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  • Remarks on Some Late Decisions Respecting the Colonial Church - Wikisource, the free online library
    law What is a religious society That is a notion less easy to define it includes at any rate some or all of these things the acceptance of a common creed common rules a common organization the habit of acting together for common objects the creed the objects the sanctions which support the rules in a word the ties which bind the society together being religious Whatever more than this the idea of his Church for example presents to the mind of a religious man is matter of belief or sentiment or opinion and does not enter into the definition of a religious society in general The Churches of England and Scotland by law established are as such political societies French writers commonly and some persons amongst ourselves regard the Established Church in England as a society merely political so that if the whole body of ecclesiastical law as it is called that is the laws of the land in reference to the Church were repealed to morrow the Church itself would cease to exist It would necessarily cease to exist as a political society But there is also in England under the name of the Established Church whether co extensive or not with the Establishment itself according to any legal definition which could possibly be assigned to it what substantially answers to the conception of a religious society and this religious society would not in the supposed case necessarily or probably cease to exist though the sudden removal of those legal sanctions on which it has for centuries relied and which have in practice gradually eclipsed and partially superseded the sanctions of conscience and religion would be a shock of the severest kind The expression that the Colonial Church is a part of the Established Church not legally correct To speak then of inhabitants of a colony where there is no established Church as being members or forming part of the the established Church of England and Ireland is nonsense if we use that phrase in its literal acceptation as meaning the political society constituted under that name by law in England and Ireland Where they live the laws which make that society do not exist and the society itself therefore can have no existence To use this expression therefore is to affirm what some deny that there is under that name a religious society as well as a political one and it really amounts to no more than an assertion that there are in the colony persons accepting the same religious beliefs the same forms of worship and so far as may be the same or a like religious organization as are accepted by the persons composing that religious society in England I do not see what else it can mean nor although persons calling themselves members of the English Church in Natal may have an organization exactly similar to that of the English Church in England as well as derived originally from the same sources do I see that they could be said to have one which is common or the same A Wesleyan in Natal is probably liable to be censured or expelled from communion by the very same persons who would censure or expel for like cause a Wesleyan in England just as a Presbyterian minister in Lancashire is or was liable to be cited before a Presbytery in Edinburgh and to be declared out of communion by a General Assembly in Scotland But in the English Church jurisdiction is diocesan and provincial and a Churchman in Natal even ordained and with cure of souls is not subject to the same jurisdiction as if he were in London or York Not even when he reaches the last appeal open to him does he find himself before the same Court For nobody I suppose will contend though I am here partly anticipating what I shall have to say by and by nobody will seriously contend that an appeal would lie from a sentence of deprivation by a Bishop of Natal or any Bishop similarly situated to the Queen in Council or will confuse with such a proceeding an appeal from a civil tribunal like that prosecuted by Mr Long In the former case there would be in the eye of the law no Court no cause no judgment and therefore no appeal in the latter the appeal is not from the Bishop s judgment nor to the Crown as an ecclesiastical judge It is not then I conceive strictly accurate to say that inhabitants of a colony who may call themselves members of the Church of England or of the United Church of England and Ireland are bound by the tenets and discipline of that Church by reason of their being actually a portion of it They incur in fact by calling themselves so no legal obligations which they would not have incurred had they called themselves members of the Church of South Africa The difference is that the one description implies the acceptance of tenets and rules which are known and the other of tenets and rules which are not known and that if the question what their tenets and rules were should be raised incidentally in a civil Court it would be unnecessary in the one case to produce evidence which would be necessary in the other Doctrinal standards of Colonial Church Every religious society properly so called that is every number of persons having not only common religious beliefs but some common religious organization has certain selected tenets not necessarily the most important in the opinion of all its members which it regards as tests of agreement with itself or as terms of communion The Articles and Formularies are in England made by law the standards to a certain extent of faith and public teaching for clergymen of the Established Church and we have accepted them as such The Apostles Creed is in the Baptismal Service and the Service for the Visitation of the Sick treated as comprising the terms of communion A judge who had to enquire what were the tenets and discipline of an unestablished society calling themselves members of the Church of England would be justified in assuming that these standards occupied among them a position analogous to that which the same standards hold among ourselves II Meaning of Jurisdiction The word jurisdiction occurs so often and plays so important a part in these questions that it is worth while to make sure of its meaning The first rule of sound reasoning is to use the same word in the same sense throughout the same train of argument or whenever it bears a new sense to mark the difference clearly Loosely we speak of jurisdiction as synonymous with authority to command More accurately it means authority to pronounce a judicial sentence By a sentence I mean not a mere opinion on a disputed question which may be disregarded at pleasure but a declaration or order carrying with it some obligation to obedience If by disobedience I expose myself to some legal sanction to be imprisoned for contempt of court or to have my goods seized by the sheriff that is a legal obligation if to some evil not imposed by law such as the expulsion from a club to which I like to belong there is a force analogous to but not identical with a legal obligation if only to my own self reproach nothing but what we call a moral obligation remains The meaning of jurisdiction then is not limited by adding to it the word coercive since all jurisdiction must be coercive in one way or another Jurisdiction may exist in a religious society as well as in a political one excommunication may to some men be a more dreadful penalty than fine or imprisonment is to others and jurisdiction in some shape does exist in most religious societies But where a religious society has been taken under the tutelage of the State the jurisdiction which it would have exercised over its members is apt to become merged and the sanctions appropriate to that jurisdiction lost in those which the State supplies Legal Jurisdiction Two senses Jurisdiction is necessarily coercive but it is not necessarily legal and it may be legal in a primary or secondary sense An arbitrator appointed under a deed or agreement has jurisdiction which can be called legal only in a secondary sense The law will enforce the arbitrator s award if properly made But the arbitrator is not appointed directly or indirectly by the Sovereign to declare the law his award is not an authoritative declaration of the law it is binding only on the parties incorporating itself in fact with the original agreement and as a part of that agreement standing or falling with it the legal force which it possesses it obtains only from the general law which secures the observance of contracts But the Sovereign himself speaks through the mouth of a Judge and arms him with all the sanctions of the law Jurisdiction within a voluntary society The jurisdiction exercised within a voluntary religious society is like that of an arbitrator founded on compact and it is therefore not a legal jurisdiction in the primary and ordinary sense of the phrase A sentence of deprivation pronounced by the Wesleyan Conference by the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland by a Bishop of the Scottish Episcopal Church by a Colonial Bishop in a colony where the Church is not established is an act which may if it follows the compact which gives the jurisdiction have legal consequences for it may work the exclusion of the deprived person from the benefit of an endowment or the use of a place of common worship But it is not a legal sentence because it is not the sentence of a judge authorized to declare the law Jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical Courts The jurisdiction on the other hand of an Ecclesiastical Court in England is as strictly a legal jurisdiction as that of the Queen s Bench The Judge be he Archbishop or Bishop or the judicial officer of an Archbishop or Bishop sits under the authority of the Sovereign under that authority he declares and applies a portion of the law of the land and he is armed for that purpose with legal sanctions which may be effective like deprivation or ineffective like excommunication in such a community as ours Such an expedient as the significavit was but a roundabout way of eking out the powers of one legal tribunal by the machinery of another A penalty exactly the same in substance deprivation may be inflicted by the Court of Chancery upon a minister of a Presbyterian congregation who forsakes the doctrines of Presbyterianism and by the Court of Arches upon a clergyman of the Established Church who depraves the Book of Common Prayer But observe the difference In the latter case there is an offence and a punishment an evil that is inflicted by public authority for a public purpose in the former there is neither punishment nor offence there is a private injury and a redress of it by civil process In the one case the law violated is a command regulating directly and of set purpose the public teaching of religion in the other it is only the general rule that property which is held in trust be applied in accordance with the trust A contract for the sale of a coal shed and one which implicitly embodies the whole discipline and teaching of a great religious denomination are enforced in Chancery on precisely the same grounds and with the same serene indifference to the nature of the matter in hand In short rightly or wrongly the law declares the teaching of the Established Church to be a matter of public concern and that of every other religious body whatsoever to be a matter of private concern It directly regulates the first it refuses to take any notice otherwise than incidentally of the second Unless this cardinal distinction is kept clearly in view the whole subject is lost in obscurity and confusion III Application of previous remarks Let us apply the notions we have gained to the case of a colony where the Church is not established and where the Crown possesses no power of legislation What is the legal status of a Bishop in such a colony None What legal jurisdiction has he as a Bishop None What legal jurisdiction is he as a Bishop subject to None What legal authority or supremacy can he as Bishop exercise over others or can anyone else from the Queen downwards exercise over him None What power has the Crown to clothe him with a legal status None A new legal status means a new set of legal rights and obligations to create new legal rights and obligations is to make new laws which the Crown by hypothesis has no power to do The legal control of the Crown over him vanishes of necessity together with his legal control over his clergy That a legal supremacy in matters ecclesiastical has no existence in such a colony is a plain corollary of the proposition that the colony has no Established Church The Supremacy is a part of the law of the Established Church and in such a colony the Established Church is as has been justly said not a part of the Constitution Plain as all this is there is an evident reluctance to recognise it fully at which we can hardly wonder when we consider what it involves But whatever it may involve it is true It is at the same time true that a Bishop though in the eye of the law a mere private gentleman owing to courtesy any title or