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  • Women Now -
    strategies that fall with this broad topic and you ll find teaching success throughout your teaching career Classroom Management is a broad theme that includes many subject areas including proper classroom behavior and discipline establishing classroom rules communicating effectively and managing classroom time 2 Know your students well You should have different expectations for each one of your students It is imperative to create a genuine bond with them by the way that works both ways 3 Motivate and encourage your students to set some goals for themselves then help them to reach their goals and move on to a new set of goals 4 Create a strong Teacher Student Relationship Trust must be earned show respect be honest display compassion and always be positive Let students know that they matter to you and hopefully they will follow suit All this will build self esteem in your students 5 Parent teacher communication is Crucial Keep in mind to consistently be approachable informed diplomatic and always professional even if parents are more like friends to you Remember parents must be accountable to their child themselves and believe it or not to you too 6 Be Accountable You are responsible to your

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/SevenEffectiveCore.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    to focus more on those rather than reading your text book Back to active reading What do I mean by this Let me demonstrate Let s say that you need to read chapter 1 Look at chapter 1 s table of contents and flip through its pages first Pay attention to the headings This will give you an idea of how the chapter is organized and it will also prepare your brain by giving you the big picture of that chapter Next reading the chapter once Making a dialog with the ideas presented there For example if you find that you disagree with something write it on the white space by the text If you ve read something that you feel is important underline highlight it However use highlighting judiciously I see some students text books with the whole page highlighted Remember the purpose of highlighting is to isolate that important thought so that you easily find it the next time you need it After reading you text book once read it a second time but this time take notes This process basically repeats the information in your head and we all know that we learn better with repetition Furthermore by writing down notes and important ideas you are incorporating more of your senses into the learning process e g your sense of touch in addition to your sense of sight This helps you remember things faster and easier than just reading passively Ok this may sound too much like hard work but it does have an advantage you don t have to study that chapter again All you need to do is to look at your note cards for the midterms or finals I found that when I use this strategy studying for the finals is less stressful because I can easily recall the materials that I read previously III Read before you go to class Ever wondered what a course syllabus is for Besides giving you an idea of what the course will cover the syllabus is a great tool if you like to read ahead Most of the time teachers will put page numbers besides the topics that they are going to discuss for a particular day Even though your teacher may not assign a reading it is a great idea to read ahead Why read ahead The answer is one word repetition Once your brain gets exposed to a particular topic your memory retention will be much higher This relies on the fact that information gets transferred from your short term memory to your long term memory after you have been to it a bunch of times Why do you think you forget the names of the people you only net once but remember you roommates name easily I also found that reading ahead makes understanding difficult concepts much easier since most books will show examples and illustrations along with full paragraph explanations of the topic This can be much better when compared to your teachers

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/YourStudySkills.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    Insurance including medical auto homeowners life and other Utilities Automobiles costs of operating minus insurance cost Dues and fees paid to associations and clubs Where the amounts vary by month as with a phone bill add up what you paid for the year and divide by twelve to get the monthly amount Divide bills that you pay yearly or quarterly by 12 to arrive at a monthly amount This will help you to arrive at a more functional budget If you have large credit card debt indicate the amounts you actually paid not the minimum monthly payments Your Variable Expenses Next add up your variable expenses for the previous one year period using your checkbook and credit card statements Be sure to include the following Food Clothing Furniture and appliances Entertainment Gas oil and commuting costs Medical care Gifts Vacations Fees paid to accountants lawyers and other professionals Estimate if you need to do so Here s what your variable expenses might look like Expense Monthly Yearly Groceries 250 3 000 Gifts For Weddings Birthdays etc 42 504 Magazine Subscriptions 10 120 Movies Theatre Restaurants 80 960 Vacations 165 1 980 Gas Oil Car Repair 43 516 Clothing 100 1 200 Total 690 8 280 You ll be able to tell whether you re overlooking any variable expenses by subtracting the total yearly amount you arrive at for variable and fixed expenses from your yearly income figure If this