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  • Weather Facts and Predictions - 3rd edition - Wikisource, the free online library
    the best hours are 9 a m 3 p m and 9 p m The observation at 3 p m being near the time when the temperature is at its highest is of great value in reference to the climate of a locality as well as in reference to other considerations of more strictly scientific interest The mean of observations at hours of the same number or name a m and p m do not differ much from the true mean of the day ascertained under circumstances of precision This is especially true of 9 a m and p m 10 ditto 3 ditto and 4 ditto Where the daily range is small that is to say in the tropics and in temperate regions in winter the maximum temperature occurs at about 1 30 p m but in temperate regions in summer not until between 2 30 and 3 30 p m In winter and at night in dry calm clear weather the air is warmer at some height above the ground than it is at the surface This explains why fog which is vapour condensed by chilled air is so frequently visible in low lying places whilst neighbouring eminences are clear In such cases the upper rooms are warmer than those nearer the ground a consideration for invalids Houses most protected against severe weather are those on a gentle acclivity a little above the plain or valley from which it rises and which have a southern aspect with trees on the rising ground in the rear Comparing Great Britain with places on the continent or in America having the same latitude the comparative mildness of the former is due to the influence of the Gulf Stream It is an undoubted fact that the mean temperature of Great Britain is higher than it was some centuries ago This is due to the drainage of land generally and to the reclamation of waste lands Glaisher considers that the mean temperature of the year at Greenwich has risen 2 in the last 100 years and that the increase of temperature is especially marked for the months of November December and January The winter temperature of Great Britain is so distributed that for invalids a journey southward is of little benefit unless directed at the same time towards the W and as the W temperatures from Wales to Shetland are uniform and equal to those of Sussex it is only the south western counties that present maximum temperatures These are 4 in excess of the West of Scotland and Sussex and 6 in excess of the East of Scotland and England The S W of Ireland may be compared with the corresponding part of England The greater the range of temperature comparing summer with winter the greater as a rule is the death rate Hence the greater mortality of England compared with Scotland The mean annual temperature falls on an average about 1 for every increase of 300 feet in the height above the sea When the atmosphere is highly charged with vapour the escape of heat by radiation is obstructed and the temperature falls but little during the night but when the quantity of vapour is small radiation is less impeded and the temperature falls rapidly Similarly in the day time the prevalence of vapour obstructs the passage of the solar rays and the temperature rises slowly but the absence of vapour causes a rapid rise The comparative absence of aqueous vapours in mountainous districts facilitating radiation both solar and terrestrial causes the heat of the sun to fall upon tourists with scorching effect When the air is what we call sultry it is saturated with moisture and evaporation from our bodies proceeds sluggishly Hence the well known oppressive sensation often felt in the summer months especially in July Under those circumstances there will be very little if any difference between the readings of the wet and dry bulb thermometers At any time when the air has been for a while much heated above the usual temperature of the season a sudden squall with or without rain will often come on without much warning A period of excessive cold is often followed by destructive gales of wind In the northern hemisphere the thermometer rises with E S E and S winds With a S W wind it ceases to rise and begins to fall it falls with W N W and N winds and with a N E wind it ceases to fall and begins to rise The thermometer shaded from the sun and freely exposed to the air when much higher between 8 and 9 a m than the average indicates southerly or westerly wind equatorial but when considerably lower northerly Polar currents The average temperatures at Greenwich in the shade and exposed in air are nearly the mean temperatures of each 24 hours taking the year through around London Making an allowance for the difference between the mean annual temperature of Greenwich and of any other particular place the average temperature for the middle of each month at such place may be obtained approximately from the following table Deg Deg January 37 July 62 February 39 August 61 March 41 September 57 April 46 October 50 May 53 November 43 June 59 December 39 and proportionally for periods intermediate between the 15th of each month The Hygrometer and Moisture Since wind drives away saturated air and so causes dry air to take its place evaporation is greater in windy than in calm weather A rise in the dew point from morning to noon will be followed by rain a fall by fine weather The evening dew point generally determines the mean temperature of the night If therefore this be ascertained the approach of low temperature or of a frost at night may be seen and provided against A high evening dew point indicates if the dry bulb does not fall much that the next day will probably be warm but a high evening dew point with a chilly air and a S W wind is rather a presage of rain Damp air is a much better conductor of heat than dry air consequently it feels colder than dry air of the same temperature because it conducts away more rapidly the heat from our bodies The difference between the dry and wet bulb thermometer will in England sometimes amount to 18 and frequently be from 9 to 12 This sort of thing will occur between April and September During the Winter months the difference will be restricted to narrower limits say from 4 to 9 The Temperature of the Dew point is sometimes as much as 30 below the temperature of the air and between April and September especially is frequently 20 During the Winter months the difference is much smaller but is often between 6 and 15 When in summer a hot day is not followed by a dew rain may be looked for A profuse dew is a very sure sign of fine weather Winds Two principal currents blow over the northern hemisphere of the earth The Equatorial northwards to the Pole and the Polar southward from the Pole The Equatorial current is warm the Polar current cold Because winds bring with them the temperatures of the regions which they have passed over Winds coming from the sea do not cause such variations in temperature as those coming from a continent Because marine temperatures are more uniform than continental ones Moist winds blowing from the Ocean are accompanied by a mild temperature in winter and by a cool temperature in summer Because air loaded with vapour obstructs both solar and terrestrial radiation Similarly dry winds from a continent bring cold in winter and heat in summer The Equatorial current becomes a more moist wind as it proceeds N Because it loses heat and therefore approaches nearer the point of saturation or as some have it because it is blowing from regions of much moisture to regions where moisture is less The Polar current becomes a more dry wind as it proceeds S Because it gains heat and therefore recedes from the point of saturation or as some have it because it is blowing from regions deficient in moisture to regions of much moisture Hence in England the S W 1 wind is particularly moist because it is both an oceanic and an Equatorial wind and the N E 1 wind is particularly dry Because it is both a Polar and a continental current Western borders of continents in the N temperate zone where the prevailing wind is S W enjoy a comparatively high temperature in winter Because they are protected from extreme cold by the warmth brought by the said wind from the ocean in their proximity and they are further protected by their moist atmosphere and clouded skies But in the interior of the continent it is otherwise Because the S W wind getting colder and drier as it advances the soil is exposed to the full effects of radiation during the long winter nights and as the ground is for the most part covered with snow little heat can ascend from the soil below to counteract the cold on the surface and so the temperature falls considerably It is much hotter in the interior of such continents in summer than at the Western borders Because the land being warmer than the ocean at this season the wind becomes warmer as it traverses the land and the superjacent air being drier the rays of the sun act with an intensity which is always more or less excessive Wind blows from regions where the barometer is high to where it is low and with a force proportioned to the difference of the pressures and places between very high and very low pressures feel most the violence of the resulting storm and not those where the pressure is absolutely the lowest If the wind being N passes to N E we get clear weather the air is dry the barometer high and in winter a considerable degree of cold follows If the wind gets on to the E the barometer will fall and the sky become more or less overcast Snow and S wind may then be expected If the