precedence which may be accorded to him may yet in fact exercise important functions and wield considerable powers He may do this by appealing to the religious sentiments and convictions of the members of his communion he may do it also as being himself the object of a trust or as the person to whom under a trust or compact obedience is due as a condition attached to the enjoyment of a stipend or the right to officiate in a church And his authority in cases of the latter kind will be upheld as an integral part of the trust or compact by the civil Courts which all the while regard him personally as a mere private man As a Bishop he is nothing to them the law they administer knows nothing of Bishops It appears to be held by some that a right to appoint and to control persons whose situation is to be such as I have described is among the prerogatives of the Crown The Master of the Rolls stigmatizes with severity from the Bench those who would elevate the Church over the throne or depose the Sovereign from being the Head of the Church in the colonies dependent on her It seems also to be supposed that this power of appointment and control on the Part of the Crown must be deemed an element in the trust or contract among members of the voluntary society itself as being a fundamental tenet of the English Church The declaration in the Thirty Seventh Article that the Queen s Majesty hath the chief power in this realm of England and other her dominions unto whom the chief government of all estates of this Realm whether they be ecclesiastical or civil in all causes doth appertain and is not nor ought to be subject to any foreign jurisdiction is construed by Lord Romilly into an assertion of such a tenet 1 There is I hope no disloyalty we do not live under the Stuarts in temperately inquiring whether a supposed prerogative really exists especially a prerogative of so singular a nature nor yet in asking whether such an office as either of these theories would ascribe to the Crown is consistent with its dignity or with its constitutional functions and position I shall not enter into the general question of the Supremacy the true meaning of the Thirty Seventh Article or the proper application of it to a British colony in the nineteenth century where there is no Established Church are no ecclesiastical Courts and can be no ecclesiastical causes and where all denominations are on an equal footing But I think it not disrespectful to observe First that legal language on this subject borrowed as it is in great measure from Tudor precedents and Tudor legislation is apt to be somewhat loose and inflated and requires before you reason on it to be carefully reduced to its precise legal value Secondly that the Royal Supremacy is only a collective name for a group of legal powers and attributes in relation to the Established Church powers and attributes which form part of the prerogative itself part of the law of the land Thirdly that these powers and attributes being created by law are circumscribed by law and can be exercised only in ways marked out by law Fourthly that the powers of appointing and depriving Bishops and of assigning dioceses to them would not for the reasons stated above be legal powers within a colony such as I have been referring to The right to exert such powers therefore in relation to such a colony cannot be part of the prerogative of the Crown 2 Again it is to be observed that an appointment made by the Sovereign by virtue of a trust or of a compact among private individuals would not be made by her as Sovereign but as a person designated under that description just as an appointment similarly made by the Lord Chancellor would not be made by him as Chancellor but as a person so designated But it is surely needless to add that

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  • Mountague Bernard - Wikisource, the free online library
    January 1 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 71765909 LCCN nr92011419 ISNI 0000 0000 5004 378X GND 101659334 NTA 139212493 ODNB 101002247 English Wikisource 1593054 WorldCat Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Author Mountague Bernard oldid 5652045 Categories Authors Be 1820 births Early modern authors 1882 deaths Male authors Author PD old United Kingdom authors Lawyers Hidden categories Author pages without image Author pages with gender in Wikidata Author pages connected to Wikidata Author pages with authority control data Pages using authority control with parameters Author pages with VIAF on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Author Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author Random transcription Help Donate Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this

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  • File:Position of Canterbury Region.png - Wikisource, the free online library
    File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 07 40 27 April 2005 405 590 7 KB Domie commonswiki Region of New Zealand position on the map source English Wiki PD Category Maps of New Zealand File usage The following page links to this file Wikisource Proofread of the Month Global file usage The following other wikis use this file Usage on af wikipedia org Christchurch Usage on bg wikipedia org Кентърбъри регион Usage on ca wikipedia org Canterbury Nova Zelanda Usage on cs wikipedia org Canterbury Nový Zéland Usage on de wikipedia org Canterbury Region Wikipedia Löschkandidaten 9 Juli 2011 Wikipedia WikiProjekt Kategorien Diskussionen 2011 Juli 9 Usage on en wikipedia org Canterbury New Zealand Ada River New Zealand Jordan River New Zealand White River New Zealand Mackenzie River New Zealand Rubicon River New Zealand Molesworth Station Avoca River Canterbury Pegasus Bay Waipara River Canterbury Plains Lewis River New Zealand Lindis Pass Lewis Pass Waltham New Zealand Mairehau Opawa Lake Ohau Hopkins River New Zealand Dobson River New Zealand Ashley Gorge Mount Tasman Clarence River New Zealand Mount Hopkins New Zealand Henry River

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  • Canterbury Papers - Wikisource, the free online library
    we have are small and fine wooled weight of wethers above 60 lbs the weight of wool on ewes 3½1bs The fleeces of our rams which are pure merinos averaged this clip 6¼lbs and one of the fleeces weighed 7½1bs We may mention that the natural pasturage here will feed to perfection the largest breed of sheep We have at present about 150 cattle 1000 sheep and ten horses 7th At what price would you supply beef and mutton and probable monthly supply We could supply beef and mutton at 5d per lb and pork at 4d at present but not to any extent With our own stock and what we could procure otherwise we would be able to supply your survey party on the plain with about one ton per month We anticipate that the prices would exceed these sums on the arrival of a large party of settlers from England but only for a short time as supplies would quickly pour in from the neighbouring colonies and the other settlements in New Zealand 8th What price have you paid for timber and opinion as to price in case a large quantity were advertised for Sawn timber can now be got for 10s or 12s the 100 feet There being only a small population here at present we are unable to say at what price a large contract would be taken 9th As to bricks clay for making ditto lime limestone and building stone There is plenty of brick clay in the neighbourhood limestone is not distant and there are masses of a stone more nearly resembling freestone than any we have previously seen in the hills surrounding Port Cooper 10th What per ton did flour and other provisions cost on first establishing your station and what now On first coming here flour cost us about 25 1 per ton Irish salt pork about 6 l per cask of 200 lbs Tea 2s per lb and sugar 4d to 5d per lb Noww flour can be bought here from 16 l to 18 l No salted provisions are used and tea and sugar are still about the same price We believe that you have satisfied yourself that the making of a good road between Port Cooper and the Waimakariri is not only perfectly practicable but can be made with the greatest facility and that not only can the river itself be crossed by ferries but that it is perfectly practicable and easy to make a bridge across it at an inconsiderable expense We are certain that in no part of the New Zealand Company s territories can roads be made in every direction with such facility as they can on this plain and that now in its natural state there is no difficulty in traversing it in every directing with bullock drays The system of fencing which would be generally in use here would be by ditch and embankment similar to what you have seen at our station of which a good labourer would do at least two rods a day Furze or hawthorn might be planted on the top of the embankment and thus a good fence which would last for centuries might be easily made We believe that this sort of fence would not cost more at first than one of post and rail even where timber abounded and from the perishable nature of the generality of New Zealand timber it would certainly be the most economical in the end Colonel Wakefield must have been misinformed as to the quantity of timber is this district for we believe that there is at least an equal quantity here to what there is at Otago but as you have now seen both districts you can form a correct judgment as to this It would certainly be desirable if there was more wood on the plain than there is but we consider that it is much better as it is than if it had been so thickly timbered as the generality of bush land in New Zealand for we are certain that to cultivate such land would never pay A settler would do better to import coals from Newcastle in New South Wales from whence they can be got under 30s per ton landed in Port Cooper than to clear bush land for we are sure that for the expense he must incur in merely chopping and burning off the timber of one acre of bush land he can supply himself with at least a twelvemonth s supply of coals and if the cost of stumping the land and rendering it fit for the plough were to be added he would be able to get two years supply of coals for what it would cost him to clear a single acre Having visited all the New Zealand Company s settlements made repeated visits to the Wairarapa traversed the country from Port Nicholson to Taranaki and the whole of the east coast of this island and after considerable experience in England as farmers and for the last nine years in New Zealand we can with some confidence congratulate you on being able to secure this district as the site for the Canterbury settlement for excepting the Taranaki district which is without a harbour inundated with natives and already occupied by the New Plymouth settlement we do not believe a suitable site could ever have been secured elsewhere in the Company s territory and we are certain that no site equal to this is now open for selection Besides the 1 000 000 acres required for the New Settlement here there are at least 3 000 000 acres surrounding it the greater proportion of which we believe is good agricultural land and all of this large tract is peculiarly adapted for the depasturing of stock We mean the country from the Kai Koras to Moeraki at both of which places vessels can anchor with tolerable safety We are c W J Deans Captain Thomas Agent and Chief Surveyor to the Canterbury Settlement Extracts from a Letter from the Chief Surveying Officer of H M Ship Acheron H M S V Acheron Wellington Port Nicholson New Zealand May 8th 1849 My dear Mr Hutt We are only within the last week returned from our surveying cruise on the eastern coast of the Middle Island I gladly avail myself of an opportunity by way of Sidney to communicate some account of that locality which may prove of interest to you I feel much obliged my dear sir for your kind remembrance of me and beg that at all times you will command my services since seeing the scene of Mr Thomas s labours full accounts of which have doubtless ere this reached you I feel the more pleasure in entering into your views because much prejudice that I had preconceived of New Zealand has been removed and further that our knowledge has been obtained without either the assistance or information imparted from your advanced party Mr Thomas having quitted Port Cooper before our arrival there and his being now absent at Auckland settling I hear the diplomatic part of the business It is somewhat extraordinary that so little should be generally known of the east coast of the Middle Island and I think you are fortunate in obtaining the services of Mr Thomas who appears to have acted with great discrimination and judgment in his choice of a site opposed as it has been to various reports and in the face of some strongly expressed opinions as I hear From what we have seen we are all highly delighted with Banks s Peninsula and the adjoining country not only for itself but for the extraordinary climate it enjoys To return to the country Our labours in the Acheron extended from Cape Campbell