amount is the amount you put away in savings for the previous year then you can be pretty certain that you ve included all of your variable expenses If there is a large gap between income minus expenses and the amount you saved do some digging to try to find where the extra money went STEP TWO SET BUDGETING GOALS Your budget should tie in with your financial planning goals For instance you may have done some work on your retirement plan and decided that you needed to save 20 000 per year for the next ten years to accumulate the nest egg you want for retirement Or you may be saving for a new home and determined to save 5 000 per year for the next three years to come up with a down payment You may also want to reduce credit card debt or pay down a mortgage with your increased savings In this step decide how much you want to put away each year and what you will do with the savings Your saving goals will depend on the above mentioned financial planning goals as well as on your age and income level If you want to save more than you have been saving then you ll need to cut down on optional expenditures To do this you ll enter an amount under budgeted amount that is less than last year s actual TIP You should review your budget each year to make it fit in with your financial goals both long term and short term STEP THREE

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/Budgeting.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    Transportation Vacation Medical other than insurance Personal small cash expenditures such as haircuts Charitable contributions Food Restaurants Recreation Holiday expenses Gifts Education Clothing Other children professional fees hobbies etc if large expenditures create a line item for each Miscellaneous Total Expenses Note Omit one time non recurring items as they should not be used for budgeting or future planning How much cash flow is available to accumulate assets for the goals identified above Is it sufficient in combination with your available assets from your net worth statement If not you need to examine the above expenses in detail and cut back on those which are discretionary until sufficient cash flow is identified PLAN TO ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS Now that you know what your goals are and have an idea of your financial resources it s time to begin making a plan Financial Safety Net Determine the funds you ll need in case of a disaster or emergency Coverage of such contingencies comes from insurance and from an emergency fund Emergency Fund You should have a fund of three to six months we ll leave the number of months to your judgment worth of living expenses to tide you over in case you lose your job or have unexpected bills The emergency fund should be kept in an accessible account a money market account is good for this purpose Life Insurance Make sure your coverage is adequate You should have enough coverage should a catastrophe occur to ensure your family would continue to enjoy the same level of income it does currently Disability Insurance Disability insurance is intended to replace lost income due to the occurrence of illness or accident Consider whether you need to provide coverage for your family Auto Home and Health Insurance It s important to make sure these types of policies provide adequate coverage If not an accident or other catastrophe could wipe out a large portion of your assets or cash flow and you may be unable to achieve your goals ESTABLISH HOW MUCH YOU LL NEED Once you have covered your insurance and emergency fund needs you can start working towards your financial goals Go back to your Goals Worksheet above and enter the goal in the Worksheet below For each goal estimate the Cost Of The Goal i e the cost of achieving that goal For instance if you want to retire at age 55 estimate the nest egg you ll need to accumulate by then Don t bother accounting for inflation right now this is just an estimate Then fill in the Amount On Hand i e the amount you have already saved for that purpose For instance if you have 10 000 in a mutual fund IRA you might wish to allocate that amount to your retirement nest egg Next write in the the Amount Still Needed Then fill in the Years To Target Date i e the year you want to achieve your goal Finally enter the Intended Yearly Savings the

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/YourFinancialPlan.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    that is intended to give people who cannot pay their bills a fresh start TIP A decision to file for bankruptcy is a serious step which should be taken only if it is the best way to deal with financial problems There are two types of bankruptcy available to most individuals Chapter 13 bankruptcy allows debtors to keep property which they might otherwise lose such as a mortgaged house or car Reorganizations may allow debtors to pay off or cure a default over a period of three to five years rather than surrender property Chapter 7 or straight bankruptcy involves liquidation of all assets that are not exempt in your state The exempt property may include items such as work related tools and basic household furnishings among others Some of your property may be sold by a court appointed official or turned over to your creditors You can file for Chapter 7 only once every six years Both types of bankruptcy may get rid of unsecured debts those where creditors have no rights to specific property and stop foreclosures repossessions garnishments utility shutoffs and debt collection activities Both types also provide exemptions that permit most individual debtors to keep