barometer falls rapidly the snow will turn to rain and a thaw set in if the wind veers farther through S E and S to S W If a N E wind be accompanied in winter by a clear sky with haze near the horizon and the barometer be high and rising or at least stationary and the wind does not increase in force but tends to change in the direction of E and S E the weather will probably continue settled for some time One of the surest signs of the breaking up of a severe frost is the setting in of a N E wind if it be accompanied by a green or yellowish green sky and the break up is all the more certain if the sky becomes gradually overcast and the wind backs from N E to N and N W Of S E wind there are two distinct kinds one with a low barometer accompanied by warmth and moisture ending in rainy or stormy weather The other with a high barometer rising or stationary and accompanied by dry weather and a clear sky which may be expected to last some time Prolonged absence of wind is favourable to the prevalence of epidemics but during continued windy weather no disease arising out of local causes such as deficient water or drainage can be expected to make much progress In England windy weather is most common in December and January then in February and November The calmest months are August and September In England S Westerly winds prevail most hence it may be inferred why the W end is so often the fashionable quarter of large towns because smoke c is driven from the W towards the E Such a current not only carries away from the W its own smoke but keeps away altogether smoke contributed by Eastern districts The following represents the prevalence of wind in England on an average of years N 41 S E 20 W 38 N E 48 S 34 N W 24 E 23 S W 104 Calm 33 When the wind becomes N E and two days pass without rain and on the third day the wind does not veer to the S nor does rain fall the wind will probably continue N E for eight or nine days all fair and then veer to the S The wind is usually more strong in veering from N to W by S than in veering from N to S by E Change of wind with the sun veering N E S W is a general indication of fine weather but backing N W S E presages rain or wind or both combined Changes of wind in Ireland Wales and Cornwall usually precede changes in the midland and Eastern counties of England by one and a half to two days If in unsettled weather the wind veers from S W towards N W at sunset an improvement in the weather may be looked for Strong winds are more persistent and uniform than light winds That is to say if a strong wind is blowing at any one place a similar wind also strong will prevail over a considerable tract of country but if the movement of the air is feeble very different winds will be registered at places not very far apart In our latitudes a Northerly current becomes more Easterly the longer it lasts and therefore a N E wind is a N wind which has come from higher latitudes than a wind which reaches us as a N wind and similarly a S W wind is a S wind which has come from lower latitudes than our S wind In Europe the coldest point of the compass is about N E in winter and N W in summer and accordingly the warmest winter point is S W and the warmest summer point S E When a calm is succeeded by a forward motion of the wind E S W N it seldom backs but if it back it will generally return to the point whence it started before performing a complete circuit If the wind be S for two or three days it may be succeeded unexpectedly by a northerly breeze but a northerly wind will not be followed by a southerly one till after the intervention of a period of E wind As a main characteristic a N wind is cold and an E wind dry a S wind warm but rarely wet and a W wind generally rainy If a S S E wind commences to blow gently it will freshen gradually If the sky becomes overcast the wind will rise and may shift towards the S W If the wind veers it attains its maximum intensity between W S W and W N W and it never remains long in N W and N A shifting of the wind backwards may be expected to presage atmospheric disturbance of greater or less intensity In spring if the wind shifts through W to N we may expect the weather to clear up suddenly and night frosts to set in even though the thermometer at a little height above the ground may not fall to 32 The only winds which can preserve their directions unaltered in passing over a large tract of country are due E and due W winds The directions of all others are influenced by the Earth s rotation The backing of the wind when it extends beyond S or E indicates cyclones Shiftings of limited extent as N W to S W or E N E to N N E are often only the return of the vane to its original position owing to the Equatorial or Polar current as the case may be regaining its supremacy When a calm succeeds a storm the pressure is unusually low consequently the foul air imprisoned in the mineral of coal pits escapes more readily into the air accompanied by a buzzing sound which miners regard as prognosticating a storm or heavy rain Accordingly it is when the barometer is low that explosions of fire damp are most common Storms are invariably vorticose that is to say travel across a region in curved paths which do not return on themselves Squalls occurring during storms are thought to indicate the approaching cessation of the storm Just prior to a tempest the atmosphere is unusually still Because its great rarefaction low barometer enfeebles its ability to transmit sounds After a gale from S E or S W to N W a lull of a day or two may follow with symptoms of a continuance of bad weather then a rapid backing of the wind through W and S to S E After this another gale may spring up which may be even more violent than the former one If the wind howls or veers about much rain will follow If towards sunset especially the sky clears on any part of the horizon the wind will shortly blow from the quarter cleared When the sea gets rough on a flood tide it is a sign of more wind coming S coast of England Ozone When ozone is largely present in the air it is accompanied by diminished pressure increasing temperature and humidity and a prevalence of S W or Equatorial winds But when it is present only to a limited extent the pressure is increasing the temperature and humidity decreasing and the prevailing wind is N E or Polar in character Ozone is more abundant on the sea coast than inland in the West of Great Britain than in the East in elevated than in low situations in rural districts than in towns and on the windward than on the leeward side of towns Its amount seems to increase and decrease with the electricity and it is almost wanting in places where there is much decaying vegetable or animal matter Ozone is most abundant in May least so in November Clouds An attentive consideration of the changing tints of the evening sky after stormy weather furnishes valuable aid in forecasting the weather If the yellow tint becomes a sickly green more rainy and stormy weather may be expected but if it deepens into orange or red the atmosphere is becoming drier and fine weather will follow Small thin clouds high up in the E sky before sunrise and which soon disappear are sure prognostics of fine weather A green or yellowish green sky is one of the surest signs of rain in summer and of snow in winter A red or yellow sky in the morning betokens wind and unsettled weather If the clouds move rapidly or possess in the N W a leaden hue rain may be looked for If at sunset the clouds begin to break up and disappear and have their edges tinged with red or golden yellow the weather is likely to remain fine and settled Cirrus is an important prognostic of stormy weather but small groups of regularly formed cirrus scattered over the sky often accompany settled fair weather Horizontal sheets of cirrus which descend quickly and pass into cirro stratus indicate unmistakeably wet weather When streaks of cirrus run quite across the sky in the direction in which a light wind is blowing the wind will probably soon blow hard but in one uniform direction There will be none of the variable squally weather which usually accompanies storms When fine threads of cirrus appear as if swept back at one end by a breeze prevailing in the regions in which they lie the wind on the earth s surface may be expected to veer round to that point if then at some other point If the direction so foreshadowed be S W whence the storms of Europe come wind and rain will follow and no matter how settled the weather may seem to be a storm more or less severe is advancing and will present itself within thirty or forty hours When the form seems past and the sky is clear should a few fine cirrus clouds be seen brushed back at their E extremities the storm in all probability is really past and fair weather setting in because the dry Polar current is asserting its supremacy overhead but if the cirrus continues to prevail in all directions interlaced in the sky a second storm is approaching If cirrus forms during fine weather with a falling barometer a change is sure to occur Cirrus is especially associated with easterly winds A mass of cirrus with the fibres pointing upwards denote rain but with the fibres downwards dry though possibly windy weather When cirrus lies from W to E a storm is imminent Cirro cumulus mackerel sky occurs frequently in summer in connection with dry summery weather When enduring cirro cumuli clouds indicate a continuance of such weather and a rise in the barometer Cumulo stratus immediately precedes the