to be the most beautiful of all the many triangles and we need not speak of the others is that of which the double forms a third triangle which is equilateral the reason of this would be long to tell he who disproves what we are saying and shows that we are mistaken may claim a friendly victory Then let us choose two triangles out of which fire and the other elements have been constructed one isosceles the other having the square of the longer side equal to three times the square of the lesser side Now is the time to explain what was before obscurely said there was an error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and into one another this I say was an erroneous supposition for there are generated from the triangles which we have selected four kinds three from the one which has the sides unequal the fourth alone is framed out of the isosceles triangle Hence they cannot all be resolved into one another a great number of small bodies being combined into a few large ones or the converse But three of them can be thus resolved and compounded for they all spring from one and when the greater bodies are broken up many small bodies will spring up out of them and take their own proper figures or again when many small bodies are dissolved into their triangles if they become one they will form one large mass of another kind So much for their passage into one another I have now to speak of their several kinds and show out of what combinations of numbers each of them was formed The first will be the simplest and smallest construction and its element is that triangle which has its hypotenuse twice the lesser side When two such triangles are joined at the diagonal and this is repeated three times and the triangles rest their diagonals and shorter sides on the same point as a centre a single equilateral triangle is formed out of six triangles and four equilateral triangles if put together make out of every three plane angles one solid angle being that which is nearest to the most obtuse of plane angles and out of the combination of these four angles arises the first solid form which distributes into equal and similar parts the whole circle in which it is inscribed The second species of solid is formed out of the same triangles which unite as eight equilateral triangles and form one solid angle out of four plane angles and out of six such angles the second body is completed And the third body is made up of 120 triangular elements forming twelve solid angles each of them included in five plane equilateral triangles having altogether twenty bases each of which is an equilateral triangle The one element that is the triangle which has its hypotenuse twice the lesser side having generated these figures generated no more but the isosceles triangle produced the fourth elementary figure which is compounded of four such triangles joining their right angles in a centre and forming one equilateral quadrangle Six of these united form eight solid angles each of which is made by the combination of three plane right angles the figure of the body thus composed is a cube having six plane quadrangular equilateral bases There was yet a fifth combination which God used in the delineation of the universe Now he who duly reflecting on all this enquires whether the worlds are to be regarded as indefinite or definite in number will be of opinion that the notion of their indefiniteness is characteristic of a sadly indefinite and ignorant mind He however who raises the question whether they are to be truly regarded as one or five takes up a more reasonable position Arguing from probabilities I am of opinion that they are one another regarding the question from another point of view will be of another mind But leaving this enquiry let us proceed to distribute the elementary forms which have now been created in idea among the four elements To earth then let us assign the cubical form for earth is the most immoveable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies and that which has the most stable bases must of necessity be of such a nature Now of the triangles which we assumed at first that which has two equal sides is by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides and of the compound figures which are formed out of either the plane equilateral quadrangle has necessarily a more stable basis than the equilateral triangle both in the whole and in the parts Wherefore in assigning this figure to earth we adhere to probability and to water we assign that one of the remaining forms which is the least moveable and the most moveable of them to fire and to air that which is intermediate Also we assign the smallest body to fire and the greatest to water and the intermediate in size to air and again the acutest body to fire and the next in acuteness to air and the third to water Of all these elements that which has the fewest bases must necessarily be the most moveable for it must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way and also the lightest as being composed of the smallest number of similar particles and the second body has similar properties in a second degree and the third body in the third degree Let it be agreed then both according to strict reason and according to probability that the pyramid is the solid which is the original element and seed of fire and let us assign the element which was next in the order of generation to air and the third to water We must imagine all these to be so small that no single particle of any of the four kinds is seen by us on account of their smallness but when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen And the ratios of their numbers motions and other properties everywhere God as far as necessity allowed or gave consent has exactly perfected and harmonised in due proportion From all that we have just been saying about the elements or kinds the most probable conclusion is as follows earth when meeting with fire and dissolved by its sharpness whether the dissolution take place in the fire itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water is borne hither and thither until its parts meeting together and mutually harmonising again become earth for they can never take any other form But water when divided by fire or by air on reforming may become one part fire and two parts air and a single volume of air divided becomes two of fire Again when a small body of fire is contained in a larger body of air or water or earth and both are moving and the fire struggling is overcome and broken up then two volumes of fire form one volume of air and when air is overcome and cut up into small pieces two and a half parts of air are condensed into one part of water Let us consider the matter in another way When one of the other elements is fastened upon by fire and is cut by the sharpness of its angles and sides it coalesces with the fire and then ceases to be cut by them any longer For no element which is one and the same with itself can be changed by or change another of the same kind and in the same state But so long as in the process of transition the weaker is fighting against the stronger the dissolution continues Again when a few small particles enclosed in many larger ones are in process of decomposition and extinction they only cease from their tendency to extinction when they