most of their assets though these exemption amounts vary greatly from state to state Bankruptcy cannot clean up a bad credit record and will be part of this record for up to ten years Thus filing bankruptcy will make it more difficult to get a mortgage to buy a house It usually does not wipe out child support alimony fines taxes and some student loan obligations Also under Chapter 13 unless you have an acceptable plan to catch up on your debt bankruptcy usually does not permit you to keep property when the creditor has an unpaid mortgage or lien on it Bankruptcy cases must be filed in federal court TIP Be cautious when choosing a bankruptcy lawyer Some of the less reputable lawyers make easy money by handling hundreds of bankruptcy cases without adequately considering individual needs Get recommendations from those you know and trust and from employee assistance programs Some public funded legal services programs handle bankruptcy cases without charging attorney fees Or these programs may provide referrals to private bankruptcy lawyers Keep in mind that the fees of these attorneys may vary widely SCAMS AND PITFALLS Consumers with credit problems have paid millions of dollars to firms that claim they can remove negative information clean up credit reports and allow consumers to get credit no matter how bad the credit history These credit repair clinics charge consumers anywhere from 50 to 2 000 and often use questionable methods Most clinics make misleading promises to consumers and charge high fees for doing what you yourself could do TIP Do not confuse the for profit credit repair clinics discussed here with the non profit Consumer Credit Counseling Services CCCS discussed earlier Here are some common promises made by credit clinics and the reasons consumers should beware of such claims Based

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/GettingOut.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    off as a loss Once a charge off is sent to a collection agency or department it turns into a collection account for reporting purposes Collection accounts and profit and loss accounts are negative marks on credit reports Should you pay a collection account On the one hand unpaid collection accounts can prevent you from getting other credit On the other some creditors reject anyone whose credit files list collection accounts or charge offs whether or not they have been paid Collection accounts can legally remain on a report for seven years They are reported to credit bureaus beginning on the date the collection agency received them from the creditor Charge offs also called profit and loss accounts are reported from the date they were charged off the date the creditor decided the account was too far past due to get payment through normal channels and decided to close the account Charged off accounts are usually sent to a collection agency or the creditor s own collection department The fact that delinquency paying late began before the account was placed for collection or charged off does not require the reporting date the date the seven year reporting begins to be moved back and the fact that payment was made after the account was placed for collection does not allow the date to be moved forward If you do not pay a collection account the lender may sue you If the lender gets a legal judgment against you the judgment can remain on your credit report seven years or more from the date the case was decided In exchange for paying off a collection account you may be able to negotiate with the creditor or collection agency the permanent removal of the negative information from your credit bureau files Lenders are under no obligation to make such an agreement however COSIGNING AN ACCOUNT You may be asked to cosign an account to allow someone else to obtain a loan With cosigning your payment history and assets are used to qualify the cosigner for the loan TIP We recommend that you do not cosign a loan whether for a family member friend or employee Many have found that cosigning a loan only leads to trouble Bear in mind that cosigning a loan bears all the financial and legal consequences of taking out the loan yourself When you cosign you are signing a contract that makes you responsible for the entire debt If the other cosigner does not pay or makes late payments it will probably show up on your credit record If the person for whom you cosigned does not pay the loan the collection company will be entitled to try to collect from you If the cosigned loan is reported on your credit report another lender will view the cosigned account as if it were your own debt Further if the information is correct it will remain on your credit report for up to seven years TIP If someone asks you to cosign a loan suggest other alternatives such as a secured credit card by which they can build a credit history If you are asked to cosign for someone whose income is not high enough to qualify for a loan you are actually doing them a favor by refusing they will be less likely to be overwhelmed by too high debts At any rate consult with your lawyer before cosigning since state laws regarding a cosigner s liability vary TIP If you have already cosigned for someone and he or she is not making payments on time consider making the payments yourself and asking the cosigner to pay you directly in order to protect your credit rating CREDIT LIMITS A credit limit is the maximum amount available to you from a certain lender For example a credit card issuer may grant you a credit limit of 1 000 meaning that once you charge 1 000 you will not be allowed to incur additional