fall of rain or snow according to the season of the year Cirro stratus is especially a precursor of storms Its greater or less abundance and permanence afford a clue to the probable nearness or remoteness of the storm that is impending Since it possesses great extent and evenness of texture with slight depth it is the cloud in which halos and such optical atmospheric phenomena present themselves and therefore it is that such phenomena are to be regarded as presaging foul weather Cumulus of moderate height and size with well defined curved outlines and visible only during the heat of the day especially if they come up with the wind indicate a continuance of fine weather But when they increase with great rapidity sink down into the lower parts of the atmosphere and do not disappear towards evening rain may be looked for If loose fleecy patches of cloud begin to be thrown out as it were from their surfaces especially if they move against the wind the rain is at hand If cumuli diminish in size towards evening they betoken fine weather but if they increase foul weather Large masses of cumulus following rain often precede squalls of hail or rain Nimbus rain cloud when this is seen approaching and cirri are noticed to be shooting out from the top in all directions as the cirri are more numerous so the rainfall will be more copious Stratus clouds forming at sunset and breaking up as the sun rises in the heavens and soon disappearing altogether indicate a continuance of very severe weather When clouds are seen drifting about aloft the air on the ground being still or nearly so wind is approaching and the clouds indicate the direction from which it will come Clouds drifting about at sunset from whatever quarter betoken rough weather Dusky clouds or clouds of the hue of tarnished silver are a sign of hail If traces of blue are visible the hail will be small if traces of yellow it will be large It was the opinion of Sir J Herschel that anvil shaped clouds are likely to be speedily followed by a gale of wind The most cloudy countries are those where the wind is most variable as Britain the least cloudy countries are those in which the wind is least variable as Egypt If small clouds increase expect rain If large clouds decrease expect fine weather Soft filmy clouds indicate fine weather with light breezes Hard edged clouds wind A dark gloomy blue sky indicates wind A light bright blue sky fine weather The softer and more silky clouds look the less wind but perhaps more rain may there be expected but the harder more tufted more ragged the stronger the expected wind will be Fragments of clouds scud driving across heavy masses of cloud presage wind and rain but if scud alone is flitting about the indication may be merely of wind Clouds up aloft at great elevations crossing the sky in a direction different from that indicated on the surface as the direction of the wind foretell a change of wind towards their direction In general it may be said that light delicate quiet tints or colours with clouds of soft ill defined outline indicate and accompany fine weather but gaudy or unusual hues with clouds of hard outline foretell rain and wind Mists Mists often appear sooner on parts of hills covered with trees than elsewhere This happens especially when the mist begins to form after midday because then the temperature of the trees is lower than that of the grassy slopes Similarly mists often linger longest over forests probably on account of the comparative cold of forest air arising from the large evaporating surface presented by the leaves of the constituent trees which be it remembered are all the while enshrouded in mist Cloudy mists forming or hanging on heights indicate if they endure increase or descend that wind and rain are coming but if they rise or disperse fine weather may be looked for A morning mist which breaks up into soft looking cumuli clouds betokens a fine day Frequent mists foretell rain A gloomy mist especially presages rain The gloominess is owing to the presence of black clouds over head which will supply the rain Mists in autumn are often followed by wet in spring seldom If in summer towards dusk a mist is seen to rise from a stream or a meadow the next day will be warm If a mist appear before sunrise about the time of full moon fair weather for some days may be expected Mists are usually observed with barometrical extremes very high or very low pressure A high barometer testifies to a period of calm during which vapour has been able to accumulate a low barometer testifies to rarefaction of the air which is consequently incapable of sustaining much vapour in suspension Fogs Fogs do not occur in windy weather They are driven away when a breeze springs up unless dissipated by other causes If in winter a cold and a warm current meet and the latter a Southerly one is overcome by the former a Northerly one the barometer will rise to a high point at places near the line of contact and a dense fog will appear This fog often disappears suddenly and then reappears and perhaps such alternations may occur several times the alternate predominance of the two antagonistic currents is indicated by this If great cold ensue it will be a proof that the Northerly or Polar current has eventually gained the mastery Dew and Hoar Frost Dew is the aqueous vapour of the air deposited on surfaces cooled by radiation The quantity depends on the degree of the cold and on the radiating and conducting power of the surfaces Furs wool silk cotton vegetable substances c being good conductors relatively will be much bedewed Glass mould sand gravel c being bad conductors will be little bedewed By a benificent arrangement therefore of the Creator dew falls most copiously on the objects which most require its refreshing influence 2 It is not deposited in cloudy weather because the clouds obstruct the escape of heat into space by radiation nor in windy wheather because wind constantly changes the air in contact with the ground and thus prevents its temperature from falling sufficiently low When the temperature falls below freezing the dew becomes converted into hoar frost As dew is not formed during the prevalence of clouds or wind it serves as an indication of fine weather Hoar frosts on three successive mornings in early spring or autumn betoken rain but in April or May are generally followed by dry weather Rain More rain falls on land than at sea especially in hilly or mountainous countries and so the temperature will be raised by the latent heat thus given out For this reason the northern hemisphere as containing more land is warmer than the southern hemisphere The drainage of agricultural land has been proved to raise the mean annual temperature and so such operations improve the produce of the crops to the detriment of the wells Places having a considerable rainfall are characterised by a low mean pressure More showers of rain happen between 2 and 3 p m than during any other hour Rain is rare between midnight and 1 a m In weather which is showery rather than steadily wet when between the intervals of sunshine a cloud appears in the W passes over the spectator and as it passes pours down a considerable quantity of rain if the barometer be watched from the time of the cloud s appearance in the W to its appearance in the E it will be observed to fall a little and then to recover its original level the fall being quite a local one A steady continuance of rain is usually preceded by fair weather If after rain seems imminent several days of fine weather occur it is certain that the condition of the air has undergone change that the aqueous vapour has been driven off before it had time to condense A change of wind will accompany such a general change If much rain from the S is followed by fine weather for a week the wind remaining S a prolonged absence of rain may be expected Rain usually comes from the W A clear sunset is therefore a proof that no rain is imminent from that quarter nor probably very near from any quarter In winter rain with a W wind and a rising barometer turns to snow Sudden rains do not last long but when the sky thickens gradually and the heavenly bodies grow more and more dim rain of some duration may be looked for If it begins to rain before sunrise the rain may cease by about noon but if the rain commences after the sun has risen it is likely to last all day unless it should be preceded by a rainbow A heavy shower after the commencement of a gale of wind indicates an approaching calm More rain falls in summer than in winter and most in the autumn More rain falls by night than by day Because the cold at night condenses and cools the air and thus diminishes its capacity for holding moisture in suspension The amount of moisture in the atmosphere is greatest near the equator and diminishes towards the poles The zone of greatest moisture follows the sun across the equator to the North or to the South as the sun s declination changes The regions of greatest heat are also the regions of greatest rainfall More rain falls in the Northern hemisphere than in the Southern As to the rainfall in Great Britain More rain falls on the Western than on the Eastern coasts in the ratio of 2 3 or 4 to 1 Localities having a small annual fall have most rain in the summer but at wet stations winter is the season of most rain In all except mountainous districts the amount of rain increases about 2½ per cent for every increase of 100 feet in elevation above the sea level The wettest place in the British Isles