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  • ChlorinePressRelease
    chlorine in drinking water that is 33 higher than chlorine used in pool water Pool chemical suppliers instruct pool owners to limit the chlorine level to between 1 0 3 0 milligrams per liter mg l On February 16 the new maximum of 4 0 mg l chlorine in drinking water will become effective nationwide The given justification for 4 0 mg l chlorine in drinking water is that under federal law water companies must ensure a minimum of 0 02 mg l to customers living at the end of sometimes very lengthy water mains This means that customers living at the front end of the pipe will be drinking water with higher levels of chlorine Note Water treatment facilities that use alternative disinfectant processes to chlorination may be exempt from the 0 02 mg l chlorine minimum On the adverse health effects of chlorinated water the EPA says studies show an association between bladder and rectal cancer and chlorination byproducts in drinking water Reports from the older literature stated that chronic exposure to concentrations of chlorine of around 5 ppm ppm mg l caused respiratory complaints corrosion of the teeth inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis There is a disturbing lack of comprehensive test data on the health effects of chlorine The EPA says that Limited information is available on the chronic effects of chlorine in humans And no information is available on the developmental or reproductive effects of chlorine in humans or animals via inhalation exposure or on the carcinogenic effects of chlorine in humans from inhalation exposure Chlorine is inhaled during activities such as baths showers washing dishes laundry and watering lawns Peter Montegue of the Environmental Research Foundation reported in May 1998 that recent studies by researchers including the

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/ChlorinePressRelease.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Fluoride&Lead
    into the atmosphere in this country each year An estimated 1 7 million children in the United States have unacceptably high levels of lead in their blood National Institute of Health Source 1998 Cornell Study According to the NRC the pandemic scale of lead contamination has increased lead concentrations throughout the Northern Hemisphere by a factor of at least 10 The northern half of the planet now has at least 10 times as much lead in soil and water as it had before the arrival of Europeans in North America Source Rachel s 541 See ZWA s LEAD page FLUORIDES IN WATER AND LEAD LEVELS AUG 31 1999 DARTMOUTH NEWS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT Office of Public Affairs Dartmouth College 38 North Main Street Hanover NH 03755 1814 603 646 3661 HANOVER N H Although the dangers of lead poisoning have been known for years substantial numbers of children continue to suffer from blood lead above danger level of 10 micrograms per deciliter of blood 10µg dL A study published this month in the International Journal of Environmental Studies and led by Roger Masters Emeritus Professor of Government at Dartmouth describes a factor that is correlated with higher lead levels in children Analyzing a survey of over 280 000 Massachusetts children the investigators found that silicofluorides chemicals widely used in treating public water supplies are associated with an increase in children s absorption of lead The research team included Myron J Coplan retired Vice President of Albany International and principal of Intellequity Natick Mass and Brian T Hone research associate at Dartmouth College In their analysis the investigators found that levels of lead in children s blood was significantly higher in Massachusetts communities using the silicofluorides fluosilicic acid and sodium silicofluoride than in towns where water is treated with sodium

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Fluoride&Lead.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • ZWA:Toxics&Violence
    26 PRNewswire It is frustrating that when tragedies occur as in the Arkansas middle school shooting the search for a cause never includes the connection between toxics and violent behavior says Lynn Landes Founder of Zero Waste America an environmental organization Landes cites the article Toxics and Violent Crime June 19 1997 by Peter Montegue editor of Rachel s Environment and Health Weekly which reports that Pollution causes people to commit violent crimes homicide aggravated assault sexual assault and robbery according to new research by Roger D Masters and co workers at Dartmouth College Montegue reports Masters cites studies showing that violent prisoners have significantly elevated levels of lead manganese cadmium mercury or other toxic metals compared to prisoners who are not violent The presence of pollution is as big a factor as poverty Masters said recently in an interview in NEW SCIENTIST magazine It s the breakdown of the inhibition mechanism that s the key to violent behavior he says When our brain chemistry is altered by exposure to toxins we lose the natural restraint that holds our violent tendencies in check Masters believes Montegue concludes with a quote from the former U S Surgeon General C Everett Koop