southward to Otago much of the examination was necessarily of a cursory nature but we thoroughly examined the whole of Banks s Peninsula and made detailed surveys of its numerous harbours and smaller anchorages with their approaches Captain Stokes and a party made a long excursion to the northward of Port Cooper over the plain avoiding the tracts of Mr Thomas s party and extending their researches some thirty five miles beyond their northern limit Of the Canterbury plains I follow the temporarily adopted names of Mr Thomas our explorers spoke in the warmest terms and they were much gratified to find that beyond a limiting range of mountains Mt Grey to the north a succession of smaller plains bounded by grassy downs extend northward probably on to Cape Campbell We have added some hundreds of square miles to her Majesty s dominions or the New Zealand Company s possessions this is an important feature for it is this very added portion that comprises the richest and fairest portion of New Zealand in our humble estimation You know of course that the general feature of the country is a succession of abrupt and lofty hills with corresponding deep and secluded valleys either thickly wooded or clothed with a thick fern and long grass offering all kinds of obstacles both for pastoral and agricultural purposes indeed it is often heart breaking to see the land that people have settled down on and the struggle and privation that must be endured before it can be turned to account But here we have a plain extending from north to south 100 latitude miles with an average width of at least thirty miles intersected by numerous rivers not the water holes of Australia but rather rushing torrents which have managed to excavate beds for themselves some 200 or 300 and 400 feet in a perpendicular drop on the western side of the plains these rivers will I anticipate on a detailed examination of their entrances being made offer but few obstacles to boat navigation for some half dozen miles from the sea board which will render their passage at all times secure this great plain may be called almost a dead level for as for as the eye can trace from any point From the sea shore to the Backbone ridge not a rise of twenty meet meets the view but judging from the excavated bed of the rivers and other circumstances I think there will be found a gradual rise of the land from the coast to the base of the mountain range 4 where I judge it may be some 500 feet above the level of the sea Will not this serve hereafter admirably for drainage and irrigation if required Of the nature of the soil Mr Thomas s account will give you a better description than I possibly can If I however may judge of the whole by a portion I saw on the Messrs Dean s property and the general impression of our explorers it must be of a very superior nature For the first time in New Zealand we here luxuriated on the finest beef and mutton one could desire to meet with All dairy produce of the richest quality Potatoes and all kinds of vegetables unrivalled Our sportsmen found the plain abounding with quails and the rivers with wild ducks and last though not the least in importance votaries of the hydropathic system pronounced the water of the rivers nectar A remembrance of all these good things with a desire to give you as much information as I can in a small compass must plead my excuse for touching thus largely on the creature comforts I am glad that you have insisted in as far as you possibly can the Canterbury settlement being founded in the Middle Island were it only on account of the natives one cannot but forbode the numerous ills that have to appear yet from this cause on the Northern Island Now on the Middle Island they are too few and scattered ever to give a moment s apprehension and farther they have been so thoroughly prostrated in spirit from the recent invasions and horrible wars of extermination carried on by the northern chiefs that they look upon the white settlers as guardian spirits and have certainly lost much of that ferocity of character which is too plainly distinguishable among their northern neighbours they may be looked on now as useful auxiliaries to the early settlers with the later ones I fear they will be only known by legend so rapid is their decrease by the concurring testimony of all with whom I have conversed on the subject I come now to the subject of a harbour and on this point Mr Thomas has been fortunate in his selection it appeal s to me singular that the merits of Port Cooper as a harbour situated too near an extensive district of open country should have been so much overlooked and known only to whale ships you will be perhaps also surprised when I tell you that I look upon it taking all the advantages and disadvantages of a good harbour into consideration as one of the best in New Zealand It is re echoed in every account of New Zealand that its bays and harbours are not to be surpassed in number or advantages in any part of the world this statement admits of qualification and I can only say you are as fortunate in possessing a good harbour as you are in possessing a good country the general characteristic of the New Zealand harbours is the local difficulties that present themselves to the getting into them they are either bar like Otago Manakou and Kiapara have high precipitous cliffs a narrow entrance and a turbulent sea at all times rendering ship not steamers navigation uncertain and to a degree dangerous as Akaroa Wangaroa and to a certain extent Port Nicholson which appears also to be situated in the focus of all the strong winds that so constantly blow in Cook s Strait Strong tides render the ingress and egress of all the harbours on the south side of Cook s Straits from Tory Channel to Nelson Haven with perhaps the exception of Queen Charlotte s Sound a matter of solicitude to the mariner there now only remain those harbours in the Honraki Gulf and the Bay of Islands on the Northern Island with a few south of the parallel of Otago of which we know but little all have more or less objections connected with them save when you are snugly anchored inside they are then unexceptionable with most of the facilities sailors like viz wood water fish good holding ground and lots of room to swing close to the shore Port Cooper stands in the foremost rank both for the facility in making it the entire absence of any outlying or hidden dangers and its position with regard to the general line of coast it can be run boldly for night or day by the lead a feature which is almost singular on this extensive coast a fleet could manoeuvre in its entrance where it is a long sea mile wide and it preserves this width for its whole depth which is between six and seven A ship of 500 tons can anchor four miles and a half within the heads and there the harbour is only open to one and a quarter points of the compass E N E A swell sets in with the wind in the N E quarter but nothing except under the most adverse circumstances to prevent a ship unloading Not a hidden danger exists in the harbour and it is bold close to the shores For shipping it is deficient in wood and water not in the quantity but in the difficulties in obtaining them The neighbouring ports of Pigeon Bay and Port Levy which are safe anchorages abound in these essentials I believe now my dear sir I have touched on most matters that have come immediately under our view I have heard it suggested as a great obstacle to the plains the absence of wood Banks s Peninsula alone would supply twenty Canterbury Settlements for centuries recollecting that there is water carriage from its numerous little ports to five and ten miles within the line of seaboard of the plains I ought to mention to you that limestone appears abundant from the river Waimahariri northwards and a geologist has a rich field before him in these hitherto undisturbed regions I regret that my occupation in surveying the coast line did not admit of my penetrating far into the plains and further that my knowledge of geology is too limited to make more than ordinary comment on the specimens brought back to the ship Fossil remains chiefly shells are very abundant and I think there will yet be a rich harvest reaped in more solid materials Lignite appears also on the banks of the rivers and one of the Surveying Staff Mr Torlesse has hit upon a tolerable large seam of it some distance south of the Peninsula The country is undoubtedly worth a strict geological examination none that I have seen more so but I presume all this will come in due time P S I subjoin an account of the number of rainy days with the mean temperature by day and by night during two and a half months we were at anchor in the harbours of Banks s Peninsula Mean Temperature Days Day Night Rain 1849 February Eight last days in Akaroa 72 8 60 6 3 March The whole month in Akaroa and Port Cooper 68 0 57 7 2 April Ditto 65 0 54 0 3 Extracts from a Report on the Coast from Kaiapoi to Otago BY Walter Mantell Esq Government Commissioner Wellington May 1849 The first part of the purchase which came under my observation was the grand plain extending from the Double Corner to Te Aitarakihi Timaru As the general features of the coast line of this magnificent district are pretty uniform I shall speak of it as a whole describing afterwards what local peculiarities struck me as most worthy attention Besides a gradual rise inland the plain also ascends greatly towards the south thus at Te Taumutee the mouth of Lake Ellesmere it is eight and at Hakatere the Ashburton river from thirty to forty feet above the sea level Along its junction with the peninsula there are here and there isolated sand hills and further north the Waimakariri Courtenay near its mouth cuts through a bed of finely laminated sand beneath which at a depth of ten feet lies a deposit of wood of various kinds probably drift wood brought down by the river when its embouchure was some miles inland of its present position and the peninsula an island and the plain covered by forests of which so few vestiges now remain A similar deposit is said to exist near to the spot where the Waikirikiri Selwyn discharges itself into Waihora Lake Ellesmere the wood from both the above mentioned localities is so little changed as to be used as fire wood by the natives The Maoris state that at a day and a half s journey inland from Te Taumutu there is coal constantly burning and that they are in the habit of procuring fire from it when journeying near The rivers of this beautiful plain are for the most part too rapid and shallow for navigation in an open country like this where a dray could even now pass in almost any direction they would however be little required for that purpose With the exception of belts where the gravel has been laid bare by denudation that is by the action of water in ancient times the soil appears to be excellent and where cultivated by the natives the crops were most satisfactory Wood though generally distant is nowhere out of reach while grass with frequent groves of Ti 5 Codoline Australis covering the plain in every direction offer no impediments to the plough As far as Kakannui near Moerangi grass is the usual growth fern to any extent being rare The whole country from Timaru to Waikouaiti seventeen miles north of Otago is admirably suited for immediate occupation with stock the northern part being perhaps the best adapted for sheep In all the northern part of my journey 6 I saw no district which was not highly fitted for settlement and I feel confident that so fine a country will not much longer be allowed to remain in its present natural state The above description of the country I would emphatically remark is rather underrated than overcharged higher praise of its natural capabilities might have been given without violating truth EXTRACTS OF A LETTER FROM THE BISHOP OF NEW ZEALAND Copied from the Times of December 10 1849 After a very pleasant walk we arrived at the farm of some Scotch settlers whose hospitality we are not the first travellers who have reason to acknowledge As I understand that they have furnished Mr Thomas with a detailed report of the agricultural capabilities of this district I need not repeat the information of a similar kind which I obtained from them in the course of conversation It may be enough to say that mutton flourishing with Homeric fat and juicy apples and foaming jugs of milk verified all that I have ever read of the plenty and contentment of the pastoral and bucolic life The quails which started up every moment under our feet completed the picture of patriarchal abundance needing only the true manna of God s blessing to fulfil every promise which He ever made to His chosen people to the happy settlers who may hereafter occupy this fair land in the spirit of simplicity and faith All other persons I would advise to go to California or any other place where the prospect of wealth maybe more inviting What we have to offer ought to be enough a land flowing literally with milk and honey where men eat bread to the full It is possible that in former letters I have expressed an unfavourable opinion