is the Stye Head Pass one mile S of Seathwaite in Borrowdale where the average annual fall is 165 inches The driest district in England is that around Lincoln where the average annual fall is only 20 inches Comparing the E with the W of England the average falls over the whole area neglecting extremes are 25 inches in the former and 40 inches in the latter The fall in the driest year will be one third below the average that in the wettest year one third beyond Therefore the fall in the wettest will be double that in the driest year And therefore an excess or defect of say 20 per cent entitles us to call any particular year a wet or dry one as the case may be July August and October are the wettest months at most lowland stations but December January and February are the wettest in the mountainous districts The rainfall is more evenly distributed through the year at Western coast stations than it is at Eastern or dry stations or it may be put in this way The heaviest of heavy falls say in twenty four hours at a wet station will not amount to 6 per cent of the annual total whilst at a dry station a heavy fall may amount to 10 12 or 14 per cent of the whole annual quantity The question whether the rainfall of England is increasing diminishing or remaining stationary must be answered by saying that observations extending over more than 140 years show if anything a slight increase The average rainfall for all England is 31¼ inches for near London 25 inches In the British Isles rain falls on an average on 183 days during the year On 90 of those days the fall will be less than one tenth yielding about 4 inches and on 15 days will exceed ½ an inch yielding about 11 inches It will happen at least once during a term of years at some period or other that there will be a specially heavy fail of between 3 and 4 inches and it may be said that as far as is known no part of Great Britain is free from the chances of such a visitation As long as the diameter of the guage exceeds 3 inches it makes hardly any difference in the rain taken whether the diameter of the guage be 4 inches or 24 inches When the Greenwich rainfall of the first seven months of the year has been large say 14 inches or more the mean temperature of the following winter December February inclusive will be in excess of or about the average unless the mean of the intervening period of August October inclusive has been remarkably cold in which case the latter part of the succeeding winter say February will present some marked extremes of cold Brumham Rain may be expected when the sky assumes an almost colourless appearance in the direction of the Wind especially if lines of dark or muddy cirro stratus lie above and about the horizon Thunderstorms Thunderstorms are most frequent in the tropics and diminish in frequency towards the poles They are more frequent in summer than in winter and in mountainous countries than in plains during the day than during the night and after midday than before Just prior to the bursting of the storm the air is exceptionally warm and stifling and this characteristic is especially noticeable in winter and at night After the storm is past a great fall occurs in the thermometer Thunderstorms coming up with an E wind while the barometer is falling do not cool the air it remains sultry and another thunderstorm may be looked for as at least likely to occur in the neighbourhood Not till the wind gets round towards the W and the barometer begins to rise will the temperature of the air fall If several thunderstorms come on in succession from the W each storm has usually a more northerly drift than the one which preceded it Thunderstorms in spring lie at a low level and do not last long they are usually followed by a period of cool weather The general direction of a thunderstorm is either from E to W or from N to S not often is its direction oblique Thunder occurs commonly when the wind is S very

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  • George Frederick Chambers - Wikisource, the free online library
    Story of the Comets 1909 transcription project Eastbourne Memories 1910 Works about Chambers edit Chambers George Frederick by Foster J in Men at the Bar London Hazel Watson and Viney Limited 1885 Works by this author published before January 1 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 74247352 LCCN n87822874 ISNI 0000 0000 8344 7107 GND 157820041 SUDOC 077304136 NLA 36043914 NTA 213594455 BAV ADV11282153 NUKAT n2011211121 Project Gutenberg 26324 Open Library OL1979683A English Wikisource 1587781 WorldCat Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Author George Frederick Chambers oldid 6037432 Categories Authors Ch 1841 births Early modern authors 1915 deaths Modern authors Male authors Author PD old English authors Hidden categories Author pages without image Author pages with gender in Wikidata Author pages connected to Wikidata Author pages with authority control data Pages using authority control with parameters Author pages with VIAF on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions

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  • File:How to Play Chess (Rogers).djvu - Wikisource, the free online library
    Wikipedia Copyrights for more details File history Click on a date time to view the file as it appeared at that time Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 23 26 13 December 2013 2 326 3 328 176 pages 4 99 MB Beeswaxcandle User created page with UploadWizard File usage More than 100 pages link to this file The following list shows the first 100 page links to this file only A full list is available Wikisource Proofread of the Month Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 100 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 101 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 11 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 113 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 12 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 13 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 14 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 15 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 16 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 17 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 173 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 174 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 175 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 176 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 18 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 19 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 2 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 20 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 21 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 22 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 23 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 24 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 25 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 26 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 27 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 28 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 29 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 3 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 30 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 31 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 32 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 33 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 34 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 35 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 36 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 37 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 38 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 39 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 4 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 40 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 41 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 42 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 43 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 44 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 45 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 46 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 47 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 48 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 49 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 5 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 50 Page How to Play Chess Rogers djvu 51 Page How

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  • How to Play Chess (Rogers) - Wikisource, the free online library