consent to pass into the conquering nature and fire becomes air and air water But if bodies of another kind go and attack them i e the small particles the latter continue to be dissolved until being completely forced back and dispersed they make their escape to their own kindred or else being overcome and assimilated to the conquering power they remain where they are and dwell with their victors and from being many become one And owing to these affections all things are changing their place for by the motion of the receiving vessel the bulk of each class is distributed into its proper place but those things which become unlike themselves and like other things are hurried by the shaking into the place of the things to which they grow like Now all unmixed and primary bodies are produced by such causes as these As to the subordinate species which are included in the greater kinds they are to be attributed to the varieties in the structure of the two original triangles For either structure did not originally produce the triangle of one size only but some larger and some smaller and there are as many sizes as there are species of the four elements Hence when they are mingled with themselves and with one another there is an endless variety of them which those who would arrive at the probable truth of nature ought duly to consider Unless a person comes to an understanding about the nature and conditions of rest and motion he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion which follows Something has been said of this matter already and something more remains to be said which is that motion never exists in what is uniform For to conceive that anything can be moved without a mover is hard or indeed impossible and equally impossible to conceive that there can be a mover unless there be something which can be moved motion cannot exist where either of these are wanting and for these to be uniform is impossible wherefore we must assign rest to uniformity and motion to the want of uniformity Now inequality is the cause of the nature which is wanting in uniformity and of this we have already described the origin But there still remains the further point why things when divided after their kinds do not cease to pass through one another and to change their place which we will now proceed to explain In the revolution of the universe are comprehended all the four elements and this being circular and having a tendency to come together compresses everything and will not allow any place to be left void Wherefore also fire above all things penetrates everywhere and air next as being next in rarity of the elements and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to their degrees of rarity For those things which are composed of the largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions and those which are composed of the smallest particles have the least And the contraction caused by the compression thrusts the smaller particles into the interstices of the larger And thus when the small parts are placed side by side with the larger and the lesser divide the greater and the greater unite the lesser all the elements are borne up and down and hither and thither towards their own places for the change in the size of each changes its position in space And these causes generate an inequality which is always maintained and is continually creating a perpetual motion of the elements in all time In the next place we have to consider that there are divers kinds of fire There are for example first flame and secondly those emanations of flame which do not burn but only give light to the eyes thirdly the remains of fire which are seen in red hot embers after the flame has been extinguished There are similar differences in the air of which the brightest part is called the aether and the most turbid sort mist and darkness and there are various other nameless kinds which arise from the inequality of the triangles Water again admits in the first place of a division into two kinds the one liquid and the other fusile The liquid kind is composed of the small and unequal particles of water and moves itself and is moved by other bodies owing to the want of uniformity and the shape of its particles whereas the fusile kind being formed of large and uniform particles is more stable than the other and is heavy and compact by reason of its uniformity But when fire gets in and dissolves the particles and destroys the uniformity it has greater mobility and becoming fluid is thrust forth by the neighbouring air and spreads upon the earth and this dissolution of the solid masses is called melting and their spreading out upon the earth flowing Again when the fire goes out of the fusile substance it does not pass into vacuum but into the neighbouring air and the air which is displaced forces together the liquid and still moveable mass into the place which was occupied by the fire and unites it with itself Thus compressed the mass resumes its equability and is again at unity with itself because the fire which was the author of the inequality has retreated and this departure of the fire is called cooling and the coming together which follows upon it is termed congealment Of all the kinds termed fusile that which is the densest and is formed out of the finest and most uniform parts is that most precious possession called gold which is hardened by filtration through rock this is unique in kind and has both a glittering and a yellow colour A shoot of gold which is so dense as to be very hard and takes a black colour is termed adamant There is also another kind which has parts nearly like gold and of which there are several species it is denser than gold and it contains a small and fine portion of earth and is therefore harder yet also lighter because of the great interstices which it has within itself and this substance which is one of the bright and denser kinds of water when solidified is called copper There is an alloy of earth mingled with it which when the two parts grow old and are disunited shows itself separately and is called rust The remaining phenomena of the same kind there will be no difficulty in reasoning out by the method of probabilities A man may sometimes set aside meditations about eternal things and for recreation turn to consider the truths of generation which are probable only he will thus gain a pleasure not to be repented of and secure for himself while he lives a wise and moderate pastime Let us grant ourselves this indulgence and go through the probabilities relating to the same subjects which follow next in order Water which is mingled with fire so much as is fine and liquid being so called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the ground and soft because its bases give way are less stable than those of earth when separated from fire and air and isolated becomes more uniform and by their retirement is compressed into itself and if the condensation be very great the water above the earth becomes hail but on the earth ice and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only half solid when above the earth is called snow and when upon the earth and condensed from dew hoarfrost Then again there are the numerous kinds of water which have been mingled with one another and are distilled through plants which grow in the earth