of Port Cooper and its district If I have done so it was under the impression that the district had been thoroughly examined by Colonel Wakefield and the company s surveyors and that Otalron had been deliberately preferred though 150 miles further to the south As I had seen Otalron I did not think that any inferior place could be eligible for so large a settlement as that which is projected by the Canterbury Association But I have since heard that Port Cooper was very superficially examined by the former surveying party and as my opinion was founded chiefly upon the fact of their preference of Otalron I readily acknowledge my error after a personal inspection the result of which has left a most favourable impression upon my mind Captain Stokes I hear has given a similar opinion after a much more careful examination You are a body which ought and will be able to dispense with all trickery and gambling In the first place it is a pure delusion to talk of founding a colony at once It is a very pretty analogy to think of Minerva coming forth full armed out of the head of Jupiter but in most cases when you come to look for your Minerva you will find nothing but her owl Neither your heads nor the settlers can afford to be so trepanned A more wasteful system could not be devised than that of congregating large bodies of settlers at once upon the same spot requiring at once exactly the same supplies and tempted by their discomforts and their necessities to acquiesce in the most extortionate prices for everything that they buy If a settler has to pay 100 l for a house worth only 50 l it is a clear loss to the community especially as the money generally goes to some other settlement from which the supplies must in the first instance be derived Even if the settlers supplied their own labourers yet all prices would rise to that excessive point at which artizans almost invariably take to drinking and then the money would go to the publican who would most likely be some experienced vintner from Sydney A flight of such harpies is always found ready waiting for the new arrivals The loss which is sustained by a new community from the excessive price of all the necessaries of life is incalculable My advice therefore is form as large a plan as you please but carry it out gradually and cautiously Let each section settle itself before the next arrives that it may be a help instead of a hindrance to the new comers An interval of at least a year would secure this and would enable each detachment to arrive at such a time as to have the summer before it which is a point of great importance in a wet climate On the organization of these sections I would suggest that the arrangement should not be merely numerical but local and topographical Let a good leader like a queen bee undertake to form the township of Oxford or Stratford or Mandeville or what you will and secure a right good clergyman and school master as the first step Then as in the old Roman armies legit virum vir let all the Oxford men send in their names to their own leader with recommendations of good hardworking honest and sober labourers for the free emigrants Let no man be recommended except through an actual emigrant landowner No man will recommend a scoundrel or a drunkard to be his own fellow passenger on board ship or his next door neighbour in the colony But Poor Law guardians and even clergymen will often send a worthless fellow to a colony as physicians send incurable patients to the south of France only to get rid of them When the Oxford leader is able to announce that land is bought at Oxford to a sufficient amount to yield an endowment for a clergyman and to build a church and school then let due notice be given to the agent in New Zealand that on the 1st day of November 185 or thereabouts he may expect the Oxonians If possible a bishop will be there to meet and receive them and accompany them at once to their own place where a pretty wooden spire will be already built and visible far over the plain to guide them to the house of God where they may offer up their thanksgivings for their successful voyage There they ought to find a store of building timber and firewood already laid in at fixed but not extortionate prices and will be able to settle themselves in peace and be ready to give a helping hand on reasonable terms to the fiight of Stratfordites who will arrive about the same time in the following year A B Ox ford Strat ford C D I have said much on this point to Captain Thomas because it is arithmetically evident that if A B C D be the territory of the Canterbury Association 1 10th of which is sold in the first year to settlers having an unrestricted right of choice over the whole block the dispersion of the first settlers will at once cause the necessity of the full number of clergymen to be felt when only 1 10th of the whole Endowment Fund will have been raised Thus some of the highest and best hopes of the settlers in consideration of which they will have paid so large a price for their land will be bitterly disappointed But if no emigrants are allowed to come out till the township which they have selected is complete the Endowment Fund will exactly keep pace with the need of clergymen and all the stipulated conditions will be fulfilled When I speak of a township being complete I do not mean that all the land should be sold Every township will require surplus land for common in the first instance and afterwards for extension With regard to extension nothing can well be more certain to involve a maximum of expense and a minimum of good than the present system of colonization which makes emigration almost ignominious Once pauperize emigration and every emigrant must be paid for in full You must give free passages at first to set things in motion and if you were to found a Minerva colony you must give free passages to all your labouring emigrants But the objects to be aimed at are these 1 To supply the colony with a sufficiency of labour 2 To take care that the supply shall always bear a due proportion to the demand 3 To supply that labour at the least cost to the emigration fund To secure these objects many ingenious calculations have been made with about as much effect as the numeration which we used to practise on our brass buttons at school allotting to each its due title of soldier sailor tinker tailor gentleman apothecary ploughboy or thief That all these elements do enter into the composition of all societies cannot be doubted but no chymistry of the Emigration Commissioners will ever discover beforehand in what proportions they must be mixed to form a healthy community But all these things will find their own simple and natural adjustment if neither the tinker nor the apothecary be employed Colonies will work well if they are let alone When your Oxford section has taken up its ground they will soon find out their own wants A blacksmith will be found to have been left out and every one will be crying out for some one to mend his plough Why I have a cousin that s just the man we want some one will say could we not get him out to help us I will give 1 l to his passage and he can pay me in work I will give another May be the Association will go halves in the expenses Write and ask The next year out comes the Oxford blacksmith at half price Which is the way to Oxford Where you see that spire out yonder But wont you stay in the emigration barrack till you hear whether you can get work What do I want of an emigration barrack Is it not bad enough to have been shut up in a ship I know Mr Goodfellow he is my cousin he will put me up till I can get a place for myself The above is a true description of what is going on every day in a thriving colony One man has more food than he knows what to do with and he wishes for some poor relation to come and help him to eat it another remembers some country lass whom he did not dare to ask to marry him when he had nothing to offer her a tradesman has business on his hand and wants a youth to keep his books a mechanic has more work than he can do and would be glad of a mate All these know exactly the sort of person that is wanted and will not send for him unless he can be well employed Demand and supply represent one another by the simplest and most natural adjustment and at the cheapest rate of expense All this is killed by the pauperizing and pauperized system of free passages given generally to relieve the workhouses The poor rate will be equally relieved in either case for the removal of labourers of a higher class will enable many an able bodied pauper to recover his position Industry except in the case of confirmed habits of vice will be in proportion to the certainty of profitable employment No matter whether you send us the good or the bad the mother country will be equally relieved If you send none all will become bad from the superfluity of labour if you send the best your bad will become better at home for they are bad chiefly from the uncertainty of employment and though even the worst often become steady men in a colony yet surely it is more reasonable to pay for the emigration of a good man than of a bad one But of all the causes which ruin emigrants the worst is the sending out men without friends or connexions in the colony to herd together in emigration barracks and clamour to Government for the wages of idleness as sturdy paupers till they have lost all favour with the settlers and have imbibed in return a rooted dislike to the country and its inhabitants The next great point is that I advise you most strongly to give up for the present at least all the usual trickery of town acres I mean at the central or post towns for the country towns will not much excite the mania of speculation In Port Cooper this seems to be more especially necessary because a few lucky purchasers engrossing the whole of the small quantity of available land near the anchorage will have it in their power to put the public to the greatest inconvenience The defects also of the site of Christchurch are so great that I would not advise you to put it in the power of any body of purchasers to demand a great outlay of public money to give them a better access to their townland The plain is the great point at Port Cooper A good road over the hills and a few public stores on the beach where goods can be warehoused by the association at paid charges and a small quantity of land let to retail shopkeepers will enable the settlers to begin their operations The excess of mercantile speculation is a cause of great loss to a new community It seems to be so much easier to buy and sell than to dig and plough that half the population become shopkeepers as if by magic the gentry dignifying their employment by the name of storekeeping You would suppose that slops rice and sugar were the spontaneous produce of the soil and that men believed that they could grow rich by merely exchanging one with another the fruits of the labours of others without working for themselves Of course what is easy to all will be done by too many and therefore will be profitable to very few And thus the country with its mine of wealth is robbed of the industry which would have made it profitable and the town like a great lazy tumour drains and wastes the resources of the body without contributing anything in return My advice is plant the country and let the town grow of itself Let the course and progress of the colony show when where and by whom stores manufactories c ought to be established When the need is shown by a demand town land can be sold or let with a privilege of purchase and then the actual merchant will then become the proprietor instead of having to buy or rent his land on exorbitant terms from some absentee owner who has pre occupied the best positions for business To pass on to the higher and more important branches of your plan the provision for education and religion The example of the China bishopric is a warning how long good plans may be delayed if you wait till the Endowment Fund be complete The American system seems to be the best Have a bishop at all events It is not at all certain that you will get a better man for 1000 l than for 100 l a year Such matters are no question of money Let him get his money as he can

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  • File:Rainbow trout 285.jpg - Wikisource, the free online library