charges until you pay off some of your debt When creditors evaluate your application for credit they ascertain whether if you were to use all your available credit you would be over your head They usually consider these factors How close you are to your credit limits The total credit you have available and The number of accounts you hold Creditors may consider not only how much you currently owe but also how much credit you have available Having too much credit available can count against you Also being at or near the limit on your credit cards can count against you OBTAINING YOUR CREDIT REPORT Credit reports are records of consumers bill paying habits collected stored and sold by credit bureaus Credit reports are also called credit records credit files and credit histories There are three major credit bureaus and thousands of smaller ones Experian Credit Bureau formerly TRW 800 301 7195 Cost 8 Equifax Credit Bureau 800 685 1111 Trans Union 800 916 8800 If you have been denied credit you can request that the credit bureau involved provide you with a free copy of your credit report but you must request it promptly Otherwise each of the bureaus will provide you a copy of the report for a small fee 8 or less You can request a copy from their web sites or 800 numbers Debt Income Ratios Some creditors look at your debt income ratio how much you pay out each month compared to how much income you earn to determine whether you qualify for additional credit To find your debt income ratio total up your monthly payments on all bills Do not include mortgage utilities doctor bills or other accounts that do not appear on your credit report The creditor will not look at these Then divide your total payments by your monthly gross before tax income What results is your debt income ratio If it is less than 28 you should have no trouble getting a loan If it falls between 28 and 35 you have what is considered high debt and you may find it difficult to obtain some loans If your debt income ratio is 35 or more you will probably not be able to get additional credit More importantly you are potentially in financial jeopardy If you should incur unexpected expenses get ill lose your job or get divorced you could find yourself unable to meet your obligations Consider seeking credit counseling through a local non profit consumer credit counseling service Please see the listing at the end of this Guide This summary provides general guidelines Some large card issuers will accept debt ratios as high as 40 45 Others compare your net after tax income to your debts to determine your debt ratio TIP If you keep your debt ratio below 28 you can consider yourself successful at managing your debt and maintaining a good credit rating Department Store Accounts Department store cards do not provide as strong a reference on credit reports as bankcards Not only are they easier to obtain but the credit limits are low and the high credit the most you have ever charged are low Furthermore you can use them only at the issuing store Nevertheless a timely paid department store card can help you develop a good credit history Disputing Errors In Your Credit File The Fair Credit Reporting Act FCRA protects consumers in the case of inaccurate or incomplete information in credit files The FCRA requires credit bureaus to investigate and correct any errors in your file TIP If you find any incorrect or incomplete information in your file write to the credit bureau and ask them to investigate the information Under the FCRA they have about thirty days to contact the creditor and find out whether the information is correct If not it will be deleted Be aware that credit bureaus are not obligated to include all of your credit accounts in your report If for example the credit union that holds your credit card account is not a paying subscriber of the credit bureau the bureau is not obligated to add that reference to your file Some may do so however for a small fee ECOA DESIGNATION CODES The Equal Credit Opportunity Act ECOA requires creditors who report information about accounts to report it in the names of all people with a relationship to the account including cosigners or authorized users To help lenders identify your legal liability on all your credit accounts credit bureaus add a code to each account termed the ECOA code Each credit bureau lists ECOA codes differently but these are the basic categories Individual You alone are legally responsible This designation gives you a strong credit reference assuming a good history Joint You and someone else often a spouse are both legally liable A joint account is equal to an individual account for building your credit history Co signer secondarily liable You signed loan documents for someone else to help them qualify for a loan Co signer primarily liable You took out an account for yourself but someone else co signed for the loan to ensure payment Authorized user You can use the account and may have a card in your name but you did not sign the application and are not legally responsible Because you have no legal obligation this designation does not help you get your own credit history Undesignated No status was reported by the creditor reporting the account information FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT FCRA This federal law was passed in 1970 to give consumers easier access to and more information about their credit files The Fair Credit Reporting Act gives you the right to find out the information in your credit file to dispute information you believe inaccurate or incomplete and to find out who has seen your credit report in the past