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Toxics&Violence.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • CHEMICALS & METALS DISRUPT DEVELOPMENT
    Toxics Wastes Recycling Issues Remediation CONSUMERS BUSINESS Avoid Substitute Waste RecyNews Recycling Composting WaterTreatment Health Issues LIST OF CHEMICALS AND METALS THAT DISRUPT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Reprinted by Zero Waste America Source Dr Theo Colborn Our Stolen Future Chemicals known to disrupt the endocrine system include DDT and its degradation products DEHP di 2 ethylhexyl phthalate Dicofol HCB hexachlorobenzene Kelthane Kepone Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexane congeners Methoxychlor Octachlorostyrene Synthetic pyrethroids Triazine

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/MetalsDisrupt.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • ENFORCEMENT
    that allowed them to act tacitly or explicitly as they did Therefore it is a better legal strategy to pursue the regulatory agency s rather than or in additon to the private or corporate entity As a practical matter citizen lawsuits against government agencies can t be filed quick enough to counteract the damage done by widespread lack of enforcement It is time for the DOJ to act See The Department of Justice s Environment and Natural Resources Division ENRD EXAMPLE In the case of cumulative impact The Code of Federal Regulations CFR Title 40 Environmental Protection Chapter I Environmental Protection Agency EPA Subchapter A Part 1 Sec 1 3 Purpose and functions states The U S EPA permits coordinated and effective governmental action to assure the protection of the environment by abating and controlling pollution on a systematic basis Reorganization Plan 3 of 1970 transferred to EPA a variety of research monitoring standard setting and enforcement activities related to pollution abatement and control to provide for the treatment of the environment as a single interrelated system Complementary to these activities are the Agency s coordination and support of research and antipollution activities carried out by State and local governments private and public groups individuals and educational institutions EPA routinely does not address cumulative impact in its regulations or enforcement although it is clearly required to do so as part of EPA s Purpose and Function transferred to EPA a variety of research monitoring standard setting and enforcement activities related to pollution abatement and control to provide for the ENFORCEMENT NEWS Jan 31 2000 Environmental Working Group report Pollution Pays An Analysis of the Failure to Enforce Clean Water Laws in Three States Nov 16 1999 Government As Polluter Boston Globes 4 part series on environmental enforcement Jun 10 1999

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Enforcement.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Municipal Waste Management Report, 1998
    7 Illinois 13 386 000 28 9 637 920 0 810 23 1 300 000 10 937 920 1 022 353 11 896 000 1 005 25 Indiana 7 171 000 23 5 521 670 0 941 31 2 674 000 8 195 670 204 173 5 864 000 1 432 45 Iowa 3 462 000 32 2 354 160 0 825 24 306 000 2 660 160 182 000 2 852 000 0 996 23 Kansas 1 4 250 000 11 3 782 500 1 457 48 1 000 000 4 782 500 94 000c 2 595 000 1 879 50 Kentucky 4 418 000 28 3 180 960 0 813 23 458 000 3 638 960 200 000c 3 908 000 0 982 20 Louisiana 3 894 000 14 3 348 840 0 769 20 28 584c 3 377 424 n a 4 352 000 0 776 8 Maine 1 1 339 000 41 790 010 0 636 10 142 640c 932 650 41 700c 1 242 000 0 784 9 Maryland 5 329 000 29 3 783 590 0 742 17 50 000 3 833 590 1 200 000 5 094 000 0 988 21 Massachusetts 7 160 000 33 4 797 200 0 784 21 516 000 5 313 200 549 000 6 118 000 0 958 18 Michigan 13 500 000 25 10 125 000 1 035 39 1 838 000 11 963 000 100 000c 9 774 000 1 234 41 Minnesota 4 780 000 42 2 772 400 0 591 7 0 2 772 400 412 000 4 686 000 0 679 6 Mississippi 2 360 000 13 2 053 200 0 751 18 800 000 2 853 200 n a 2 731 000 1 044 28 Missouri 7 896 000 33 5 290 320 0 979 35 65 000 5 355 320 1 756 000 5 402 000 1 316 42 Montana 1 039 000 5 987 050 1 122 45 43 000 1 030 050 0 879 000 1 171 38 Nebraska 1 2 000 000 27 1 460 000 0 881 29 78 000c 1 538 000 n a 1 657 000 0 928 16 Nevada 3 955 000 15 3 361 750 2 000 51 215 000 3 576 750 n a 1 677 000 2 132 51 New Hampshire 1 200 000 25 900 000 0 767 19 700 000 1 600 000 126 000 1 173 000 1 471 46 New Jersey 8 200 000 45 4 510 000 0 560 5 500 000 5 010 000 2 300 000 8 053 000 0 907 15 New Mexico 1 400 000 12 1 232 000 0 712 14 305 000 1 537 000 0 1 730 000 0 888 14 New York 28 800 000 39 17 568 000 0 968 33 122 862c 17 690 862 4 000 000 18 137 000 1 195 40 North Carolina 9 843 000 26 7 283 820 0 980