    Title 17 Chapter 1 Section 105 of the US Code See Copyright Note This only applies to original works of the Federal Government and not to the work of any individual U S state territory commonwealth county municipality or any other subdivision This template also does not apply to postage stamp designs published by the United States Postal Service since 1978 See 313 6 C 1 of Compendium of U S Copyright Office Practices It also does not apply to certain US coins see The US Mint Terms of Use This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law including all related and neighboring rights File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15 10 15 November 2013 285 114 26 KB Mike Cline User created page with UploadWizard File usage The following page links to this file Wikisource Proofread of the Month Global file usage The following other wikis use this file Usage on en wikipedia org Lake trout Brown trout Bull trout Rainbow trout Brook trout Gila trout Cutthroat trout Apache trout Arctic char Dolly Varden trout Ferox trout Sevan trout Gillaroo Ohrid trout Salmo carpio Mexican golden trout Iwame trout Salmo marmoratus Salmo peristericus Salmo platycephalus Angayukaksurak char Kirikuchi char Salvelinus leucomaenis Salmo fibreni Salmo cettii Salvelinus taranetzi Salvelinus inframundus Salvelinus killinensis Salvelinus elgyticus Salvelinus umbla Template Trouts Salmo abanticus Salmo akairos Salmo chilo Salmo coruhensis Trout and Salmonid Collection at Montana State University Usage on es wikipedia org Nanophyetus salmincola Metadata This file contains additional information probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it If the file has been modified from its original state some details may not fully

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  • On the Pollution of the Rivers of the Kingdom - Wikisource, the free online library
    now drawn from that river That the River Leen which passes through this town and which was about 40 years ago a pure stream and afforded the principal supply of water to the town for all purposes is now foul and offensive by reason of its conveying part of the sewage of Nottingham and the whole ef the sewers of an extensive and populous higher district over which the authorities of Nottingham have no control and flows with the rest of the sewage of Nottingham into the parish of Sneinton and thence into the River Trent 1864 Memorial of the Rotherham and Kimberworth Board of Health to the Home Secretary Parl Paper 105 page 4 6 Mar 1865 Excessive mortality of Rotherham Memorial of the Rotherham and Kimberworth Board of Health to the Home Secretary Sheweth That this Board have been under deep concern on it appearing from the returns made by their officer of health from time to time that the mortality of part of the district of the Rotherham and Kimberworth Local Board of Health the town of Rotherham has been for some time greatly in excess of the regular rates of mortality having for instance in the two quarters ending June 30 6 been at the rate of forty in the 1 000 Epidemics there in 1862 and 1863 That the town has on several occasions been subject to fatal epidemics and in the years 1862 and 1863 a medical officer from the Health Department of Her Majesty s Secretary of State visited Rotherham to inquire into the state of its health and especially with reference to the outbreak of typhoid fever That your memorialists believe the natural situation and state of Rotherham to be such as will not account for the sickness and death which have prevailed but they are of opinion that being situate on the River Don Memorialists believe cause thereof the sewage brought down in river from Sheffield which flows from Sheffield and brings down an immense quantity of sewerage which falls into it at Sheffield and is deposited in the bed of the river near Rotherham polluting the stream and poisoning the air is mainly the cause of the sickness and mortality which have prevailed and which to the belief of your memorialists cannot be accounted for in any other way Your memorialists therefore pray that you will introduce a Bill next Session of Parliament to carry out the recommendation of the Parliamentary Committee that sewerage may be effectually prohibited from being discharged into rivers and streams Signed J M Habershon Chairman of the Local Board From Memorial of the Mayor Aldermen c of Birmingham 1864 Memorial of the Mayor Aldermen c of Birmingham to the Home Secretary Parl Paper 6th March 1865 No 105 page 2 That your memorialists have been advised by the most eminent chemists and engineers on their difficulties in relation to sewage and they have expended large sums of money and exhausted all their efforts in vain attempts to obviate the evils arising from it and they are now convinced beyond a remaining doubt that the time has arrived for the introduction by Her Majesty s Government of a practical and comprehensive measure by means of which your memorialists may be enabled to carry the whole of their sewage both liquid and solid upon some adjacent lands so that it may be applied in accordance with natural laws in adding to the fertility of the soil Your memorialists hardly think it necessary to point out to Her Majesty s Government the extreme importance of preserving the purity of the rivers and streams of this kingdom but they would respectfully suggest that the great and increasing number of towns and populous places exercising the drainage powers of the Local Government Act and other Acts of Parliament in all parts of the kingdom will result in the intersection of the Island in all directions with a network of open and noxious sewers instead of the former pure and wholesome streams unless the evils arising from the present method of disposing of sewage are immediately arrested That your memorialists would also respectfully draw your attention to the increasing difficulty now experienced in obtaining a supply of water for large populations from a pure and wholesome source because the rivers and streams are all becoming more and more in infected with the pollution of sewage That your memorialists are surrounded by the very large populations inhabiting the manufacturing districts of South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire immediately adjoining the borough boundaries being only separated from them by small streams some of which by means of the sewage of such populations have been long since converted into open sewers of the worst description and others are rapidly becoming in a similar condition Wherefore your memorialists urgently submit that it is absolutely necessary that a Bill should he forthwith prepared under the direction of Her Majesty s Government and submitted to Parliament early in the ensuing Session for enabling your memorialists and other local authorities similarly situated to accomplish the very important objects herein set forth Given under the corporate common seal of the Mayor Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Birmingham the day of 1864 2 Jan 1865 Memorial of the City of York to the Home Secretary Parl Paper 105 pp 5 6 6 Mar 1865 The Memorial of the Mayor Aldermen and Citizens of the City of York the Local Board of Health of York and for the same City Sheweth That your memorialists regard the present mode of disposing of the sewage of cities and towns as highly unsatisfactory whether as regards the public health or the economy of natural products applicable to the fertilization of the soil That the pollution of the rivers and streams of the country by the discharge therein of the sewage of adjacent towns is productive of great and increasing evils by rendering the waters of such rivers and streams unfit for human consumption and converting what is often the sole water supply of a town into the fruitful source of disease and death Session 1864 That a Committee of the House of Commons reported in the last Session of Parliament in favour of the practicability of utilizing such sewage by applying the same in the cultivation of the soil Your memorialists therefore respectfully request that Her Majesty s Government will be pleased to introduce such a measure in the next Session of Parliament Given under our Common Seal at the Guildhall of and in the said City this 2nd day of January 1865 Signed Edwin Wade Mayor January 1865 Report of the Special Commissioners on Salmon Fisheries Ireland In January 1865 the Special Commissioners on the Irish Salmon Fisheries in their report for the year 1864 at page 17 mention that the Liffey is fearfully polluted by sewage which at certain place caused instant death to the fish Also that the Fisheries were largely injured by the water used in steeping flax the manufacture of which was greatly extending in Ireland The 3rd and final Report of the Commissioners on the sewage of towns 1865 says 30 Mar 1865 Third Report of the Commissioners on the Sewage of Towns to the Lords of the Treasury As the result of our labours extending over eight years we nave confidence in submitting to your Lordships the following conclusion That the right way to dispose of town sewage is to apply it continuously to land and it is only by such application that the pollution of rivers can he avoided We further beg leave to express that in our judgment the following two principles are established for legislative application 1st That wherever rivers are polluted by a discharge of town sewage into them the towns may reasonably be required to desist from further causing that public nuisance 2nd That where town populations are injured or endangered in health by a retention of cesspool matter the same may reasonably be required to provide a system of sewers for its removal And should the law be found insufficient to enable towns to take land for sewage application it would in our opinion be expedient that the Legislature should give them powers for that purpose To this Third Report of the Sewage Commissioners is appended a most elaborate report made in 1864 by Dr Stevenson Macadam F R S E c c on the hideous contamination of the Water of Leith by the sewage of Edinburgh and Leith in which it is stated that Page 6 App 5 Into this small stream is discharged the sewage of 70 000 of the inhabitants of Edinburgh and upwards of 30 000 of the people of Leith and the result has been that the Water of Leith has become a foul polluted stream conveying matter of the most disgusting and abominable character and evolving fetid emanations into the surrounding atmosphere Page 8 That the inhabitants of the districts bordering on the water complained bitterly of the offensive odours from the water and which gave rise to nausea and sickness and compelled them to keep their doors and windows shut That Professor Simpson now Sir James Simpson Bart M D showed from the mortality in the streets bordering on the river as compared with that away from its banks that there was a greater death rate in the immediate neighbourhood of the Water of Leith than at a short distance therefrom Thus taking a similar class of houses in the Edinburgh district and judging by the mortality among children under five years of age Professor Simpson found that in the streets away from the influence of the foul water the mortality was in the proportion of 100 while in the streets near the Water of Leith the mortality was as high as 160 In the Leith district also the death rate was greater as in the streets at some distance from the harbour the mortality was in the proportion of 100 with a death rate among children under five years old of 1 in 12 while in the same class of streets near the river and harbour the mortality was 141 and the death rate among children 1 in 7 That these statistics are positive evidence of the effects of the foul state of the Water of Leith conveying the sewage of Edinburgh and Leith and the results are supported by the concurrent testimony of many persons who speak to the nausea and sickness brought on by the gases and vapours evolved from the water and to the general ill health connected therewith Page 24 As regards the atmosphere near the Water of Leith The state of the atmosphere was not only judged of by the test of the nose but special experiments were made Thirty one samples of air were collected at various parts on different occasions On the 7th April nine samples were tested and whilst the degrees of purity of the air at three stations in Edinburgh away from the influence of the Water of Leith were respectively 100 being absolute purity 85 70 and 67 and the air at the Water of Leith at Coltbridge before being mingled with sewage was 75 the atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the sewers and of the Water of Leith conveying sewage had its degree of purity reduced to 63 58 55 and 55 and in one instance as below the dam under the Water of Leith village the 100 of standard colour was totally destroyed a second 100 was similarly bleached and of a third 100 only 20 remained On the 9th of April 16 samples of air were examined Page 26 Three samples taken in Edinburgh in places away from the Water of Leith and one sample collected in Leith at a distance from the polluted stream gave respectively the degrees of purity 80 75 80 and 80 and one sample taken from the harbour at the Victoria Dockhead gave 70 while the air collected under the immediate influence of the Water of Leith conveying the sewage of Edinburgh and Leith gave respectively 60 60 50 60 60 55 55 55 60 50 and 55 On the 14th April six samples of air were collected and examined when it was found that over the Water of Leith before mixture with sewage the degree of purity was 80 while over the sewers and the Water of Leith conveying sewage the degrees of purity were 68 66 70 64 and 70 Page 27 In the whole course of the Water of Leith from Coltbridge downwards not a single fish could be seen