six months FINANCE COMPANY CREDIT CARDS Many systems actually score against people with one or more finance company accounts on their credit reports since it appears to them that you had a hard time getting credit from traditional sources There is a difference between captive finance trade lines and regular finance trade lines Captive finance trade lines are offered through auto financing sources such as GMAC or Ford Credit and are generally not considered negative FRAUD Application fraud is when a thief uses your credit information to apply for credit in your name Wrongdoers use your name Social Security number address and perhaps credit references to apply for credit They can get much of this information from public sources e g Who s Who Directories from someone who has access to credit files e g employees of car dealerships department stores or credit bureaus from personal checks or from stolen wallets Credit thieves may be aided by credit doctors who are paid hundreds of dollars for finding a good credit record for the thief to use Another form of application fraud involves the interception of pre approved credit card offers in the mail The thief fills out the application and either changes the address or steals the credit card out of your mailbox when it arrives at your address You won t find out about application fraud until months after it occurs usually only after you get dunning notices from collection agencies or when you get a copy of your credit report and see the debts run up by the thief TIP If you find a bill that you do not believe belongs to you on your credit report check it out immediately First contact the creditor to find out if they have an account in your name Ask to see a copy of the original application if they say you do Income Income Per Dependant Be sure to list gross before tax not net after tax income on your loan application unless the application asks for net income Include income from a part time job public assistance or child support The lender cannot discriminate against individuals with these sources of income in scoring an application A creditor is permitted to determine whether that source of income is reliable Some banks may approve loans for incomes as low as 10 000 per year Others require higher income for some loans Some banks will divide your income by the number of your dependents to determine your income per dependent If so the application will ask how many dependents you have Inquiries Inquiries which appear at the end of your credit report tell you who has seen it recently They are very important when you apply for credit Lenders almost always look at how many inquiries you have when evaluating your application Consumers with too many inquiries are often turned down due to a concern that they are applying for too much credit at one time that they are on a spending spree or that there is potential fraud Generally a bankcard issuer wants no more than six inquiries in the past six months on an applicant s file However there is no set number for excessive inquiries and every lender sets its own policy TIP Apply only for credit you really want and wait for a response on each application before applying elsewhere Lenders generally do not look at the sources of inquiries in counting them against the applicant Thus if you are applying for a car loan you may think that only inquiries from car dealers will count against you but in actuality all inquiries reported by credit bureaus are counted If you have been shopping for a car loan and have several inquiries from auto dealers on your file those inquiries could hurt your chances of getting a credit card Or if you have been trying to get a mortgage you could find yourself unable to get a major credit card for several months because your credit report lists a number of inquiries from mortgage lenders TIP Auto dealers often look at customers credit files without their knowledge or permission If you go to a dealership to test drive a car the salesperson will often pull up your credit file and use the information in deciding how to sell you It is important to tell the salesperson that you do not want your credit file accessed unless you give permission The consumer credit laws do not cover inquiries so once they are on your file there is nothing you can do to have them removed It is always worth trying to challenge inquiries with the credit bureau but be aware that many credit bureaus refuse to investigate them If you have too many inquiries you may simply have to wait six months before applying for more credit Inquiries generally stay on credit reports for two years Some credit bureaus list inquiries by code rather than by the name of the company The Fair Credit Reporting Act requires that a credit bureau explain all information on your report that you do not understand so request names for all the coded companies listed under the inquiries section If an inquiry is coded PRM or PSC or has the word promotional next to it then a lender has paid the credit bureau to screen suitable prospects for a pre approved mailing The lender supplies the bureau with a list of names and addresses and a set of credit criteria and asks the bureau to determine which candidates meet their criteria The lender then receives from the credit bureau a list of the names that meet the qualifications and those consumers receive a pre screened or pre approved credit offer Inquiries noted as csmr or consumer indicate you have seen your own credit file It is the policy of the major credit bureaus not to include promotional or consumer inquiries when transmitting the file to a lender so