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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    Edwina Martin of Danville Virginia Fannie Jean Cotton of Jackson Michigan and Evelyn M Brown of Shreveport Louisiana All three graduated from the Air Force Officer Candidate School at Lackland Air Force Base Texas 1964 Margaret E Bailey Army Nurse Corps was the first nurse to be promoted to Lieutenant Colonel 1967 Captain Clara Adams Ender became the first female in the US Army to qualify for and be awarded the Expert Field Medical Badge 1969 Captain Diane Lindsay Army Nurse Corps was the first black nurse to receive the Soldier s Medal for Heroism 1970 Lieutenant Colonel Margaret E Bailey Army Nurse Corps became the first black nurse to hold the rank of Colonel 1972 Mildred C Kelly became the first black female E9 Sergeant Major in the US Army 1974 Staff Sergeant Joyce B Malone became the first black woman to earn Airborne Wings in the US Army Reserves 1976 Lieutenant Colonel Clara Adams Ender became the first woman in the US Army to earn the Master of Military Art and Science degree from the Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth Kansas 1979 Brigadier General Hazel W Johnson Brown became the first black woman general

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/BreakBMW.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    Americans included were assigned to hospitals in Japan and Hawaii and on the west coast of the United States where they cared for combat soldiers who had been evacuated from the battle theater Lieutenant Claudia Richardson assigned to duty at Tripler Army Hospital Hawaii was able to visit with her brother Army Private First Class Vincent Richardson who had been evacuated from Korea to Tripler African American members of the Women s Army Corps served at military bases in Japan Okinawa and the Philippines in direct support of the war Corporal Arline Haywood Wall was assigned to the Yokohama Engineer Depot helping United Nations soldiers get the supplies they needed to fight Estella Ehelebe of the US Army Special Services was also assigned to an Army depot in Japan Ehelebe sometimes wrote letters of condolence to the next of kin of soldiers who had died in Korea With the outbreak of the Vietnam War increasing numbers of women including African Americans volunteered for duty During the buildup in Vietnam in 1965 Major Monica Crossdale Palmer served at the 85th Evacuation Hospital at Quin How Vietnam where she was awarded an Army Commendation Medal After her 12 month tour of duty was up Crossdale Palmer extended for an additional six months and was transferred to the 17th Field Hospital in Saigon In March 1967 Major Palmer returned to the United States and was assigned to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington DC where she served 18 months in the operating room before she volunteered to return to Vietnam During her second tour of duty in Vietnam Major Palmer served as operating room supervisor of the 45th Surgical Hospital at Tay Rinh seven miles from the Cambodian border Major Marie L Rogers Army Nurse Corps received the Bronze Star from President Johnson in a White House ceremony in December 1967 Major Rogers an 18 year veteran rendered distinguished service in connection with group operations against a hostile force in Vietnam between October 1966 and September 1967 She was the operating room supervisor in the 24th Evacuation Hospital in Long Binh Roger s Vietnam assignment was her second experience serving in a combat theater having previously served in Korea Captain Elizabeth Allen Army Nurse Corps was sent to Vietnam in 1967 She treated acute battle injuries in intensive care units in Army hospitals at Pleiku and Ku Chi Allen was at Ku Chi during the Tet Offensive in early 1968 when the hospital was fired on virtually every night In order to better protect their patients medical personnel lowered them from their beds onto empty ammunition boxes In 1968 Olivia Theriot US Air Force Nurse was stationed at Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines as a flight nurse with the 902nd Aeromed Evacuation Squad She flew in and out of Saigon moving the wounded between Vietnam the Philippines and Japan On one assignment Theriot flew into the demilitarized zone DMZ to evacuate personnel from a US Navy ship that had been