The Water of Leith at Edinburgh Page 30 The condition of the Thames at London is much less foul than the water of Leith as it traverses Edinburgh Page 33 It will thus be observed that the Water of Leith as it leaves Edinburgh contains fully ten times the quantity of organic matter which is found in the Thames at London Bridge and necessarily the offensiveness of the water must be correspondingly greater 30th March 1865 Inspectors of Salmon Fisheries Fourth Report Extract from Mr F Ffennell s 4th Report 1865 as regards the pollution of Streams Page 14 of Report Public attention is now so earnestly directed to this question and public opinion so strong in regard to the necessity of mitigating the evil complained of that it may not be in vain to hope that some comprehensive measure may ere long be taken to abate a nuisance so excessive in its baneful effects in many ways as to alarm the minds of reflecting persons who are thoughtful and watchful of the sanitary condition of the people and to create apprehension that it is insidiously in a less apparent manner generating disease in many districts and imperilling the general health of the inhabitants of the country Adverting page 28 to the cases of the Rhiedol Ystwith and Dovey and observing that no change for the better had been made in the condition of these rivers polluted enormously by lead mines the two first completely poisoned Mr Ffenncll remarks with reference to the Dovey so seriously injured by the Dylifa lead mine and the remark equally applies he says to copper mines that The managers of the Devon Great Consols mine have shewn that the largest and richest mine in the kingdom can be worked without damage to the Fisheries and the system pursued at that mine should be universally carried out At pages 29 and 30 Mr Ffennell notices some naptha and oil works as very destructive to the fish the former near Gloucester which were said to have poisoned the salmon last summer in great numbers and the latter below Chester which so polluted the Dee that it was said its water could not be used for washing it being added that scores upon scores of salmon had been found dead near the works and that the water appeared at times blackened for miles At Page 27 of Report Mr Eden the other Inspector says It cannot be too often shown that in most instances the mischief occasioned by the pollution of rivers is capable of easy remedy and in all of great palliation adding at Page 40 of Report On the subject of pollution I have not suggested any amendment Mr Eden refers to certain amendments suggested by him in the English Salmon Fisheries Act of 1861 It is a question of vital importance not only to the Fisheries but to the health and enjoyment of the whole population of the country and appears to me to require graver consideration and more radical treatment than it can receive by the insertion and discussion of a clause in a Fishery Bill 20th March 1866 1st Report of the Royal Commission on the Pollution of Rivers the Thames The Commissioners on the pollution of rivers in their 1st Report 1866 the Thames state That throughout the whole course of the river from Cricklade to the point where the Metropolitan sewage commences fouling of the water by sewage from cities towns villages and single houses generally prevails The refuse from paper mills tanneries c passes into the stream Through its whole course to where the Metropolitan sewage begins the Thames fouled by Sewage c There is no form of scavenging practised for the surface water of the Thames but carcases of animals float down the stream until wasted by corruption The river water receives unchecked the whole of the pollution solid and fluid of the district and this same water after it has been so polluted is abstracted sand filtered and pumped into the Metropolis for domestic uses Towns of the Upper Thames polluting the river by sewage Having described in much detail pages 15 to 17 the enormous pollution of the Upper Thames by the sewage of Oxford Reading Windsor Eton Richmond and Kingston c c the report proceeds page 17 thus Sewage of hundreds of thousands of persons finds its way into the water whence London draws its supply The river basin at Hampton the pumping station of the water companies comprises an area of about 3 676 square miles and a population in 1861 of nearly 900 000 persons After a full allowance for retention in cesspools and for villages c removed from the banks of the river and its tributaries there is no doubt that the number of persons whose sewage daily finds its way into the water from which London draws its supply amounts to hundreds of thousands and this number is destined greatly to increase by the growth of population and by the development of the sewerage system now only in very partial operation Sir B Brodie s evidence that the London drinker may drink some remnant of the filth of Oxford Page 18 Sir B Brodie s evidence is conclusive that there is no sufficient guarantee for its the Thames water arriving at Hampton purged of injurious taint The London drinker of it may be drinking with it some remnant of the filth of Oxford It is the general opinion of medical men that what causes the presence of organic matter in water to be poisonous is not its quantity but quality and this quality cannot as yet be detected by microscopic or chemical analysis and is indeed known only by its occasionally noxious effects The result seems to be that as a water supply the Thames polluted with the sewage of the inhabitants of the river Basin is open in kind if not in degree to the same objections as well water infiltrated by liquid from an adjoining cesspool well water which is so tainted beyond all doubt is liable to become poisonous Only safe course is to keep sewage out of the water Considering the enormous magnitude of the interests at stake in this question of the Metropolitan water supply the healths of many hundreds of thousands of persons it seems impossible to come to any other conclusion than that the only safe course is to keep sewage out of the river Each town needs to be protected from the abuses of towns above it and to be prevented from committing abuse towards towns below The question of sewage pollution of a river is an indivisible one for the whole River Basin Attempts to keep the main stream pure will be vain so long as tributaries are allowed to remain foul Right way to dispose of sewage is to apply it to land On the subject of disposing of town sewage the Commissioners state that they fully concur with the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the best mode of distributing the sewage of towns and applying it to beneficial and profitable uses who in their final report delivered in March 1865 gave it as their unanimous opinion after an investigation extending over eight years that the right way to dispose of town sewage is to apply it continuously to land and that it is only by such application that the pollution of rivers can be avoided and they add And that wherever that application was in operation it was unattended by injury to public health that such application of town sewage to land wherever that system is in operation as at Croydon Northwood Worthing Carlisle and Edinburgh c was unattended tended by any injury to the public health And after various recommendations which the Commissioners humbly submit to Her Majesty respecting the government and conservancy of the river they recommend Recommend that no sewage unless purified be cast into the Thames under penalties That after the lapse of a period to be allowed for the alteration of existing arrangements it be made unlawful for any sewage unless the same has been passed over land so as to become purified or for any injurious refuse from paper mills tanneries and other works to be cast into the Thames between Cricklade and the commencement of the Metropolitan sewerage system and that any person offending in this respect be made liable to penalties to be recovered summarily 2 May 1866 5th Annual Report of Inspector of Salmon Fisheries On the 2nd May 1866 Mr Ffennell the Inspector of Salmon Fisheries presented his fifth annual report report for England and Wales On the subject of pollution by collieries and paper mills Mr Ffennell at page 15 says I do not think I can better conclude my report than by giving an extract from the proceedings of the Wear Angling Association The extract which conclusively shows that owners of collieries and paper mills can carry on their works without polluting the stream is then appended A portion of it relating to collieries is as follows The Earl of Durham had nobly led the way in reform by not only constructing subsiding ponds at all his collieries but had in addition made staples or wells into which the partially purified water was poured thence pumped back again to the coal washing apparatus and so used over and over again ad infinitum By this simple plan being adopted it became unnecessary to return a drop of foul water to the river or its tributaries After stating that the example of Lord Durham had been or was about to be cordially adopted by Lord Vane and other large colliery owners the extract says with respect to paper mills Much complaint having been made as to the foul state of the Browney arising from the flow of chemicals into the stream we applied for information to Mr Trotter Cranstown of Churnside who has large paper works on the Whitadder in Berwickshire His reply was as follows In reply to yours of the 20th instant wishing for information as to the steps we have adopted to purify the waste ley from our paper manufactory we made a large pond comprising nearly an acre of ground which being all sand and gravel below formed a natural filter It has proved thoroughly successful in practice as all the objectionable ingredients which polluted the river are kept back We also erected a large iron tank whence all the strong ley is pumped up and re used so as to form an actual saving The extract concludes thus Experience has also satisfed us that with trifling exceptions the collieries and gasworks paper mills and manufactories can he carried forward equally well without fouling our once pellucid streams In nearly every case it is but the outlay of a little extra capital and when great concerns are planted near and have the use of our streams for their commercial purposes surely it is not asking too much that the money advanced to plant a business should include the fractional sum necessary to prevent the owners of that concern from wilfully and unnecessarily destroying the property and rights of their neighbours August 1866 Registrar General s weekly return In the supplement to the Registrar General s weekly return for August 6th 1866 appear the following remarks on the water supply of the east districts of London taken from Professor Frankland s Report The cause of the epidemic of Cholera consists as is well known of a zymotic matter in various degrees of activity all over the London area affecting the people in various ways through air contact and water Hitherto in all great outbreaks here the cholerine which this stuff may be called has been distributed chiefly through water It is the amount of organic matter contained in this water which is of special importance in connection with the outbreak of Cholera 1866 Regr Genl s Report of the public health From the Registrar General s Report on the public health for the year 1866 Dr Farr states that there is no apparent decline in the rate of deaths from fever He considers it extremely probable that typhoid fever is sustained by the increasing contamination of the waters 6 May 1867 2nd Report of the Commissioners on the Pollution of Rivers The Lea On the 6th May 1867 the Commissioners on the Pollution of Rivers presented their 2nd Report which refers to the Lea It shows pages 11 to 13 that the Lea from which water for the domestic use of a large portion of London is taken is polluted from Luton close to its source to West Ham near Blackwall where its mouth is by all the towns and places on it by the sewage of Luton numbering 20 000 inhabitants and upwards and by its manufacturing refuse from the preparation of straw plait composed of large quantities of metallic salts dye stuffs brimstone c and in some cases poisonous materials by the sewage of Hatfield which though not discharged directly into the river the Commissioners say finds its way there by the sewage of Whitwell and Welwyn where it is also polluted by arsenic which comes from the wool of sheep when they are washed and which has been retained in their wool since the previous dipping in which process arsenic is used by the sewage of Hertford which though passing into the river in a mitigated form is a constant source of complaint to Ware situate below by the sewage of Ware itself and by the sewage respectively of Bishopstortford via a tributary of the Lea Hoddesdon Broxbourne Cheshunt Waltham Abbey Waltham Cross and Enfield Highway All the foregoing pollution taking place above the intake of the East London Water Company Below the intake the report states the Lea receives the sewage unmitigated by