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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    pillranek qanrutaqluki My grandfather took me with him when I was a boy and I couldn t walk yet and had no idea where we were going He apparently was taking me with him to check his fish trap He said This spot here without a river will be your fishing hole in future This hole will be yours when you are an adult Remembering what he did for me I also put my great grandchildren onto my snowmobile and bring them to my fish traps and after I let them watch me I d say to them what my grandfather said to me John Phillip Sr Kongiganak Taluyarpak Large Fish Trap Anchorage Museum Association Acquisition Fund Anchorage Museum 2007 027 001 Large fish trap made of split spruce bound with spruce roots by Nick Andrew Sr of Marshall and Timothy Myers of Pilot Station in 2006 Note the flat end for easy removal of fish Nick Andrew said They set their large fish traps for burbot They caught lots when I was a boy and they looked like piles of cordwood Wood for Traps Unarciaq Straight grained wood from which thinner and thinner lengths of spruce were split first

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/9fallfishing/9-1.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    got fish with utmost care They did not want anything to happen to them Tua i tua ll uksungan cikungan cali taluyarpirluteng taluyarpirluteng kuigpiim ceniinun Tamaani manignarcurlartut Iliini murilkaqamku nengllituami tamaani waten can utatullruuq cikuq Katurarulluki w pilaamegteki neruteklaamegteki Tua i taugken taqngata taluyat civcameng akakiignek cangliqluteng When winter came and it froze they d set their large fish traps along the sides of the Yukon River They d fish

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/9fallfishing/9-1a.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    seal gut parka They would take off their garments below the waist but keep the upper garments on While setting her dip net if a chunk of ice came her way she d push it away Theresa Moses Toksook Bay Many elders recalled with admiration the stamina of their mothers and grandmothers who stripped to the waist and waded into ice cold tundra streams to drive fish into nets during fall runs Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian Smithsonian Institution L2311 Dr Leuman M Waugh 1935 Frank Andrew exclaimed They are dipnetters from Kwigillingok They are my ancestors These are their handles down in the water These are the grass storage bags filled with tomcod that are being frozen These people are pulling the net out of the water Along the coast both men and women continued dipnetting for tomcod under the ice after freeze up helping each other pull up the heavy nets People only stopped dipnetting after an hour or more when the weight of the fish caused the ice to slant toward the middle of the river They would resume only after moving the fish which they stored as food for both dogs and people Qalurpak Large Dip Net Large dip net Frank Andrew noted They watch them closely to determine when to pull them out because they are unable to pull them out when they get too full Yupiit Piciryarait Cultural Center and Museum Qerrlurcat Burbot hooks Burbot hooks from the lower Yukon River Frank Andrew explained These have little sharp points shaped like small gaff hooks used for hunting burbot They had lead lines with baited hooks like these which were set below ice held in place with a stick across the hole and checked later E W Nelson 1879 Department of Anthropology Smithsonian

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/9fallfishing/9-2.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    t attractive even if he had only one eye even if he limped They d say that men could surpass us women and take foods from under the water or ice Theresa Moses Toksook Bay Communities varied widely in what foods were available to them but everyone used similar processing and preservation methods including air drying and smoking storage in cold water and oil fermentation and freezing Some foods were eaten raw Salmon herring smelt halibut flounder tomcod pike and capelin were gutted and air dried or smoked Fish eggs were dried and stored Storing preserved food was like putting money in the bank Science panel Sealing meat with blood Preservation by dehydration is a race between bacterial growth and water removal Dehydration removes the water that the microorganisms typically found on decomposing tissue need to live The greater the surface area of a piece of fish the faster the drying and the less time for decomposition to occur A food can remain hydrated and not spoil as long as it is not exposed to bacteria Spreading blood on the meat seals the surface to prevent spoilage by protecting it from the air until the fish begins to dry If the water removal is achieved quickly through rapid evaporation the bacteria cannot survive and multiply even though they are present and they will die before they can spoil the food Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian Smithsonian Institution L2355 Dr Leuman M Waugh 1935 The net floats on the front of this kayak are made of inflated seal stomachs The kayak rides low in the water indicating it carries a heavy load Science panel Smoking Fish Smoking is an age old technique for preserving meat used by many people worldwide It slow cooks the meat at a relatively low

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/5fishcamp/5-1a.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    the fish they d take it off the net Trying not to lose it they d carefully take it and hit it on the head and pull it into the canoe They say that was what they did when fish were scarce when they fished by paddling Wassilie Evan Akiak Fishing was a laborious task and so was making the tools to catch them The amount of sinew or willow bark needed to make even a small net took weeks to prepare Few owned more than one net but untied and retied their nets during the season as different sized fish became available Taryaqvagcuun King Salmon Net King Salmon net made of willow bark Wassilie Berlin said When they made gill nets they made their depth shallow Sometimes a fisherman might catch a total of twenty king salmon in a season People considered him to have caught plenty Their work was quite incredible J A Jacobsen 1882 Ethnologisches Museum Berlin IVA4288 Dietrich Graf Wassilie Berlin Marie Meade and Paul John examine the willow bark net at the Ethnologisches Museum Berlin Such nets had to be treated carefully in cold weather or they would freeze and break Kuvyaq Sinew Net Kuvyaq Sinew net with sinkers and floats Phillip Moses said After they used sinew nets they hung them up as soon as they returned to the village If they aren t hung right away they rot Yupiit Piciryarait Cultural Center and Museum 95 1 56 Lugluqussaak Net Floats Bird shaped net floats both to support the net and attract waterfowl J A Jacobsen 1882 Ethnologisches Museum Berlin IVA4075 IVA4078 Qilagcuutek Net Shuttles Net shuttles from Andreafski the large wooden shuttle for making seal and beluga nets and a bone fishnet shuttle with incised net design 1890s Sheldon Jackson Museum IIB146 IIB143