    Handbook by Howard Staunton Chess by E F Green The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice and The Art of Chess by James Mason The American Cyclopædia and The Life of Philidor by George Allen C B R May 1 1907 CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I Introduction 1 II The Board and the Men 6 The Game The Board The Men Setting Up the Board Names of the Pieces and Pawns Names of the Squares III Object of the Game and Order of Procedure 13 IV The Moves 16 King s Move Queen s Move Bishop s Move Knight s Move Rook s Move Pawn s Move V Technical Terms Explained 27 VI Chess Rules 49 Rules when Odds are Given Rules for Play by Consultation Rules for Play by Correspondence VII Suggestions for Beginnners 63 Familiarity with Technical Terms Playing with Either Color Value of Practicing One Game Playing by Time Developing the Game The Value of the Pieces Studying the Board VIII Systems of Notation 76 English Notation German Notation IX Practice Game 86 X Chess Openings 103 The King s Knight s Opening The King s Bishop s Opening The Queen s Bishop s Opening The King s Gambit The Gambit Declined The Queen s Gambit Irregular Openings XI End Games 116 XII Middle Games 132 XIII Conclusion 148 Chess Problems Key to Chess Problems Examples of Masterplay Bibliography 161 This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1 1923 It may be copyrighted outside the U S see Help Public domain Public domain Public domain false false Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title How to Play Chess Rogers oldid 4706375 Categories 1907 works PD 1923 Chess Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in

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    they were published before January 1 1923 They may be copyrighted outside the U S see Help Public domain However works published before 1923 may be in the public domain in countries where they would ordinarily be copyrighted due to the term of 70 years or less after the author s death having not yet expired but whose legislature has waived copyright by accepting the rule of the shorter term Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 284010004 NTA 139273395 English Wikisource 1583386 WorldCat Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Author Charlotte Boardman Rogers oldid 5665718 Categories Authors Ro 1878 births Early modern authors Living authors Women authors Author PD 1923 United States authors Hidden categories Author pages without image Author pages with gender in Wikidata Author pages connected to Wikidata Author pages with authority control data Pages using authority control with parameters Author pages with VIAF on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Author Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author Random transcription Help Donate Tools

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    UploadWizard File usage More than 100 pages link to this file The following list shows the first 100 page links to this file only A full list is available Wikisource Proofread of the Month Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 1 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 10 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 100 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 11 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 12 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 13 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 14 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 15 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 16 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 17 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 18 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 19 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 2 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 20 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 21 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 22 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 23 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 24 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 25 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 26 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 27 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 28 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 29 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 3 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 30 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 31 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 32 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 33 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 34 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 35 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 36 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 37 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 38 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 39 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 4 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 40 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 41 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 42 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 43 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 44 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 45 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 46 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 47 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 48 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 49 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 5 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 50 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 51 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 52 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 53 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 54 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 55 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 56 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 57 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 58 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 59 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 6 Page Indoor and Outdoor Gymnastic Games djvu 60 Page Indoor

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    and two Prisons a little smaller some distance from the Bases according to convenience Two methods of laying out ground are shown in the diagrams The players are divided into two opposing sides each of which occupies one of the Bases A player from one side begins the game by running beyond the bounds of his Base and one on the opposite side pursues him A second man from the first party chases the pursuer and so on each party sending out as many men as they choose If any one is touched while out of bounds by a player on the opposite side who left bounds after him he must go to the prison belonging to the enemy and stay there until he is released by one of his own side The Prison of each side is opposite the Base of the other side as shown in the diagrams No one is allowed to touch the catcher as he returns to his Base which he must do at once A prisoner can be released by any one of his friends who can run from his Base to the Prison without being caught When more than one player is in Prison they may link hands and reach out into the playing space the man touched being the only one released The prisoner and his friend may then return to their Base in safety But if a player is caught while attempting a release he must himself go to Prison The game is won by the party that succeeds in getting all its enemies into Prison at the same time It is necessary for a player to remember who of his opponents left their Base before him and who after him so that he may know whom to chase and whom to avoid When a large number of players are out of bound this makes the game quite complicated Ham Ham Chicken Ham Bacon This game is played by the youths of Washington D C on the streets using the curbs as goals The game can well be applied to the gymnasium however using the mats at either end of the floor or a chalk line at either end All the players congregate on one side One player in the centre endeavors to make them step off the curb by shouting Ham Ham Chicken Ham Bacon the word bacon being the signal for all to cross to the other side while he endeavors to catch one The one caught must help him catch the others If any one steps off before the centre man says Bacon he has to go to the aid of the catcher For instance the trick is adopted of shouting Ham Ham Chicken Ham and stopping short and causing some one to step off Or of substituting other words for Bacon which may draw some one from their base When all are caught the game begins anew Puss in the Corner This game may well be applied to the gymnasium for a large number using various obstructions as corners If when the change is made from one corner to the other more than half the distance is covered the puss is obliged to continue thus crowding the other puss from his corner and enabling the catcher to obtain a vacant corner only one puss being allowed in a corner at a time The catcher tries to get into the empty corners forcing the others out The puss caught or left without a corner is it Group Play Mind and Body Vol II No 18 p 118 Any multiple of three four or five can engage The players having been divided into corresponding groups march if five groups have been formed to the four corners of a large square the room one of the groups forming in the centre of the square The position of each of the five groups must be sharply defined by chalk lines on the floor i e for each group a house small square should be drawn within the walls of which the respective group players must be stationed Any one of the players now leaves his group and proceeds toward the centre group whereupon a player from any other group immediately seeks to fill the place made vacant by the first player Other players now make similar attempts to fill the vacancies ensuing in the different groups Meanwhile the player who began the game bestirs himself to get a place in any one of the squares Should the game at any time