any process whatever of Enfield Edmonton Hornsey Chipping Barnet East Barnet and Hadley and also of Leyton Leytonstone Walthamstow and West Ham whose population West Ham alone at the last census was 22 337 The report adds that this pollution of sewage was much on the increase that the river at Old Ford was rendered very PESIFORUS during hot weather by impurities from chemical and other works and that the district bordering on the tidal portion of the Lea has become a nuisance district the seat of trades expelled from the better parts of the metropolis The Commissioners after condemning the East London Water Company for having drawn unfiltered water for domestic consumption during July and August 1866 from the Old Ford reservoir to which fact had been attributed the outbreak or great aggravation of the outbreak of cholera in the East of London of that year state p 26 as one of the conclusions they had come to That it is expedient that more stringent measures be adopted to protect from pollution that portion of the Metropolitan water supply which is derived from the Lea And finally the Commissioners as in the case of the Upper Thames recommended among other recommendations That after the lapse of a period to be allowed for alteration of existing arrangements it be made unlawful for any sewage unless the same has been passed over land so as to become purified or for any injurious refuse from manufactures or agriculture to be cast into the river Lea or into any of its tributaries and that persons offending in this respect be made liable to penalties to be recovered summarily 15 July 1867 6th Annual Report of Inspectors of Salmon Fisheries England and Wales In July 1867 the Inspectors of Salmon Fisheries Mr Frank Buckland and Mr Spencer Walpole presented their 6th Annual Report for England and Wales Mr Frank Buckland after stating that his predecessor the late Mr Ffennell had issued a series of questions to the Boards of Conservators of rivers of which question No 12 related to pollutions gives in an Appendix at pages 38 to 61 the answers received by the Inspectors to that question From these answers it appears that of 20 rivers named in the Inspector s 3rd Report 1864 page 14 ante as more or less polluted 16 continued to be polluted at fully the same degree especially the v and its tributary the Twymin by the Dyliffa mine and by Sir John Conroy s while the names of about 16 additional rivers are given as suffering from lead mines and numerous forms of pollution which in many instances the answers say kill vast quantities of fish as in the cases of the Allyn tributary of the Dee where for 14 miles every fish in Dec 1866 was destroyed by petroleum works 7 the Usk of which it is remarked it is so polluted that unless some legislative measure stop the evil the objects of the Salmon Fishery Acts and the labours of the Conservators will he thrown away the Exe where paper mills kill bushels of fish the Trent where at Burton for several years past fish have been poisoned by tons the Aire which is so surcharged with immense quantities of coal dust and dye that hundreds of salmon are choked and blind folded by the poisonous salt and the Wear of which the answer says it is dreadfully polluted by lead mines collieries iron gas and chemical works paper mills sewerage and every abomination a thickly populated district can put into it This Report gives therefore a total of at least 32 rivers thus poisoned and polluted very many of them horribly As to the pollutions by lead mines Mr Buckland at page 4 says the measures taken to obviate this terrible evil have been but slight he points however to the answer of the Tamar page 54 where it is stated that The Devon Great Consols Mine Company whose good example was noticed in Mr Ffennell s 4th Report page 24 ante have made catch pits c and are saving the arsenic with profit to themselves No other mining company has used any effectual measures 8 And speaking of polluted water generally Mr Buckland remarks page 5 Impure and polluted water will encourage disease especially cholera pure water will disarm disease of its powers and at the same time be available for growing excellent human food Mr Walpole the other Inspector in his separate Report of the same date observes page 5 It would be impossible for me to omit all notice of that bane of Salmon rivers pollutions a bane which unhappily there is but a very doubtful remedy against under the existing laws adding but though I am aware the law is defective and though I hope the day may shortly come when it may be made illegal to put any pollution into a running stream I abstain from recommending any alteration in the Salmon Laws in this respect as a question of such importance should not be confined to the minor consideration important though it be of the cultivation of our Salmon rivers 15 Aug 1867 3rd Report of the Commissioners on the Pollution of Rivers The Aire and Calder On the 15th August 1867 the Royal Commissioners on the pollution of rivers made their Report on the Rivers Aire and Calder At pages 10 and 11 the report says The Aire and Calder throughout their whole course are abused obstructed and polluted to an extent scarcely conceivable by other than eye witnesses from Skipton on the Aire and from Todmorden on the Calder to Castleford where they unite Our inspection was corroborated by uncontested and overwhelming evidence The rivers Aire and Calder and their tributaries are abused by passing into them hundreds of thousands of tons per annum of ashes clay and cinders from steam boiler furnaces ironworks and domestic fires by their being made the receptacle to a vast extent of broken pottery and worn out utensils of metal refuse from brickyards c earth stone c from quarries and excavations road scrapings street sweepings c by spent dye woods and other solids used in the treatment of worsteds and woollens by hundreds of carcases of dogs cats pigs c which are allowed to float on the surface of the streams or putrify on their banks and by the flowing in to the amount of very many millions of gallons per day of water poisoned corrupted and clogged by refuse from mines chemical works dyeing scouring and fulling worsted and woollen stuffs skin cleaning and tanning slaughter house garbage and the sewage of towns and houses Many streams where by reason of their foulness no form of life can at present be found persons now living recollect abounding in fish One enormous penalty paid for this abuse of the rivers is flooding consequent on the raising of the rivers beds and at page 12 the Commissioners exemplify this as follows That on the 15th of November 1866 rain commenced and continued for several days flooding the valleys of the Aire and Calder most destructively from the mountains to the sea In several instances persons were washed away and drowned It is not possible to form an estimate of the money value of the damage caused to the manufacturers landowners and others in the West Riding The total loss was locally estimated at from half a million to a million sterling The lesser sum would have been sufficient to put the rivers in a condition to render such destruction of life and property impossible After stating at page 13 that the amount of solids taken into the streams from sewers is in the aggregate enormous and that at Leeds the entire volume of sewage of eight to ten million gallons per day passes into the Aire as also that of Bradford Keighley and Skipton and that the Calder receives all the sewage of Todmorden Halifax Huddersfield Dewesbury Wakefield and of smaller towns c c the Commissioners then declare That the present gross abuse of the rivers we inspected may he in a great measure prevented and in such manner and at such cost as to be beneficial to all parties And speaking of the woollen manufacture they remark In the two facts first that in one year 1864 384 000 000 pounds of wool were worked up into various tissues in Great Britain and secondly that every pound of this wool has to undergo operations necessitating the use of large volumes of water and rendering that water foul and offensive we have the history of all rivers on which that trade is located and notably of the Aire and Calder And they add That with very few exceptions the streams of the West Riding run with a liquid more resembling ink than water Referring to the tanneries at Leeds the report states page 35 That as many as 2 750 000 hides were annually converted into leather in Leeds and its neighbourhood And at page 36 speaking of the pollution of the river by tanning refuse the Commissioners say We believe that the pollution of the river which is undoubtedly very considerable from tanning refuse may be prevented without injury to this very important industry the leather trade They then give a detailed description of the condition of each town visited

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  • File:Hawarden Castle Morris edited.jpg - Wikisource, the free online library
    that a few countries have copyright terms longer than 70 years Mexico has 100 years Jamaica has 95 years Colombia has 80 years and Guatemala and Samoa have 75 years This image may not be in the public domain in these countries which moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term Côte d Ivoire has a general copyright term of 99 years and Honduras has 75 years but they do implement the rule of the shorter term Copyright may extend on works created by French who died for France in World War II more information Russians who served in the Eastern Front of World War II known as the Great Patriotic War in Russia and posthumously rehabilitated victims of Soviet repressions more information This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law including all related and neighboring rights File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 14 59 23 February 2006 675 456 73 KB Merchbow commonswiki Hawarden Castle in Flintshire Wales from Morris s Country Seats 1880 Category Historic houses in Wales File usage The following page links to this file Wikisource Proofread of the Month Global file usage The following other wikis use this file Usage on bg wikipedia org Уилям Гладстон Usage on en wikipedia org Hawarden Castle 18th century Sir Stephen Glynne 9th Baronet Sir John Glynne 6th Baronet Thomas Cundy senior Architecture of Wales Usage on fi wikipedia org William Ewart Gladstone Usage on it wikipedia org Castello di Hawarden Usage on ja wikipedia org ウィリアム グラッドストン Usage on sv wikipedia org Hawarden Castle Usage on www wikidata org Q370127 Metadata This file contains additional information probably added from the digital camera

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    by slightly pointed drop arches Each has a vaulted roof and parallel sides which afterwards converge upon a square headed window 2 ft wide and 5 ft 6 in high having a plain chamfer outside In each side of the recesses is a plain shouldered doorway 3 ft 9 in broad by 10ft high opening into the mural gallery This floor has its main entrance through the portcullis chamber and next north west of this entrance is the chapel This is a mural chamber 14 ft by 7 ft but not quite rectangular It is flat vaulted and its axis points south east to the altar which is a restoration The doorway next the west end is only 2 ft broad by 7 ft high with a cinquefoiled head and a plain moulding of decorated character The door opened inwards and could be barred within the chapel On the same side but near the altar is a small cinquefoiled recess for piscina with a projecting bracket and a fluted foot In the opposite wall in vaulted recesses are two windows that next the altar square headed the other lancet headed Against the west wall is a stone bench and above it a rude squint through which any person in the adjacent window recess could see the altar The entrance to the keep is by a gateway 5 ft wide and 6 ft 6 in high having a drop arch rising about 3 ft more The jambs have a single and the arch a double chamber Two feet within is the portcullis groove 4 in square and next is the rebate for the door with its bar holes Beyond is the vaulted passage 6 ft broad leading to the ground floor with a door opening so as to be barred against that chamber within however is a narrow rebate as though for a lighter door opening inwards The portcullis grooves are stopped 3 ft above the floor so that either the cill must have been obstructively high or the grate have terminated in a range of long spikes On each side of the entrance passage is a shouldered doorway That on the right 2 ft 9 in broad opens into a mural lodge vaulted 6 ft by 9 ft with a lancet loop to the field On the left the door is 3 ft 3 in broad and opens on a well stair which lighted from the field by loops ascends to the upper floor and the battlements Twenty one steps lead to the portcullis chamber which is also the antechamber to the state room It is vaulted 6 ft broad by 10 ft long with a square headed window of 2 ft opening to the field and within it the chase for working the portcullis At the other end a large doorway with a plain moulding of a decorated type