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  • EPA&Fluoride
    water supplies Drinking Water Standards Fluoride in drinking water is regulated under Section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act SDWA When regulating a contaminant under this Act EPA promulgates both a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal MCLG a nonenforceable health goal and a Maximum Contaminant Level MCL which is a federally enforceable standard The MCL is set as close to the MCLG as technically feasible taking costs and other factors into consideration When establishing an MCLG the Act requires EPA to protect against adverse health effect with a margin of safety The SDWA leaves the question of what constitutes an adverse health effect to EPA EPA may also promulgate nonenforceable secondary standards which are designed to protect the public welfare Secondary standards are usually based on aesthetic considerations such as taste or odor Fluoride Standards In 1986 EPA promulgated both the fluoride MCLG and MCL at 4 mg l This level protects humans from crippling skeletal fluorosis an adverse health effect At the same time EPA also set a nonenforceable Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 mg l for fluoride in drinking water to protect against objectionable dental fluorosis i e a staining and or pitting of the teeth While community water systems are not required to reduce the level of fluoride if it exceeds 2 mg l they are required to distribute a public notice which advises that children are likely to develop objectionable dental fluorosis In developing the MCL and the MCLG at 4 mg l vs 2 mg l to protect against dental fluorosis EPA concluded that dental fluorosis is a cosmetic effect and not an adverse health effect Fluoride Review In 1992 as part of an ongoing review of fluoride EPA requested the National Academy of Sciences NAS to review fluoride toxicity and exposure data In

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/EPA&Fluoride.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA)
    of dental fluorosis The authors analyzed the fluoride concentration of 238 commercially available infant foods Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0 01 to 8 38 micrograms of fluoride per gram with the highest fluoride concentrations found in infant foods containing chicken Infant foods especially those containing chicken should be considered when determining total fluoride intake June July 1997 ADA Your Child May Be Getting Too Much Fluoride Through Baby Food Full Abstract ASSESSING FLUORIDE CONCENTRATIONS OF JUICES AND JUICE FLAVORED DRINKS JADA Vol 127 July 1996 Page 895 Summary Few studies have investigated fluoride exposure from juices and juice flavored drinks manufactured with water In this study the authors analyzed 532 juices and juice drinks for fluoride Fluoride ion concentrations ranged from 0 02 to 2 80 parts per million in part because of variations in fluoride concentrations of water used in production Children s ingestion of fluoride from juices and juice flavored drinks can be substantial and a factor in the development of fluorosis RISK OF FLUOROSIS IN A FLUORIDATED POPULATION Implications for the Dentist and Hygienist JADA Vol 126 December 1995 Page 1617 Summary The prevalence of enamel fluorosis has increased in optimally fluoridated areas in recent years This has led to efforts to identify the cause or causes and to make recommendations that seek to maintain the caries preventive effectiveness of fluoride use while minimizing the risk of fluorosis In this study the author estimated the potential direct impact that dental practitioners could have on reducing the amount of enamel fluorosis in U S children The findings suggest that dental practitioners could have an important impact on reducing the prevalence of enamel fluorosis by guiding the public toward the most appropriate use of fluoride products INFANTS FLUORIDE INGESTION FROM WATER SUPPLEMENTS AND DENTIFRICE JADA Vol 126 December 1995

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/JournalOfTheAmericanDentalAssociation.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Academy of General Dentistry
    have more fluoride than is recommended The problem with fluoride is that sometimes you could have too much of a good thing explains William Chase DDS FAGD spokesdentist of the Academy of General Dentistry The correct amount of fluoride can prevent cavities but too much fluoride can lead to fluorosis which causes damage to the enamel and even decay Fluorosis is typically characterized by either a chalky white stain or a dark brown stain against a normal enamel Investigators of this study looked at the recommended doses of supplemental fluoride and determined which juices were above or below those amounts The recommended dose of supplemental fluoride is between 0 30 and 0 60 parts per million The results of the study however show that about 43 percent had concentrations above 0 60 parts per million and 19 percent had fluoride concentrations above 1 00 parts per million The good news is that 48 percent of the juices had concentrations below 0 30 parts per million This is very revealing says Dr Chase who has noticed an increase in fluorosis among the children in his own dental practice Although fluoride can also be found in drinking water and toothpaste the fact that there s so much fluoride in some of these juices is startling Parents have been coming to his practice concerned about the chalky white marks on their children s teeth especially the two front upper teeth Because of this study Dr Chase may begin recommending that children ages 5 years to 7 years drink less than a quart of fruit juice a day because these are the formative years of the development of enamel The study even differentiated which flavors of juice had the most fluoride White grape juice had the highest concentrations of fluoride with a mean value

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/AcademyOfGeneralDentistry.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • NEW YORK SUES EPA:
    jturner voicenet com X Newsreader Forte Free Agent 1 0 82 In clari tw environment C reuters clari net Reuters wrote ALBANY N Y Reuter The state of New York sued the Environmental Protection Agency Friday claiming the federal agency failed to address the root of the state s acid rain problem State attorney general Dennis Vacco who filed the lawsuit in a U S district court in Albany said the EPA was instructed by Congress to develop so called deposition standards to regulate emissions from Midwestern factories and had failed to do so The two major components of acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide which come from burning fossil fuels in factories and cars The nitrogen oxide travels hundreds of miles as a gas and when it mixes with moisture it turns to nitric acid and falls to earth as snow rain or fog Vacco said an estimated 10 percent of the 2 800 lakes and streams in New York s lush Adirondack region were devoid of fish life as a result of acid rain and an additional 40 percent would become acidic if additional emission reductions were not implemented An EPA spokesman said the agency could