come to a halt because all the squares are filled then the last player to enter a square selects the next leader The game is readily understood with a little practice and may be changed in a number of ways the players walking hopping or running from place to place etc Garden Scamp Mind and Body Vol I No 2 p 13 Players form a ring grasping hands sideward One of the players on the outside says Who let you in my garden to which the scamp replies No one and runs the gardener giving chase He may be armed with the beetle or towel as in Whip Tag He is obliged to follow the scamp through the openings performing all the movements as jumping over one player crawling between the legs of another somersaults etc The chase ends with the scamp being caught or when the gardener loses track of him by performing the wrong movement in some way The physical director referee or players may decide Link Chase Mind and Body Vol I No 3 p 15 Two players link hands and attempt to tag some of the surrounding players All players tagged take their places between the two first players the chain growing longer with each new addition The outstanding players can break the chain if pressed too closely If successful in this those forming the chain must run to base to unite again the other players tagging or riding straddling them by jumping on their backs while on their way to the base Players stepping out to rest must not leave bases The last two players caught must begin the game anew Battering Ram Mind and Body Vol III No 25 p 17 Players form a circle joining hands one of their number being inside and one outside of the same The centre player attempts to escape from within the circle by jumping over or by passing quickly under the arms of the players or by breaking through the player on the outside assisting him in any way he can Upon his escape the player who is most responsible takes his place within the circle Day and Night Mind and Body Vol IV No 40 p 90 Players divided into two parties formed in two lines back to back about three paces apart as shown in cut One of the lines is named the Day Party the other the Night Party The leader has a disk painted black on one side and white on the other A coin may be used instead of the disk In front of each party is a goal The leader throws the disks into the air If the white side is up when the disk has alighted he cries out Day The Day Party then rushes toward its goal and the Night Parly pursues tagging as many members of the Day Party as possible These they take back to their own goal The captured members are now out of the game The sides now change the disk is thrown again and the party whose side turns up starts for goal as before The game continues in this way until all the players on one of the sides are out Siege Mind and Body Vol I No 7 p 16 The party is divided equally One side determined by toss of a coin has possession of the field and is distributed over the same in such a manner that each player has ample room to move about The other side on the outside of the field a chalk line six feet from the wall around the room surrounds it by movements calculated to engage as many of the enemy in the contest from as many points as possible The game consists in overpowering the enemy and making as many prisoners as possible The stronger players must cope with their equals the weaker ones with their kind Wrestling on the ground or dragging is not to be permitted If by means of pulling pushing or carrying without interference of a third party a player succeeds in forcing his opponent from the battlefield such vanquished opponent must repair to the prisoners guard without If a player from outside the field is brought safely within a distance of five feet on either side of the line determining the outcome he must repair to the prisoners guard within on the centre of the field Prisoners who escape from their guards unseen cannot participate in the game again but must remain outside of the playground Running for Places Mind and Body Vol I No 6 p 16 Form circle and number off in threes A corresponding number of players not numbered are in the centre of the circle These alternately call out a number whereupon all players holding such numbers must quickly exchange places the player having called the number striving to catch one of the running numbers If he succeeds in catching one he takes his place and another player calls out a number Front Duty Mind and Body Vol I No 11 p 16 The players select two leaders whose generalship throughout the game can be relied upon The leaders in turn enlist their followers and the ranks of both sides filled the opposing forces march in opposite directions and fly their respective standards above their camps The forces bivouacing soon become deeply interested in an engagement between the outposts or pickets of whom a number have been placed on guard by each commander at a short distance from camps The outcome is finally decided when one of the combatants has been overpowered and brought within the enemy s picket line The struggle between the outposts continues until the last on either side return to their camp to report that the enemy is in sight Immediately a line of battle is formed the players in single or double lines in front locking arms or grasping hands the command to Charge following Amidst songs and shouts and the din of battle the hosts meet The side which is successful in forcing its opponents to retreat a given distance wins the battle Bull in the Ring or Hare Mind and Body Vol I No 11 p 16 All form circle around the hare The hare now tries to escape by all possible means Should he succeed the players pursue him the one first catching him becoming hare in the next game Black Man Mind and Body Vol I No II p l6 Black man at one end of the floor players at other If the black man while running to the goal which the players have left taps a player such player must help him be black man The black man and all who have been caught in this way may grasp hands Tender Green German American Gymnastics Stecher p 320 The game is very like Black Man in some places called so It differs from Black Man in that the one who is it must fold his hands and must tag one or more of the other players in this position only After he has caught one or more of the players they must join hands and the end players only are allowed to tag the other players the other players having right to break through the line if they can When all the players are caught the first one tagged is it Blind Man s Buff This game needs no description Care should be taken that the blind man does not injure himself against the walls Fox This is a game in which knotted handkerchiefs are required A small base called The Den is marked out and one of the players elected by chance or otherwise takes his station within it and represents the Fox When the Fox is ready he calls out Twice five are ten which sapient remark is answered by the out players with Fox come out of your den Fox immediately complies with this request and hops out endeavoring to touch one of the players who dodge around him and do their best without touching him to make him put both feet to the ground which entitled them to give him a good drubbing with their knotted handkerchiefs while he is running home If the Fox can touch one of his would be tormentors while he is hopping the player touched becomes Fox Lame Goose German American Gymnastics Stecher p 318 A goal is selected to which one of the players called Lame Goose repairs The other players call out to him Lame goose lame goose can t catch anybody and run up and down in front of his goal tantalizing him in all manners conceivable Can t I though replies the Lame Goose and starts after the players He must not however run after them but must take three steps only and then hop on one leg and as soon as he breaks all the players rush at him and drive him to his goal pommelling him on the back with their fists until he has reached it If however the lame goose succeeds in tagging one of the players he joins the other players in driving the one tagged to the goal as described above and the player tagged is it Sculptor German American Gymnastics Stecher p 316 One of the players called the Sculptor arranges the other players in different positions and attitudes as statues No player dares move or speak for as soon as he does the sculptor punishes him by beating him with a knotted handkerchief or towel the sack beetle After having arranged the players to suit his fancy the sculptor leaves the playground saying The sculptor is not at home No sooner is he gone than the statues come to life sing dance jump and play havoc in general On the return of the sculptor he counts One two three and any player who is not in his former posture at three receives a beating with the knotted handkerchief from the sculptor Should the sculptor punish the wrong statue all the players rush at him with knotted handkerchiefs and drive him to a goal previously decided upon and the game is resumed with some other player as sculptor The King s Run German American Gymnastics Stecher p 320 Two sides divided as equally as possible in regard to numbers and strength stand at a convenient distance opposite each other the players grasping hands firmly Each side has a captain or king as he is sometimes called who stands at the left end of the line At his command one of the players runs with all his might and tries to break through the enemy s line If he succeeds all the players cut off from the captain