and an arch very nearly if not quite roundheaded opens in a recess similarly arched and this into the state room The door was barred inside so as to be held against the stairs Returning to the well stair the upper part of which is broken away at twenty nine steps from the base is a small lancet headed door It opens into a mural passage 2 ft 6 in broad and 7 ft high which makes two turns at right angles At one on the left is a recess 3 ft deep by 1 ft 9 in broad a garde robe the back part of which probably bratticed off carried a shaft from a similar recess on the ramparts At its second turn the passage descends seven steps to the nearest window recess in the main chamber crossing which an opposite doorway leads into the mural gallery The ascent and descent in the narrow passage is rendered necessary by the level of the steps of the well stair The mural gallery at the main chamber level is continued within the substance of the wall to the recess next the chapel It is in plan a polygon parallel with the inner faces of the wall It is 10 ft high and 3 ft 9 in wide having a flagged roof resting on a double tier of corbels and in it are three large recesses each opening to the field by a long loop swallow tailed at each end These recesses and loops are not seen from the main chamber The doors and window eaves where original are executed in straw coloured sandstone The chapel doorway and piscina and the side doors of the window recesses seem of later decorated work than the rest and may be insertions though this does not look probable The keep as at Tamworth Durham Berkhamstead Warwick and Cardiff stands in the enceinte line of the main ward and forms part of it about two thirds of its circumference being outside and one third including the doorway inside the curtain This curtain was about 460 ft in length and encircles the main ward abutting against the keep at two points one 24 ft south and one 18 ft north of the entrance On each side it is carried down the slope and meeting below thus encloses a somewhat fan shaped area about 170 ft north east and south west by 142 ft north west and south east within which were the principal buildings of the fortress The southern part of this curtain can be traced but in its foundation only that to the north HAWARDEN CASTLE FLINTSHIRE 1870 Ground Plan from a Survey made by Mr James Harrison of Chester in 1857 A The Keep B The Main Ward C Site of the Hall D Offices E Entrance below which is its section F Place of the Barbican is tolerably perfect It is 7 ft thick and has been about 25 ft high It does not as at Tamworth so ascend the mound that its ramparts terminate at the level of the base of the keep but it abuts against the keep at a height of 12 or 14 feet and is so continued down the slope Up the mound the rampart of the curtain as at Windsor was a flight of steps but as the ramparts only abutted against and had no doorway into the keep the steps were merely to enable the defenders to man every part of the wall On the north side besides these steps there was a second flight laid on the surface of the mound behind and at the foot of the curtain and probably covered over as traces remain of a second wall These led to the entrance to the keep and were the communication between it and the main ward At the junction of this curtain with the keep is a postern a small shouldered doorway with a door barred within whence an enemy who had reached the foot of the keep could be attacked About 90 ft lower down are traces of a similar doorway whence the base of the mound could be reached Of the south curtain a fragment remains attached to the keep it had no postern and probably no steps behind it The main ward B in the plan is divided into two parts the one a level platform in which stood the hall and other buildings round a court about 12 5 ft by 92 ft and into which was the main entrance and the other and much smaller part is the steep slope of the mound about 50 ft broad and which was probably left rugged and useless as we now see it At the foot of this slope are the remains of four rooms about 18 ft deep from the face probably for stores each with a doorway to the Court in the wall of one is a sort of rude drain as from a sink or trough This range was evidently continued along the south end of the court being built against the curtain and carried on to the hall Of these extensions only the excavated ground floor some low walls and the base of a well stair remain From the character of the stair it looks as though it had been of some consequence and it shows that there was an upper floor probably of rooms communicating with the hall and perhaps connecting it with the keep At the opposite or north end of the store room range is the doorway at the foot of the stairs leading to the keep and beyond this in the curtain wall a door which seems to have led into a well stair which gave access to the stepped rampart Again a few feet beyond this at an angle of the enclosure are the fragments of the great gateway beyond which for about 100 ft round the north angle of the court the curtain is of full height and very perfect having anglequoins of the same yellow ashlar used in the keep The hall C is placed on the east face of the ward at its south end and occupied above one half of that face The curtain formed its outer wall and was pierced by its windows and strengthened at its south east angle by a solid half round buttress 22 ft diameter probably an addition The hall was on the first floor the low basement being probably a cellar and entered by a vaulted passage at its south end The hall was about 30 ft high from its timber floor to its wall plate Two lofty windows remain and traces of a third and between them are the plain chamfered corbels whence sprung the open roof The window recesses have a low pointed arch and a bold bead moulding The windows are of one light trefoiled with the cusp lights worked There is no label Within the recess are lateral seats North of and connected with the hall is a rectangular projection D 36 ft deep by 60 ft in front the lower floors of which are laid on the scarp of the ditch considerably below the level of the ward These were doubtless offices but as nothing but the lower walls remain little can be discovered of their detail There remains however in the curtain the jamb of a large doorway whence descends a flight of steps about 20 ft probably to a postern of which however there are no traces on the edge of the ditch These steps led into one of two apartments at one end of each of which is what was probably a fire place though they more resemble the vent of a garde robe shaft which however they cannot well be since the chambers were certainly not cesspools The walls of this projection are substantial and certainly carried an upper story probably occupied by withdrawing rooms and private apartments attached to the hall No well has been discovered nor oven nor any signs of a garrison chapel all which were probably placed in this ward The great gateway opened in the north west face of the curtain and from the fragment of a jamb that remains and the bold rebate seems to have been about 8 ft high and broad in proportion A projection inwards from the curtain shows that there was some kind of small gatehouse This gateway opened into a spur work formed by two curtains 32 ft apart projecting from the main curtain down the scarp of the ditch so as to form a parallelogram 40 ft wide by 68 ft long The curtains are 4 ft thick and about 24 ft high The western indeed is destroyed but the eastern is tolerably perfect and at its junction with the main curtain is a shouldered postern door 2 ft 9 in broad which opened on the scarp of the ditch At the further and lower end of the spur work the walls turn inward E in the plan and again proceed parallel for 14 ft at 27 ft apart and there contain the gates and pit of the drawbridge beyond which a second narrowing reduces the distance to 21 ft at which they proceed for 14 ft more when the walls abut upon the counterscarp of the ditch at that point revetted with ashlar Thus the whole length of the spur work from the main curtain to the counterscarp is 96 ft audits breadths over all 40 ft 25 ft and 21 ft About 34 ft in advance of the great gateway was a cross wall probably containing a second gate and beyond it is a flight of fifteen steps 6 ft broad leading down into a rectangular chamber which has had a flat timber roof and in the opposite wall of which is a shouldered doorway without a door 2 ft 9 in broad and 7 ft high This opens into a low narrow flat topped passage 3 ft broad and 10 ft long but expanded at the centre to 3 ft 6 in so that two persons could pass by squeezing and at this point in the roof is a hole 8 in square evidently for the purpose attacking them if necessary The passage ends in a second small doorway barred from the inside which opens upon a bridge pit about 27 ft long right and left 12 ft deep and 10 ft broad to a similar doorway opposite The pit is lined with rubble below the door cills and with ashlar above and at its west end is a hole probably for cleaning it out and communicating with the main ditch of which the pit is an isolated part Crossing over a narrow plank bridge the further door leads through a short narrow passage into a chamber 13 ft square entirely of ashlar and having right and left a small door 2 ft 9 in broad opening upon the counterscarp of the ditch The doorway from the bridge had no door but those of the lateral sally ports opened inwards In the further or north wall is another doorway also shouldered 3 ft broad and 8 ft high the door of which also opened inwards and disclosed a very steep flight of eleven steps rising about 8 ft in a dovetail shaped chamber commencing at a breadth of 3 ft and expanding to 8 ft It is 14 ft long The steps land on a floor but the walls of which the lower 6 ft 6 in of ashlar are quite perfect have so far no openings This singular chamber is niched into the counterscarp of the ditch and is actually within the barbican The remains of the barbican F are a considerable knoll of earth having a ditch of its own and on its rugged surface showing traces of old buildings This covers the head of the bridge and appears to have been approached by a winding road and entered on the west side This work has been the subject of much speculation That it was the main entrance is sufficiently certain This could only have been at one end of the main ward and the remaining jamb is too large for a postern and the ground at the opposite end far too steep for an approach The spur work with its lateral curtains completely enclosed the entrance The steps to the bridge are modern but must represent others somewhat similar The doors and passage were calculated for single files only with a special arrangement for commanding the only point at which two armed men could pass In the chamber beyond the bridge 80 or 100 men could assemble previous to a sally by the lateral doorways On their return also if pursued and the enemy should re enter with them the narrow passages would make almost impossible a surprise or any sudden rush into either the body of the place or the barbican Further looking to the lateral space between the walls and the great length of the bridge pit it is pretty clear that above the foot passage was a roadway for wheel carriages with at least one drawbridge Most of the passages below seem to have been flagged with stone One drawbridge was clearly over the remaining pit another may have covered the chamber at this time occupied by the modern flight of stairs The thickness 4 ft and solidity of the existing walls show that they must have been much higher so that they would have formed lateral parapets concealing the passage of the bridge For this about 15 ft might be added to the existing wall Spur work enclosing the main entrance Hawarden Castle North East side The fan shaped chamber was probably an outlet for those who having used the foot bridge did not wish to go out by the sally ports but to ascend into the barbican The steps are no doubt inconvenient but the whole passage was certainly only meant for occasional use and is in no part particularly commodious Probably the means of egress from the stair head into the barbican were stairs of timber The whole arrangement is very peculiar and it may be doubted whether the safety proposed was worth the considerable expense bestowed upon it As the whole of this bridge arrangement is clearly an addition it is probable that though the original entrance was at this point it was by an ordinary drawbridge of which the lateral curtains of the spur work which are old would be the protection Of the exterior earthworks there is little to be said On the south east side of the fortress the outer bank is cut through as though for an entrance If so this must have been carried laterally along the ditches of the place until it reached the barbican Hawarden seems to present traces of at least three periods of construction the oldest being that of the works which like some similar ones in England may be

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