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/BWOHistory.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    the second bus Instead she was taken by force to the police station charged with disorderly conduct and held in jail overnight She was not allowed to contact her family At 3 p m the following afternoon she was fined 25 00 and allowed to leave the jail Initially Sarah Keys was shocked by her experience and embarrassed about her arrest She did not want to talk about it and preferred to forget about it But her family rallied around her and convinced her that she needed to fight back Dovey Johnson Roundtree The Keys family lost the first round of court battles and paid court costs on top of the original fine David A Keys a concrete mason and cement finisher dissatisfied with his daughter s lawyer asked his friend William Bowen to recommend legal counsel for his daughter Bowen suggested Dovey Johnson Roundtree a lawyer who had been an officer in the WAC during World War II Dovey Johnson had experienced discrimination when she attempted to apply to the newly formed Women s Army Auxiliary Corps WAAC in 1942 A recruiter in Charlotte North Carolina had refused to give her an application Johnson obtained her application in Richmond Virginia and was accepted into the first Officer Candidate School Class of the WAAC Johnson and 36 other black women were among the first class of women commissioned as officers in the WAAC on August 29 1942 The Army assigned Johnson as a recruiter for the states of North and South Carolina Georgia and Florida She and her fellow WAAC recruiters traveled constantly speaking at high schools colleges community meetings and local radio stations During her travels Johnson was on occasion forced to deal with local Jim Crow laws separating blacks and whites on buses and trains and in waiting rooms and rest rooms Johnson s next assignment sent her to the WAAC Training Center at Ft Des Moines Iowa as a training officer During that time the WAAC became the Women s Army Corps and the commander of Ft Des Moines considered the idea of forming an all black training regiment staffed by black officers Johnson spoke eloquently against this idea at a staff meeting and the commander decided not to form an all black regiment After the war she attended Howard University Law School and began practicing law in Washington D C One of her former law professors Frank Reeves worked for the NAACP in the Washington D C office When the Keys family approached the NAACP for help Reeves sent them to Dovey Johnson Roundtree The Challenge Dovey Johnson Roundtree and her partner Julius Robertson initially filed suit for Keys in the US District Court for the District of Columbia in October 1952 but the court refused to hear the suit because it was out of their jurisdiction Encouraged in her battle by her father Keys and her lawyers then filed suit with the Interstate Commerce Commission ICC The suit against the North Carolina Coach Company alleged

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/BHMSys.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    Caledonia Julia was assigned temporary duty aboard the ship The following year Julia was transferred to the 23rd Station Hospital in Norwich England where she was stationed during the invasion of Normandy She remained in Norwich through V J Day returning shortly afterward to the United States During the Korean War Julia mobilized with the 804th Station Hospital Private Minnie Spotted Wolf of Heart Butte Montana enlisted in the Marine Corps Women s Reserve in July 1943 She was the first female American Indian to enroll in the Corps Minnie had worked on her father s ranch doing such chores as cutting fence posts driving a two ton truck and breaking horses Her comment on Marine boot camp Hard but not too hard Ola Mildred Rexroat an Oglala Sioux from Pine Ridge Indian Reservation South Dakota joined the Women s Airforce Service Pilots WASP directly out of high school Her job was to tow targets for aerial gunnery students at Eagle Pass Army Air Base in Texas Towing targets for student gunners was a fairly dangerous assignment but Rexy was happy to be able to contribute to the war effort in a meaningful way After the war ended Ola joined the Air Force and served for almost ten years During the 1950s and 1960s fewer women felt the call to military service The services however were in desperate need of womanpower during the Korean Conflict and the Vietnam War and conducted extensive recruitment campaigns aimed at young women Many Native American women answered their country s call Sarah Mae Peshlakai a member of the Navajo Tribe from Crystal New Mexico enlisted in the Women s Army Corps in 1951 and served until 1957 Peshlakai trained as a medical specialist and was assigned to Yokohama Army Hospital in Japan where she helped care for casualties from the Korean battlefields Verna Fender entered the Navy during the Korean Conflict and trained at Bainbridge Maryland She was severely injured during basic training and was sent to a Naval hospital for physical rehabilitation Undeterred Verna returned to Bainbridge and completed her training The Navy assigned Verna to its base in San Diego California where she completed her three year term of enlistment working in the Departments of Berthing and Sectioning Supply and Ordnance Shirley M Arviso a Navajo of the Bitter Water Clan served in the Navy from 1953 through 1963 She was the Communications Officer in charge of a group of people who decrypted classified messages Pearl Ross a member of the Arikara Tribe from the Fort Berthold Reservation joined the Air Force in 1953 and trained as a medical specialist Her first assignment was to the Air Force hospital in Cheyenne Wyoming Pearl was then assigned to Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska where she worked in the 865th Medical Group at SAC HQ Strategic Air Command Headquarters During the Vietnam era she saw many men who had been wounded in the combat theater Pearl volunteered for overseas duty but was turned