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/NYsuesEPA.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • EnforcementPEER
    of a 1997 internal U S Natural Resources Conservation Service the NRCS is within USDA survey released by PEER found more than 60 percent of the over 3 million wetland determinations done by NRCS on agricultural lands are totally inaccurate Yet EPA managers with full knowledge of the high rates of inaccuracy directed their own field staff to consider NRCS determinations valid for purposes of enforcing Clean Water Act wetland protection rules and prohibited staff from conducting any review of even the most inadequate determinations Many of the states most affected by the bad assessments such as Kansas Missouri Illinois Indiana and North Carolina each with more than 240 000 farmland tracts assessed by NRCS had wetland determination failure rates between 80 and 100 percent On one hand the Clinton Administration pledged a Clean Water Initiative with a goal of saving hundreds of thousands of wetland acres while on the other hand the same federal officials charged with carrying out this initiative have deliberately turned a blind eye toward the possible destruction of a much greater area of wetlands stated PEER General Counsel Todd Robins The Clinton Administration has been under intense political pressure from farm state interests and their Congressional representatives to minimize Clean Water Act wetlands regulation on agricultural lands 30 Copies of the PEER complaints internal agency memos and related documents are available upon request Media Contacts Steven Medina FLPEER Counsel 850 664 7856 PRESS ADVISORY Environmental and Government Watchdogs Groups Call for Governor to Reinstate South Florida Water Management District s Top Scientist Miami FL June 8 1999 In a letter to Governor Jeb Bush today leaders of environmental and watchdog groups called for the immediate reinstatement of a senior Everglades restoration scientist fired for comments quoted in The Miami Herald The letter urged Bush to

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/EnforcementPEER.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Lawsuits&EPA
    Water Act reports which detail state water quality conditions Unnamed EPA sources say the agency is concerned that a watchdog group may soon take legal action forcing the agency to penalize states that have not completed this key reporting requirement Under Section 305 b of the Clean Water Act states are required to submit bi annual reports detailing the condition of the state s water quality However in the past

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Lawsuits&EPA.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • MSNBC
    NO GLOBAL ENFORCEMENT ARM Negotiating and enforcing international agreements have always been tricky Unlike national laws there is no world government to enforce compliance or punish cheaters Useful agreements require all parties to have a stake in their smooth operation Thus the earliest treaties tended to focus on security concerns or improving uses of shared resources When the valuable North Pacific seal trade was in danger of following the seals into extinction the four countries involved Britain the US Russia and Japan spent 25 years negotiating a successful 1911 treaty to manage the resource The US and Canada came to a similar accord in 1916 to protect migratory birds prized by hunters in both nations Two world wars and one Great Depression later the focus was still on managing the commercial harvest of an animal species this time whales The major whale hunting nations agreed in 1946 to form a management body the International Whaling Commission IWC to ensure the long term health of the industry PROTECT THE USERS It was essentially a user s club to protect the users says Oran Young director of the Institute for International Environmental Governance at Dartmouth College in Hanover N H But with the rise of the environmental movement in the 1970s nonwhaling countries took over the commission and began passing moratoriums on the hunting of many species Now the IWC is in danger of falling apart because Iceland Norway Japan and other whaling states have quit or ceased to comply fully with its preservation minded pronouncements The 1959 Antarctic Treaty has held together but largely because of the shared security interests of the chief signatories The landmark treaty which made the continent a global commons whose environment was to be shared and protected by all was negotiated because overlapping territorial claims of several nations threatened to lead to military conflict Those territorial claims still exist which gives signatories a compelling reason to uphold the treaty despite increasing pressures to open the continent to industrial fishing mining and other potentially damaging activities The states are now trying to collectively regulate Antarctic tourism which has grown large enough to threaten the fragile ecology NEW LAWS IN THE 70S Propelled by the growing environmental movement the 1970s saw an explosion in international agreements to mitigate pollution and protect particular species Concern had started focusing more on what we put into the environment rather than just what we take out Young says The US and Europe pushed multilateral agreements on marine pollution wetlands conservation transboundary pollution polar bears nuclear weapons and trade in endangered species like lions elephants and rhinos Nongovernmental organizations began playing an increasingly important role in formulating policies But it wasn t until after satellite images revealed holes in the ozone layer that protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation that governments first negotiated a binding global agreement to address an environmental concern First at a Vienna meeting then in the legally binding 1979 Montreal Protocol governments agreed to a phased ban on the

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/MSNBC.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Mild Fluorosis
    MORE INFORMATION Home WhatYouCanDo About News DISPOSAL RECYCLING WasteDefined Zero Waste Visuals DisposalBans Imports State Plans Laws Regs Statistics ForeignWaste Economics Landfills Incinerators Toxics Wastes Recycling Issues Remediation CONSUMERS BUSINESS Avoid Substitute Waste RecyNews Recycling Composting WaterTreatment Health Issues For

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Mild%20Fluorosis.htm (2016-04-25)
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