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/5fishcamp/5-1.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    ankuma qimugtem gguq anaanun tus ucaqunakek nat ragka Tua i umyuaqa am tua i paqnayungluni tamatumek ciin inerqutullratnek qimugtem anaanun tus utesqevkenakek Tua i am picsaqlua qimugtem anaa tull uku murilkevkenii ll tuqaarluku ellami qanikcami aquiluta Tua i ll itrama piatnga Tua i am tus utlinian nat rarpet aipaa Tangrraqa taun tus utelqa nangllinilria Wagg uq tua i qimugtem anaanun tus utellriani ar uqertetuut tamakut Tua i nallunrirluku wiinga Dried fish skins were used as boot soles and as boots I had boots like that too with fish skin soles They d warn me not to step on dog feces when I went out Then I got curious so I stepped on dog feces and continued to play on the snow with others outside When I went inside they said So you have stepped on feces with your other foot I looked at my boot s sole and there was a hole where the dog feces was smeared Then I learned that fish skin soles could rot very quickly if one stepped on dog feces So I learned from that experience Theresa Moses Toksook Bay Kellarvik Fish Skin Bag Wassilie Berlin said When the son of a couple got married a bag like this would be brought out filled with garments for the bride Yukon River Loaned by The Field Museum of Natural History Chicago 13099 Kakivik Salmon Skin Sewing Bag Salmon skin sewing bag among a woman s most valued possessions G B Gordon 1905 Nunivak University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology NA195 Amiriik Fish Skin Boots Fish skin boots from the Yukon delta with white patches where the fins had been Frank Andrew said I never took off my fish skin boots during winter and my peers were probably the same way W D Johns 1900

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/5fishcamp/5-2.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    model collected by Moravian missionaries John and Edith Kilbuck during their years in Bethel between 1885 and 1921 Gift of the Kilbuck Family Katherine Elizabeth John Margaret Helen and Edith Anchorage Museum 2004 059 002 Kankiik Ice skates Ice skates shaped like puffins Before significant snowfall men traveled upriver to their hunting areas using skates Frank Andrew recalled We used them only at daybreak and when we returned to our camps We removed them when we were able to see outside as we were afraid we might pass animals by J A Jacobsen 1883 Togiak Ethnologisches Museum Berlin IVA5389 Tangluk Snowshoes Snowshoes Elena Charles said Men couldn t walk without snowshoes among the trees because it is very easy to sink into deep snow They always used snowshoes to travel D F Tozier 1918 Bristol Bay Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian Smithsonian Institution 7 1136 AFR Annie Blue shows how snowshoes can be used to dig in snow She recalled I used snowshoes when I hunted for squirrels on the mountainsides and I never sank in the snow Science panel Distributing one s weight A person s mass is related to body weight which exerts a downward force

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/8fallhunting/8-1.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Yuungnaqpiallerput - The Way We Genuinely Live - Masterworks of Yup'ik Science and Survival
    sack for ammunition when hunting When they were traveling they put bullets and gunpowder in here Clothing in the past didn t have pockets D F Tozier 1918 Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian Smithsonian Institution 7 3252 Irunguaq Gun Rest Irunguaq Gun rest Frank Andrew explained They call those pretend legs They use it for shooting by staking it down in the ground to hold a gun E W Nelson 1879 Cal itmiut Department of Anthropology Smithsonian Institution 36026 Imin Bullet Mold Imin Bullet mold Paul John explained At that time they made bullets by pouring lead in without opening the mold When that lead hardened they could use it as a bullet L Bales 1911 Alaska State Museum IIA2676 Kenivik Primer Box Kenivik Primer box made of walrus ivory to store percussion caps used to ignite the gun s charge IVA4656 J A Jacobsen 1882 Ethnologisches Museum Berlin Puyurkarvik Gunpowder Container Puyurkarvik Gunpowder container Gift of Norma Hoyt Anchorage Museum 1990 039 114 Puyurkirissuun Powder Measure Puyurkirissuun Powder measure perfectly shaped to hold a single charge J A Jacobsen 1882 Ethnologisches Museum Berlin IVA3752 AFR Wassilie Berlin pouring imaginary powder from the walrus shaped container into an

    Original URL path: http://www.yupikscience.org/8fallhunting/8-2.html (2016-05-01)
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