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/NAHM.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    joined the Army Nurse Corps in 1949 While stationed at the 343rd General Hospital Japan she nursed soldiers and Marines who had been wounded on the Korean battlefields Julia Benitez Rodriguez Aviles the first Puerto Rican servicewomen to obtain the rank of captain joined the Army Nurse Corps in 1950 She served as a nurse anesthetist in Occupation Germany Washington DC Texas and Puerto Rico Lieutenant Colonel Nilda Carrulas Cedero Fuertes was born in Toa Baja Puerto Rico and joined the Army Nurse Corps in 1953 serving on active duty until 1964 She then joined the Reserves and served until 1990 Her most memorable experience in the military was teaching the latest modern nursing techniques to Nicaraguan Army nurses while on temporary duty TDY in Nicaragua for six months Alicia Gutierrez Gillians joined the WAC in 1948 While serving as a recruiter in Los Angeles CA then Staff Sergeant Gutierrez rescued a young boy whose clothes had caught fire Her actions earned her the Commendation Ribbon for Meritorious Service In August 1955 she was named the All Army Women s Singles Tennis Champ Master Sergeant Gillians retired from military service in 1980 Rose Franco was one of the few Puerto Rican women to join the Marine Corps during the 1950s Born in Ensenada she joined at the age of 20 and became a supply administrative assistant at Camp Pendleton CA Franco returned to Puerto Rico at the end of her four year enlistment intending to work for an airline company but missed being a Marine so much that she decided to re enlist She was sent to the First Marine Corps District in Garden City Long Island NY and was later assigned to Parris Island SC In 1965 Franco was selected for a job at the Pentagon as the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy On his recommendation she was appointed as a warrant officer one of only 11 women warrant officers in the Marine Corps at that time Franco went on to hold several notable positions throughout the country She retired from the Marine Corps in 1977 as a Chief Warrant Officer 3 The 1960s and Vietnam During the 1960s the number of women entering the military remained fairly small Although the armed forces permitted relatively few women to serve in Vietnam nurses medical specialists and civilians such as those with the Army s Special Services were desperately needed Maryagnes Trujillo McDonnell joined the Army Nurse Corps in 1963 As a first lieutenant she served at the 85th Evacuation Hospital north of Qui Nhon Vietnam from 1965 to 1966 Air Force flight nurse Lieutenant Colonel Lupita Cantu Perez Guillermety served on active duty from 1962 to 1971 and then entered the active Reserve While stationed at Clark Air Base in the Philippines from 1968 to 1970 she flew aeromedical evacuation missions in South Vietnam Thailand South Korea Japan Taiwan and the Philippine Islands in a variety of aircraft and medical evacuation helicopters Major Aida Nancy Sanchez Army Medical Specialist Corps served at the 95th Evacuation Hospital near Da Nang from December 1970 to December 1971 As the first physical therapist PT assigned to the hospital she had to set up a clinic in a quonset hut that had previously served as the Post Exchange PX In the meantime Sanchez treated as many as 70 patients a day using a ward storage area as an office During Tet the Vietnamese lunar New Year hospital personnel were issued frag bulletproof jackets and helmets The protective gear was required to be kept close at all times in case of a reoccurrence of the 1968 Tet Offensive When she left Vietnam she was assigned as the chief of the Physical Therapy Section Ft Gordon GA In 1976 Lieutenant Colonel Sanchez retired after serving 24 years Cathleen Cordova joined the Army Special Services after graduating from college and volunteered for service in Vietnam Her first assignment was to the Free World Service Club in Tay Ninh She then became the club director assigned to DiAn and Vinh Long Eventually she served with 15 different units performing duties such as managing Army service clubs and libraries working in orphanages participating in Medical Civilian Action Programs MEDCAPs and assisting with visiting dignitaries and USO shows The 1970s and the All Volunteer Force When the Department of Defense established the All Volunteer Force during the 1970s more women of every race began entering every branch of the service Navy Petty Officer Margarita Rodriguez enlisted in the Army in 1972 and served as a medical specialist until 1975 She nursed soldiers returning from Vietnam and felt that she was making a significant contribution Rodriguez then joined the Navy as a hospital corpsman In 1977 while at Naval Facility NAVFAC Eleuthra in the Bahamas she was named Sailor of the Quarter She was honored as Sailor of the Month in 1981 while stationed at Oakland Naval Hospital CA Rodriguez completed her military career by serving in the Naval Reserve from 1982 to 1984 Staff Sergeant Norma Alvarado of El Campo TX enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1973 She served for six years three of which she spent as a drill instructor and depot inspector at the Women Recruit Training Command at Parris Island SC In 1975 Ophelia Rodriguez De La Garza enlisted in the Air Force She was the first female from her family to join the military De La Garza became a contract specialist in procurement and for years was one of the few women in the Air Force to hold this traditionally male job She then became the only female member of the Honor Guard at Langley AFB Hampton VA At first her colleagues doubted her ability to handle the job but she proved herself and held the position for two years Staff Sergeant De La Garza served in the Air Force until 1986 Sergeant Brunilda Cofresi Toro joined the Army in 1979 She received her basic training at Ft Dix NJ and then