review of your own file or pre screening will not hurt your chances of getting credit JOINT ACCOUNTS Joint accounts are those in which two or more people usually spouses or members of a family have equal responsibility for paying the bills A joint account helps each person on the account build a credit history but also has its pitfalls If one person on a joint account does not pay the bills on time and that payment history is reported to a credit bureau the other party will likely find his or her credit history damaged Joint accounts can be a problem in a divorce Responsibility for paying off joint accounts is often assigned in the divorce decree or agreement But regardless of how the judge allocates those bills both spouses are legally responsible in the eyes of creditors If any joint accounts remain open during or after the divorce and one spouse runs up bills and doesn t pay them both spouses credit histories will be harmed since both are legally liable under the credit contract spelled out in the card agreement or other papers In addition creditors have the right to try to collect from either spouse TIP Close out all joint accounts as soon as possible after you know a divorce will occur Do not wait for a final decree Late Payments Recent late payments within the past six months or one year are especially damaging to your credit record Just one payment more than thirty days late in the past year can hurt your chances of getting credit Late payments on bankcard accounts are usually the most damaging since bankcards are such an important reference TIP Be sure to get the minimum payment in the mail on time each month As far as your payment rating R l R 2 or I l I 2 etc it makes no difference whether your monthly payment is the minimum or a large payment Just the minimum on time will keep your rating in good shape There s one exception If you are near your credit limits on most or all of your accounts you may be considered a poor

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/CreditReports.ini (2016-04-26)
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  • Women Now -
    cold Aches and Pains While you may find some minor aching with a cold you will more than likely find severe aches with the flu Fatigue and Weakness Colds may tire you out a bit but the flu will really get you down In fact fatigue and weakness associated with the flu can last up to two or three weeks Exhaustion Extreme tiredness and weakness is a major symptom of the flu but not of the cold In the flu it will occur as one of the first symptoms Stuffy Nose This is a symptom more associated with the common cold than the flu Sneezing Sneezing often happens during a cold and sometimes with the flu Sore Throat Sore throats are very common during a cold and will also sometimes occur with the flu Chest Discomfort and Cough Colds often bring mild to moderate chest discomfort and cough However with the flu the discomfort is more pronounced and can become severe Complications While most people rush to the doctor to treat the flu they often ignore common colds thinking they ll just go away And while a cold itself usually isn t a threat it can lead to more serious complications such as sinus congestion and earaches So if your cold seems to be getting worse contact your physician before it leads to a sinus infection If you have the flu be sure to watch for worsening symptoms This illness can lead to bronchitis and pneumonia and can even be life threatening if left untreated Prevention While there is no true prevention for the cold be sure to keep yourself as healthy as possible by eating nutritious foods getting plenty of sleep and drinking plenty of water Contact your physician about possibly getting an annual flu vaccination or other antiviral

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/ColdAndFlu.ini (2016-04-26)
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    a treadmill sound fun Heck no But what about going dancing at the hot new club Or going on a long hike with your best friend For your fitness changes to be lasting you have to want them to be So think about it What do you love to do Dancing Hiking Kick boxing 4 Mix It Up Variety is the spice of life Doing the same thing over and over can get boring and make it easier to quit Mix it up Have different activities at different intensity levels scattered throughout the week Maybe walking with your nighbor yoga in the AM basketball with the buds in the afternoon Changing it up is good for your motivation and also good for your heart 5 Bring On The Buddies If possible have some activities with friends Not only will it seem more fun but it will be harder to quit Working out or doing activities with your friends will help you to stay motivated Plus you will have someone to highlight your improvements Positive reinforcement always helps 6 To Gym Or Not To Gym That is the question Personally I am not a gym person I know this about myself I think it odd to get in a car to go somewhere to exercise Plus I don t like being around smelly people And I am cheap However other people find that belonging to a gym helps to keep them motivated by having others around them and by feeling obligated to get their money s worth Whether you should gym is a personal question that only you can answer 7 Holistic Remember it is not just about exercising Burning calories is only half of the equation The other half is looking at what you are taking in All of the

    Original URL path: http://www.womenow.org/index.php?page=article&file=Articles/PhysicalFitness.ini (2016-04-26)
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