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/MunicipalWasteManagementReport1998.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • TIRES
    EPA and U S Attorneys will suggest that waste management is a federal program that has been handed over to state authority by the federal government That is true as long as the states enforce federal law Once the states stop enforcing federal law the EPA or U S Attorney s Office can and should require compliance through court action if necessary ZWA NOTE Readers may ask themselves why the PA DEP does not require tires to be stored in enclosed buildings as suggested above PA Dept of Environmental Protection DEP Tire Mosquitoes and Fires Along with their potential as fire hazards tire stockpiles also provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes Because tires partially fill with water regardless of their position and absorb sunlight they provide an ideal environment for hatched larvae Although tire dumps are sometimes associated with rodents the primary problem has been with various species of disease carrying mosquitoes that like to breed in tires In fact Culex pipiens is commonly referred to as the tire pile mosquito Of the many species of mosquitoes that currently breed in Pennsylvania at least two varieties are important carriers of disease These mosquitoes Aedes triseriatus and Culex pipiens transmit two strains of encephalitis LaCrosse encephalitis and St Louis encephalitis Recently a third mosquito is cause for concern Putting Out a Tire Fire Waste tires and waste tire stockpiles are difficult to ignite But once on fire tires burn very hot and are very difficult to extinguish In addition the doughnut shaped tire casings allow air drafts to stoke the fire Water Using water to extinguish a tire fire is often a futile effort because an adequate water supply is usually unavailable Also water sprayed on burning tires cools them down producing an oily run off which can contaminate nearby

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Tires.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • SludgeUSAToday
    the family that others were completely unaffected by the sludge And it was the examiner noted based on assurances that sludge was safe to use The final autopsy report issued several months later and obtained by USA TODAY left the cause of death an open question and the family has since sued the sludge company The EPA hasn t handled the science question any better Under EPA rules sludge a noxious brew containing pollutants and pathogens can be recycled as fertilizer if it s cleaned to specified levels and used under certain restrictions The EPA insists that the science behind these rules guarantees safety However the EPA s own scientists raised doubts about the science as the rule was drafted according to memos obtained by USA TODAY The EPA admitted to some of these weaknesses in 1993 by calling for extensive follow up research Meanwhile other studies have raised red flags A 1999 study by Cornell University s Waste Management Institute for instance concluded that EPA sludge rules do not appear adequately protective of human health It found that many European countries have far tougher sludge standards than the U S As a result critics contend the rules are too loose and that toxic metals pathogens and organic chemicals can escape posing a potential hazard to nearby people and animals Several local governments have banned or restricted sludge on farms Yet when critics raise their voices the EPA has attacked Examples When EPA scientist David Lewis started complaining about the safety of the sludge rules a few years ago EPA officials tried to discredit his research according to Lewis who has filed a whistleblower complaint against the agency When California community activist Jane Beswick started sounding alarm bells Alan Rubin an official in the EPA s Office of Water fired off an ominous letter warning Beswick that her efforts to ban sludge use could prompt regulators to look closely at farmers use of manure and fertilizers And when not attacking critics the agency has been busy promoting sludge use Over the past three years for example it has spent almost 70 000 on grants to the Water Environment Federation for a sludge public acceptance campaign according to the Federal Assistance Award Data System This is not the first time the EPA has been accused of shoddy science or attacks on critics It recently had to reverse course on a gas additive And last June several EPA officials complained of the hostile treatment whistleblowers receive inside the agency Now members of the House and Senate are pressing EPA chief Carol Browner to explain the apparent manhandling of sludge critics inside and outside the agency But first the EPA should explain why it has failed to live up to its 1993 pledge to move aggressively to address any problems with sewage sludge use should the evidence warrant In the end sludge may prove perfectly safe But by its behavior so far the EPA has given the public little reason to feel confident

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/SludgeUSAToday.htm (2016-04-25)
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