and this whole class is called by the name of juices or saps The unequal admixture of these fluids creates a variety of species most of them are nameless but four which are of a fiery nature are clearly distinguished and have names First there is wine which warms the soul as well as the body secondly there is the oily nature which is smooth and divides the visual ray and for this reason is bright and shining and of a glistening appearance including pitch the juice of the castor berry oil itself and other things of a like kind thirdly there is the class of substances which expand the contracted parts of the mouth until they return to their natural state and by reason of this property create sweetness these are included under the general name of honey and lastly there is a frothy nature which differs from all juices having a burning quality which dissolves the flesh it is called opos a vegetable acid As to the kinds of earth that which is filtered through water passes into stone in the following manner The water which mixes with the earth and is broken up in the process changes into air and taking this form mounts into its own place But as there is no surrounding vacuum it thrusts away the neighbouring air and this being rendered heavy and when it is displaced having been poured around the mass of earth forcibly compresses it and drives it into the vacant space whence the new air had come up and the earth when compressed by the air into an indissoluble union with water becomes rock The fairer sort is that which is made up of equal and similar parts and is transparent that which has the opposite qualities is inferior But when all the watery part is suddenly drawn out by fire a more brittle substance is formed to which we give the name of pottery Sometimes also moisture may remain and the earth which has been fused by fire becomes when cool a certain stone of a black colour A like separation of the water which had been copiously mingled with them may occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny nature out of either of them a half solid body is then formed soluble in water the one soda which is used for purging away oil and earth and other salt which harmonizes so well in combinations pleasing to the palate and is as the law testifies a substance dear to the gods The compounds of earth and water are not soluble by water but by fire only and for this reason Neither fire nor air melt masses of earth for their particles being smaller than the interstices in its structure have plenty of room to move without forcing their way and so they leave the earth unmelted and undissolved but particles of water which are larger force a passage and dissolve and melt the earth Wherefore earth when not consolidated by force is dissolved by water only when consolidated by nothing but fire for this is the only body which can find an entrance The cohesion of water again when very strong is dissolved by fire only when weaker then either by air or fire the former entering the interstices and the latter penetrating even the triangles But nothing can dissolve air when strongly condensed which does not reach the elements or triangles or if not strongly condensed then only fire can dissolve it As to bodies composed of earth and water while the water occupies the vacant interstices of the earth in them which are compressed by force the particles of water which approach them from without finding no entrance flow around the entire mass and leave it undissolved but the particles of fire entering into the interstices of the water do to the water what water does to earth and fire to air and are the sole causes of the compound body of earth and water liquefying and becoming fluid Now these bodies are of two kinds some of them such as glass and the fusible sort of stones have less water than they have earth on the other hand substances of the nature of wax and incense have more of water entering into their composition I have thus shown the various classes of bodies as they are diversified by their forms and combinations and changes into one another and now I must endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them In the first place the bodies which I have been describing are necessarily objects of sense But we have not yet considered the origin of flesh or what belongs to flesh or of that part of the soul which is mortal And these things cannot be adequately explained without also explaining the affections which are concerned with sensation nor the latter without the former and yet to explain them together is hardly possible for which reason we must assume first one or the other and afterwards examine the nature of our hypothesis In order then that the affections may follow regularly after the elements let us presuppose the existence of body and soul First let us enquire what we mean by saying that fire is hot and about this we may reason from the dividing or cutting power which it exercises on our bodies We all of us feel that fire is sharp and we may further consider the fineness of the sides and the sharpness of the angles and the smallness of the particles and the swiftness of the motion all this makes the action of fire violent and sharp so that it cuts whatever it meets And we must not forget that the original figure of fire i e the pyramid more than any other form has a dividing power which cuts our bodies into small pieces Kepmatizei and thus naturally produces that affection which we call heat and hence the origin of the name thepmos Kepma Now the opposite of this is sufficiently manifest nevertheless we will not fail to describe it For the larger particles of moisture which surround the body entering in and driving out the lesser but not being able to take their places compress the moist principle in us and this from being unequal and disturbed is forced by them into a state of rest which is due to equability and compression But things which are contracted contrary to nature are by nature at war and force themselves apart and to this war and convulsion the name of shivering and trembling is given and the whole affection and the cause of the affection are both termed cold That is called hard to which our flesh yields and soft which yields to our flesh and things are also termed hard and soft relatively to one another That which yields has a small base but that which rests on quadrangular bases is firmly posed and belongs to the class which offers the greatest resistance so too does that which is the most compact and therefore most repellent The nature of the light and the heavy will be best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and below for it is quite a mistake to suppose that the universe is parted into two regions separate from and opposite to each other the one a lower to which all things tend which have any bulk and an upper to which things only ascend against their will For as the universe is in the form of a sphere all the extremities being equidistant from the centre are equally extremities and the centre which is equidistant from them is equally to be regarded as the opposite of them all Such being the nature of the world when a person says that any of these points is above or below may he not be justly charged with using an improper expression For the

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