s end of the line must cross over and join the other side If he fails he must join the enemy s side The other side then sends out one of their men and so on until but one man the king is left He is allowed three trials to break through the enemy s line and redeem his fallen fortunes but if in three times he does not succeed his side has lost the game To make the game shorter the players cut off from their own line and the runners who fail to break through the enemy s line are out of the game until it is ended Follow My Leader Sports and Pastimes of American Boys Chadwick A bold active boy should be selected as leader and all the other players must arrange themselves in a line behind him He commences the game by jumping running hopping or getting over any obstacle that may present itself and then continues his course scrambling over everything and varying his actions as much as possible all his followers must according to the rules of the game do exactly as he does If any one fails in performing the tasks he must take his place behind all the rest until some other player makes a blunder and in his turn goes last Bull in the Ring and Sheep Fold In Bull in the Ring one takes his place in the centre of the circle and endeavors to break out Upon doing so the rest chase him the one catching him taking his place as bull A similar circle is formed for Sheep Fold the sheep inside and the wolf out The wolf attempts to break through the joined hands so as to reach the lamb but if he does so the sheep fold opens on the opposite side letting the lamb out and closing the wolf in The latter now tries in the same manner to get out and if he does so the lamb is admitted again If the wolf succeeds in catching the lamb the two players between whom he broke through the sheep fold last become the wolf and lamb in their turn Leap Frog Games All are familiar with the ordinary leap frog where the players stand side by side in which case the leaper goes over them side wise or they stand in file in which case he leaps from their backs over their heads When he has thus gone over the whole line he makes a back and the player who is thus left in the rear becomes the leaper For competition the players may be divided equally forming two lines At the word Go the two rear players jump swiftly over the backs of the players in front When every player has jumped over the back of every other player that line has completed its work and if ahead of the other line wins the race A most interesting game if given a fair trial The same game may be played crawling between the legs instead of jumping over the backs Foot and a Half The person to be jumped over moves by degrees farther and farther from the point where the jump begins A line is drawn sometimes called the Garter to mark where the jump begins and whoever steps on it must take the place of the player leaped over After the players in turn have leaped the last cries Foot and a Half and the player who is making the back thereupon places his right heel in the hollow of his left foot advances the latter so that its hollow covers his right toe and then brings up his right foot to its original position The players then leap again always beginning at the Garter after which the back advances again in like manner and the game goes on until some one treads on the Garter or fails in leaping The unsuccessful one then makes a back and another game begins This game is also called Fly the Garter and Foot It Sometimes it is varied by allowing the last player in the first round to make a back at the spot he reaches in his jump The back thus changes at each round and as the position is moved forward such a distance each time the players are often allowed one jump or a hop skip and jump between the garter and the back French boys play one called Sant de Mouton avec Mouchoirs Sheep s Leap with Handerchiefs in which each leaper is required in his first turn to lay his handkerchief on the back of the player he leaps over and at his second turn to pick off his own handkerchief leaving the others He who fails makes a back for the others Tag Game Played by any number of persons one whom tries to tag or touch any of the others he can If he succeeds the one tagged must take his place When tag succeeds in touching another he cries No tag which signifies that the player so touched must not touch the player who touched him until he has chased and touched somebody else No player can be tagged when touching the goal which is any object agreed upon such as a portion of a wall etc Or if the boys pursued can touch either wood or iron they are safe the rule being that he must touch them as they run from one piece of wood or iron to another Cross Tag Any player who is chased can be relieved by any other player running between him and the one trying to tag him The latter must then run after the player who ran between till he in turn is relieved Squat Tag When a player who is pursued is tired he is allowed to stoop or squat close to the ground the pursuer not being allowed to touch him in this position The number of squats allowed varies from two to eleven King s Land One representing the king stands the within the boundaries agreed upon at the beginning of the game The other players can be touched by him only when they venture inside the boundary By running in and out again on all sides they strive to confuse the king and divert his attention from one to the other In Connecticut the forbidden land is sometimes called Van Diemen s land in New York Dixie s Land in Philadelphia Golden Pavement in Devonshire England Judge Jeffrey s Land and the old English name for it was Tom Tiddler s Ground The French call the king Crow Sailor s Tag All should be blindfolded Place a knotted handkerchief or towel in the hand of each player The players may be divided off in pairs if desired They then attempt to strike each other blowing a whistle or crying Here after every strike The one who crys out then moves away quickly while the opponent slashes furiously at the place where the sound came from or where he thinks the other may be Exceedingly laughable Blind Man s Biff Place boxing gloves on one or a number of pairs of player blindfolded and let them biff each other Hang Tag W H Kinnicutt M D Physical Director Cleveland Y M C A This changes at once from an imbecile to an intensely active and interesting game by introducing this change Any apparatus allowed for hanging only one person allowed at a time upon a support and the last one assuming the hanging position has the claim causing the former possessor to secure another support in order to be safe A player cannot be caught when his feet do not touch the floor or mat RACING GAMES Three Indian Club Race Each player has three clubs placed in front of him at one end of the gymnasium He must take the clubs one at a time and place them behind a certain line at the other end of the gymnasium and return to the starting line If a man fails to place a club properly or stand it up he must return and do so before winning or completing the race Another form of the Club Race is as follows The vertical line is the scratch from which the runners start and to which they run to finish the race The square dots are spots on which the clubs are stood prior to starting the runners The club each runner carries is made to stand over the crosses before another club can be picked up The semicircular lines indicate the enclosures in which all the clubs must stand before the final dash to the scratch is made Club Hustle Divide players equally Form ranks in front dress Place an Indian club in the hand of each foremost man At the word Go he stoops and passes the club between his legs to player behind him who continues it on down the line When the rear player receives it he runs to the head of the line and starts it again When every player has thus been at the head of the line and the original starter has received the club at the foot of the line and placed it in an upright position at the head of the line the game is over The side that completes the circuit first wins A little thought and ingenuity will suggest numerous ways of varying the sport but a few suggestions are herewith given 1 At the signal the club is grasped with the left hand and passed down the line being touched only by the left hand of each man The rear man passes it behind him and it is then passed forward by the right hands alone The first man sets the club down across the line where it must remain standing or no point is made If any but the one hand touches the club on its journey a foul is counted or the line wins that first gets the club to its place without fouling 2 Any number of clubs say six can be passed in the same way All the clubs must be replaced across the line and remain standing before a side can score 3 One club can zig zag down and back the first man grasping the club with his left hand and passing it behind him to his neighbor s right and so on The rear man must pass it around behind him before starting it forward Indian Club Circle Pull Form a circle grasping hands Place as many clubs as there are players inside the circle in such a position that the players may move about them freely Indicate which way the circle shall revolve and start Each man endeavors to make his neighbor knock down a pin by pulling him into them Knocking down two pins causes the displacement of a player taking a pin with him RACES Short Dash Run in heats of four any distance compatible with the floor space First two men run