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/HisHistory.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    Nurse Corps ANC decided to accept Puerto Rican nurses Thirteen women submitted applications were interviewed underwent physical examinations and were accepted into the ANC They were Venia Hilda Roig Rose Mary Glanville Asuncion Bonilla Velasco Elba Cintron Casilda Gonzalez Olga Gregory Eva Garcia Carmen Lozano Margarita Vilaro Medarda Rosario Aurea Cotto Julie Gonzalez and Marta Munoz Otero Eight of these nurses were assigned to the Army Post at San Juan where they were valued for their bilingual abilities Four nurses worked at the hospital at Camp Tortuguero Carmen Lozano Dumler graduated from Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing in Puerto Rico in the spring of 1944 knowing that she wanted to join the Army Nurse Corps She was sworn in on August 21 1944 and remembers it as the proudest day of her life Her first assignment was at the 161st General Hospital in San Juan The Army then sent her to Camp Tortuguero Training Center near Vega Baja The patients were happy to have a Spanish speaking nurse that they could relate to Lozano assisted as interpreter whenever necessary Her next assignment was at the 395th Station Hospital at Ft Read Trinidad in the British West Indies While there she nursed soldiers recovering from wounds they had received at Normandy Many appreciated being able to talk out their anxieties and nightmares Planning to become a doctor after the war Lozano took correspondence courses towards a medical degree from Louisiana State University She met her husband Army Doctor Lieutenant Joseph Dumler while in Trinidad and they were married in the Base Chapel The Navy recruited a small number of Puerto Rican women as WAVES during World War II One was Maria Rodriguez Denton born in 1909 in Guanica Lieutenant JG Denton worked in New York City Puerto Rican women continued to

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/PRHistory.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    occupied Manila the Philippines Claiming Filipino citizenship she avoided being imprisoned with other enemy nationals at Santo Tomas Internment Camp in Manila Finch joined the underground resistance movement and smuggled food medicine and other supplies to American captives Eventually she was arrested by the Japanese tortured and sentenced to three years imprisonment Finch was liberated by American forces after serving five months of her sentence Returning to the United States aboard a Coast Guard transport she headed for Buffalo New York her father s hometown She then enlisted in the Coast Guard to avenge the death of her late husband a Navy PT boat crewman killed at Corregidor Seaman First Class Finch was the first Coast Guard SPAR to receive the Asian Pacific Campaign ribbon in recognition of her service in the Philippines At the end of the war she was awarded the civilian US Medal of Freedom Another Filipino woman who received the Medal of Freedom after the war was Josefina V Geurrero She supplied POWs with food clothing and medicine and passed them contraband messages A member of the underground resistance Geurrero was asked in the early days of the occupation to map Japanese fortifications at the Manila waterfront Her map included information on secret tunnels air raid shelters and a number of other new installations in which the allies were interested Just before the American invasion of Manila in 1945 Geurrero was asked by her underground contacts to carry a map through Japanese held territory showing the location of land mines along the planned American invasion route She walked most of the way with the map taped between her shoulder blades She strapped a pack on her back distracting the enemy who concentrated their searches on the pack rather than on her She reached the 37th Division with the map enabling the Americans to avoid the land mines that had been laid for them After the war 11 Nisei second generation Japanese American WACs one Chinese American WAC and one Euro American WAC all skilled Japanese translators who had trained at the Military Intelligence Service Language School accepted assignments to the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section of General Douglas MacArthur s Headquarters in the Army of Occupation in Tokyo Japan There they worked as clerks secretaries and translators The Nisei WACs Americans with Japanese faces were expected to show the Japanese what Americans of Japanese ancestry were like and to help build bridges across a cultural gap MacArthur however did not approve of enlisted WACs serving overseas He gave the women a choice of returning to the United States as WACs or being discharged from the Army and serving one year contracts in Japan as civilians with US federal civil service status All 13 agreed to stay in Japan as civil servants During the 1950s 1960s and 1970s Asian Pacific American women continued to enter the military and to work in civilian organizations affiliated with the military although in reduced numbers Ruth A Tanaka joined the Army

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/APA.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Women In Military Service For America Memorial
    month one servicewoman s story will be added to one state on this map the newly added state will appear in red previously added states will appear in blue The woman veteran featured in a state is either originally from or currently living in that state Stories will be added in the order in which each state donated to the Women s Memorial in honor of its women veterans To

    Original URL path: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Membership/RegStateMap.html (2016-02-09)
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