in the second round semi final or final Y M C A Potato Race Rules found in the Official Handbook of the Athletic League of the Young Men s Christian Associations of North America Potato Race All are acquainted with the old fashioned potato race where an equal number of potatoes for each player are placed in a line as in the Indian Club Race just described the race being finished or won when all the potatoes one at a time are placed in the receptacle at the starting line and the final dash made for the finishing line Rules found in the Official Handbook of the Amateur Athletic Union Relay Pursuit Race For a running track two teams of any equal number may enjoy this race One team assembles at one end of the track and one at the other One runner from each team is selected and started at the same time both going in the same direction Any number of laps may be completed we will say two when another runner stands ready to tap the hand of his mate and complete two laps endeavoring to catch the opponent If one side catches the other before all have run that side wins or the side that finishes its circuit first wins Or the pursuit may be continued the first runner taking up the running again for his team and so continuing until one side catches the other The wildest excitement prevails and close watch will need be kept for fairness Obstacle Race Place a number of pieces of apparatus around gymnasium to be clambered or jumped over Run two players at a time narrowing it down to a final heat Human Race Divide off in pairs One player carries another from one end of the gymnasium across a certain line when he in turn is picked up by him who was carried and returned across the starting line This may be run in heats and finals thus increasing the interest Wheelbarrow Race Divide off in pairs One player takes the other by the feet forming a wheelbarrow He who pushes his barrow who of course runs on his hands across the finish line at the other end of the gymnasium first wins Heats and finals if desired Knapsack Race Each player stands inside a cloth meal sack holding the bag up with his hands Heats and finals Hopping Race On one foot right or left or both feet Heats and finals Chariot Race Two locking arms and racing two others around the hall Three or four abreast may be used Breaking hold gives race to other party Heats and finals Tug of War The tug may be pulled in two ways in the first there is no limit of time but the teams pull until one has pulled the other over a given line in the second the pulling is for a certain number of minutes and at the end of that time the team wins on whose side the middle of the rope is In both methods the middle of the rope is marked usually by tying a piece of colored cloth around it and a person acting as judge or referee holds it exactly over the line as he gives the signal to begin pulling Standard rules for Tug of War may be found in the official handbook of the Amateur Athletic Union published in Spalding s Athletic Library by American Sports Publishing Company 16 18 Park Place New York A simpler method if a rope is not accessible is as follows Any number of boys standing behind each other facing the center of their line one half of their number on each side of the centre place their arms around the waist of the front player and lock or clasp hands taking the best attitude for the exercise to follow The two strongest boys who were selected for the centre stays place their right arm over each other s left shoulder locking or grasping their hands or wrists on their backs The pulling is frequently continued when the players are on the floor PART II GAMES FOR A FEW Scrimmage Ball E D Angell Plattsburgh N Y Floor plan like following sketch A floor marked for basket ball can be used The ball should be a medicine ball weighing from four pounds upward There should be an even number of men on each side half of each team acting as forwards and the other half as guards THE GAME The ball is placed on the floor half way between the two goals The players line up back of their respective goals Positions of two Scrimmage Ball teams of eight men each at beginning of game and also floor plan Guards step up to the line after forwards rush for the ball Forwards Guards A A Goal Line B B Foul Line C Ball At a signal from the referee the forwards from each team rush for the ball and try to get it across their opponents goal line by pushing or scrimmaging it along with one hand The guards of each team must remain back of their respective goal lines and act as goal defenders When a goal is made the ball is placed in the centre of the field again and at the referee s signal the guards rush for the ball and the forwards become guards and so on throughout the game the guards and forwards changing positions at the end of each goal The guards must remain back of their goal line and in defending goal are allowed to place one foot in front of goal line If they step over the goal line with both feet to block a play it is a foul Fouls All rough play such as hitting pushing tackling etc propelling the ball with both hands at the same time picking up the ball and throwing it kicking the ball or blocking with any part of the body except the hand A player cannot hit the ball when he is down When a man falls he must be on his feet before he can touch the ball again Violation of this rule is a foul Penalty for fouls When a foul is made the forwards from the offended side are allowed to kick a goal The offenders must retire back of their goal line while the forwards stand in front of the goal on the foul line See diagram The ball is thrown into the air by one of the forwards while another of the forwards tries to bat it across the goal line as it descends The forward that throws up the ball cannot bat it The side that committed the foul try to prevent a goal by knocking the ball back into the field of play If the ball touches the floor back of the goal it is a goal and counts one point for the side that kicked the goal but if the ball is blocked and lands in front of the goal line it is again in play the same as in Basket Ball and the forwards from each team rush for the ball and continue the game as before A regular goal from the field counts two points A goal on a foul counts one point The distance of the foul line from the goal line must be governed by the weight of the ball The game should be played in two halves of five or ten minutes duration There is no off side play and no out of bounds In a large gymnasium or in certain circumstances bounds may be used the man touching the ball first putting it in play as follows Have all the forwards stand at least ten feet from the man out of bounds and have him put the ball in play by scooping or knocking it into the field The chief value of the game lies in the fact that no man has a more important position than any other on the team As they become forwards and guards alternately every man is afforded the same amount of exercise and the same opportunity to distinguish himself Basket Ball Rules published yearly in Spalding s Athletic Library by American Sports Publishing Company 16 18 Park Place New York Newcomb BY CLARA G BAER HOW TO ARRANGE THE GAME Divide the room into two equal parts by drawing a chalk line across the floor This is called the Division Line About seven feet each side of this line draw shorter lines for the bases If convenient it might be well to draw these lines with colored chalk or better still have both division line and bases painted on the floor black paint preferred in lines from two to three inches in width The space between the Jaases separated by the division line is called the inside of the base beyond where the players stand outside For convenience the players are designated by colors or numbers If the class colors are pink and blue one half of the class play pink the other blue The blues guard the ground of the pinks and vice versa The players are arranged at irregular intervals beyond the bases which they are not permitted to cross except where the ball is thrown up by the referee the instructor This is done at the beginning of the game to decide which

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  • Albert Meader Chesley - Wikisource, the free online library
    1923 The author died in 1969 so works by this author are also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author s life plus 30 years or less Works by this author may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works Public domain Public domain false false Authority control VIAF 305369556 LCCN no2013112836 English Wikisource 1576862 WorldCat Retrieved from https en wikisource org w index php title Author Albert Meader Chesley oldid 5654044 Categories Authors Ch 1875 births Early modern authors 1969 deaths Modern authors Male authors Author PD old 30 1923 Hidden categories Author pages without image Author pages with gender in Wikidata Author pages connected to Wikidata Author pages with authority control data Pages using authority control with parameters Author pages with VIAF on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Author Discussion Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main Page Community portal Central discussion Recent changes Subject index Authors Random work Random author Random transcription Help Donate Tools What links here

    Original URL path: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Albert_Meader_Chesley (2016-02-13)
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